Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Description of key information

Repeated dose toxicity: oral

No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of test substance was considered to be in a dose range of 1000-460 mg  / kg body weight/day for subchronic study by oral route.


Repeated inhalation study:

According to Annex IX of the REACH regulation, testing by the inhalation route is appropriate only if exposure of humans via inhalation is likely. Taking into account the low vapour pressure of the substance 2-methoxyethyl)benzene (3558-60-9 )which is reported as 0.549 mmHg at 25 C. Thus, exposure to inhalable dust, mist and vapour of the chemical 2-methoxyethyl) benzene is highly unlikely. Therefore this study is considered for waiver.

 

Repeated dermal study;

The acute toxicity value for 2-methoxyethyl) benzene (3558-60-9) (as provided in section 7.2.3) is >2000 mg/kg body weight. Also, given the use of the chemical; repeated exposure by the dermal route is unlikely since the use of gloves is common practice in industries. Thus, it is expected that 2-methoxyethyl) benzene shall not exhibit 28 day repeated dose toxicity by the dermal route. In addition, there is no data available that suggests that 2-methoxyethyl) benzene shall exhibit repeated dose toxicity by the dermal route. Hence this end point was considered for waiver.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Repeated dose toxicity: via oral route - systemic effects

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: oral
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
data from handbook or collection of data
Justification for type of information:
data from handbook or collection of data
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: As mention below
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Weight of evidence prepared from various publication mention below
1,The objective of this study was to provide evaluations of general and reproduction/ developmental toxicity endpoints associated with administration of repeated doses of test substance in Wistar rats.
2,Subchronic oral toxicity study was carried out in rats for test substance at doses 0, 230, 460, 900, 1,750, or 3,900 mg/kg body weight for males and 0, 240, 480, 930, 1,870, or 4,500 mg/kg for females.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
other: 1,Wistar ,2,F344/N
Details on species / strain selection:
The rat is the commonly used species for toxicity studies and also recommended by the regulatory guidelines specified in the study plan.
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: In-House Bred at sa-FORD, Animal Facility (CPCSEA Registration No. 1256/bc/09/CPCSEA)
- Females (if applicable) nulliparous and non-pregnant: Yes
- Age at study initiation: 12 - 13 weeks at the start of Oestrous Cycle evaluation.
- Weight at study initiation: Male: Minimum: 240 g Maximum: 315 g
Female: Minimum: 210 g Maximum: 260 g
- Fasting period before study: No data
- Housing: A total 2-3 rats/sex were housed in Polycarbonate cages (size 37 [cm] x 21 [cm], height 20 [cm]). Cage rotation was carried out weekly during study period except during mating for males and females both and during gestation and lactation for females. Sterilized corn cob produced from pure corn, dried and free from dust, procured from approved supplier, was used as bedding material. It was renewed as often as necessary to keep the animals dry and clean. Bedding material of batch No. SPAR-30/2015 (Sparconn Life Sciences Bangalore) was used in this study and a copy of report of microbial and chemical contaminants analysed periodically by manufacturer of bedding material are incorporated in the raw data.

- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): A conventional laboratory pelleted diet of batch no. 004915, 041215 and 041015 from approved supplier (Nutrivet Life Sciences, Pune) was offered ad libitum
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): Aqua guard filtered drinking water in bottles was offered ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 20 days

DETAILS OF FOOD AND WATER QUALITY: A conventional laboratory pelleted diet of batch no. 004915, 041215 and 041015 from approved supplier (Nutrivet Life Sciences, Pune) was offered. Aqua guard filtered drinking water in bottles was offered.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 18.30 to 22.70 °C
- Humidity (%): 43.90 to 67.60%
- Air changes (per hr): 12 times per hour
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12 hours light and 12 hours dark

IN-LIFE DATES: From: To: November 16, 2015 to March 26, 2016
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Details on route of administration:
The Oral route is recommended by the regulatory guideline.
Vehicle:
corn oil
Details on oral exposure:
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS: The test item was weighed and dissolved in a vehicle (corn oil) to achieve desired concentration of test item. Dose formulation was freshly prepared daily. At the time of dosing, dose formulation was kept on the magnetic stirrer to maintain the homogeneity of test item.

DIET PREPARATION
- Rate of preparation of diet (frequency): No data
- Mixing appropriate amounts with (Type of food): No data
- Storage temperature of food: No data

VEHICLE
- Justification for use and choice of vehicle (if other than water): Corn oil. The test chemical was soluble in corn oil
- Concentration in vehicle:
- Amount of vehicle (if gavage): 0.5 ml/100g body weight
- Lot/batch no. (if required): MR301015, MR161215
- Purity: No data
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
The analytical method was validated with respect to the following parameters.

Specificity
The specificity will be evaluated by analysing the solvent used, standard solution, and sample solution.

Linearity
The linearity was carried out by preparing and analyzing the standard solutions of at least 6 concentrations (covering the target analyte concentration i.e. 5 ppm,10 ppm, 25 ppm, 50 ppm, 75 ppm and 100 ppm ). A plot was drawn between the concentration and the response. The correlation coefficient, slope and intercept was calculated.

Assay accuracy and precision
Assay accuracy and precision was carried out by fortifying the standard in vehicle at two levels (covering the target analyte concentration i.e., 10 ppm & 100 ppm). Five preparations were carried out at each concentration level selected. Two controls along with the assay accuracy samples were analysed. The mean, SD, % RSD was calculated. Assay accuracy was reported as the mean % recovery whereas the precision was reported as % RSD.

Homogeneity
The homogeneity of the dose formulation prepared was determined by sampling and analyzing the formulation at top, middle and bottom layers. Sampling was done in two replicates from each layer.

Stability
The stability of the prepared dose formulation was determined by analysing the sample at different time points (Stability was determined by sampling and analyzing the aliquots from the sample stored at 25 ± 2°C at the time points of 0, 2 and 6 hours).Two replications was analyzed at each time point.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
1,Total days: 64
All animals of both sexes were dosed 2 weeks prior to mating. Dosing was continued in both sexes during the mating period. Males were further dosed till 47th day . Females were dosed during pregnancy and upto day 4 post partum.
2,13 weeks
Frequency of treatment:
Daily for 64 days
Remarks:
Test animals:
0 (G1-control), 308 mg/kg body weight (G2), 556 mg/kg body weight (G3) and 1000 mg/kg body weight (G4)

Recovery animals: 0 (G1-R) or 1000 (G4-R) mg/Kg bw
Remarks:
0, 3,130, 6,250, 12,500, 25,000, or 50,000 ppm (equivalents to 0, 230, 460, 900, 1,750, or 3,900 mg/kg body weight for males and 0, 240, 480, 930, 1,870, or 4,500 mg/kg for females)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
1, Total: 124 ( 104 Test animals + 20 recovery animals)

Test animals:
0 mg/Kg bw: 13 males and 13 females
308 mg/Kg bw: 13 males and 13 females
556 mg/Kg bw: 13 males and 13 females
1000 mg/Kg bw: 13 males and 13 females

Recovery animals:
0 mg/Kg bw: 5 males and 5 females
1000 mg/Kg bw: 5 males and 5 females

2,Groups of 10 male and 10 female
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: The dose levels were selected based on the information provided by Sponsor.
- Rationale for animal assignment (if not random): Randomization was done based on recent body weight, before first dosing. The animals were allocated to the different test groups using validated software or the ‘Group Allocation’ function in the MS Excel Add-in “Daniel’s XL Toolbar” (http://xltoolbox.sourceforge.net/). Individual body weights will be considered within ± 20% of the groups mean.
- Rationale for selecting satellite groups: No data
- Post-exposure recovery period in satellite groups: Yes
- Section schedule rationale (if not random): No data
Positive control:
No data
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: twice daily throughout the acclimatization and study period
- Cage side observations checked in table [No.?] were included. Mortality and morbidity

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: General clinical observations of animals of all groups were made once a day. Detailed clinical examinations were carried out once before the first treatment (to allow for within-subject comparisons) and weekly thereafter.

Observations included, but not be limited to, changes in skin, fur, eyes, mucous membranes, occurrence of secretions and excretions and autonomic activity (e.g. lacrimation, piloerection, pupil size, and unusual respiratory pattern). Changes in gait, posture and response to handling as well as the presence of clonic or tonic movements, stereotypies (e.g. excessive grooming, repetitive circling) or bizarre behaviour (e.g. self-mutilation, walking backwards)

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: Males and females were weighed during randomization, on the first day of dosing, at least weekly thereafter, and at termination. During pregnancy, females were weighed on days 0, 7, 14 and 20 and within 24 hours of parturition (day 0 or 1 post-partum), day 4 post-partum and before terminal sacrifice.

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if feeding study): Yes
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg body weight/day: Yes, During pre-mating, pregnancy and lactation, feed consumption were measured at least weekly. Feed consumption was not measured during mating period.
- Compound intake calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: Not specified

FOOD EFFICIENCY:
- Body weight gain in kg/food consumption in kg per unit time X 100 calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: Not specified

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if drinking water study): Not specified
- Time schedule for examinations: Not specified

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: Not specified
- Time schedule for examinations: Not specified
- Dose groups that were examined: Not specified

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: just prior to necropsy at the end of the treatment and recovery periods
- Anaesthetic used for blood collection: Yes, Isoflurane anaesthesia
- Animals fasted: Yes, Animals were fasted overnight (approximately 16-18 hr) prior to blood collection
- How many animals: 5 males and 5 females
- Parameters checked in table [No.?] were examined. Total Erythrocyte Count (RBC), Hematocrit (HCT), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Hemoglobin (HGB), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Platelet Count (PLT), Total Leukocyte count (WBC), Prothombin Time (PT), Activated Partial Thromboplastin time (aPTT)

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: just prior to necropsy at the end of the treatment and recovery periods
- Animals fasted: Yes, Animals were fasted overnight (approximately 16-18 hr) prior to blood collection
- How many animals: 5 males and 5 females
- Parameters checked in table [No.?] were examined. Glucose (Glu), Cholesterol (Chol), Triglycerides (TRIG), Alanine amino transferase (ALT), Aspartate amino transferase (AST), Calcium, Albumin (Alb), Total Protein (TP), Creatinine (Crea), Phosphorus, Urea, Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) – Calculated, Globulin (Glob) - Calculated, Alb/ Glb (A:G) – Calculated, Bile acids

URINALYSIS: Not specified
- Time schedule for collection of urine: Not specified
- Metabolism cages used for collection of urine: Not specified
- Animals fasted: Not specified
- Parameters checked in table [No.?] were examined. Not specified

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: Not specified
- Time schedule for examinations: Not specified
- Dose groups that were examined: Not specified
- Battery of functions tested: sensory activity / grip strength / motor activity / other: Not specified

IMMUNOLOGY: Not specified
- Time schedule for examinations: Not specified
- How many animals: Not specified
- Dose groups that were examined: Not specified
- Parameters checked in table [No.?] were examined. Not specified

OTHER:
Functional Battery Observations: Sensory reactivity to stimuli, assessment of grip strength, hind limb foot splay and motor activity assessment were conducted for five males and five females from control and treatment groups, during the last week of treatment and that of recovery groups, in the last week of recovery period.

Animals were subjected to examinations of various functional parameters which included; motor activity measurements using OPTO–VARIMEX 4, an automated animal activity measuring system; fore limb and hind limb grip strength, using grip strength meter; hind limb foot splay record and sensory reactivity measurements.


Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes, At scheduled sacrifice date, all rats of main and recovery groups were euthanized by over dose of carbon dioxide followed by exsanguination. The animals were examined externally in unopened condition. This was followed by opening of the carcasses and topographic examination of different organs. This included careful examination of the external surface of the body, all orifices, cranial, thoracic and visceral cavities and their contents. Simultaneously gross lesions examination was performed in accordance with the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) of the Laboratory. Number of implatation sites in uterus and number of corpora lutea of all pregnant females were counted during necropsy examination.

Similarly, necropsy of terminally sacrificed and found dead pups during study period were conducted and gross pathological observations were recorded.

Following organs from randomly selected 5 male and 5 female rats were collected and preserved : Adrenals, Aorta, Bone (femur) with joint, Brain (cerebrum, cerebellum, mid brain), Cecum, Colon, Duodenum, Epididymides, Eyes with optic nerve, Heart, Ileum,
Jejunum, Kidneys, Liver, Lungs, Mammary glands, Mesenteric and Mandibular lymph node,
Oesophagus, Ovaries with oviduct, Pancreas, Peyer's Patches, Pituitary, Prostate and Seminal vesicle with coagulating glands, Rectum, Salivary glands, Sciatic Nerve, Skeletal muscle, Skin, Spleen, Spinal Cord (cervical, mid-thoracic and lumbar), Sternum with marrow, Stomach, Testes, Thymus, Thyroid with Parathyroids, Trachea, Urinary Bladder,
Uterus, Cervix with Vagina

Testes, epididymides, prostate and seminal vesicle with coagulating glands of all male rats and ovaries, uterus and cervix with vagina of all female rats were collected and preserved. Thyroid gland of one male and one female pup from each litter was collected and preserved. Collected Organs/tissues were fixed and preserved in 10 % Neutral buffered formalin. Testes and epididymis were initially fixed in Bouin’s fluid for approximately 24 hr, then 4 changes were given in 70% alcohol and transferred to 10 % neutral buffered formalin for preservation. Eyes were initially fixed in Modified Davidson‘s fluid for approximately 24 hr and then transferred to 10 % neutral buffered formalin for preservation.

Organ Weight: Weighing of brain, adrenals, ovaries with oviduct, testes, epididymides, heart, liver, kidneys, thymus and spleen was performed for randomly selected 5 male and 5 female rats. Testes and epididymides of all male rats were weighed. Before weighing adherent tissue/fat from organs were trimmed off and were kept in normal saline.

HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes, All the preserved organs (Testes, epididymides, prostate and seminal vesicle with coagulating glands, ovaries, uterus and cervix with vagina) of all the rats, all the preserved tissues of randomly selected five male and five female rats of groups G1 and G4 and preserved thyroid of one male and one female pup of each litter were subjected to histopathological examination. All the tissues were trimmed, processed, embedded in paraffin wax. Sections were cut at a thickness of 3-5 micron and stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain. Processed tissues were subjected to histopathological examination. The prepared slides were examined under microscope by the Pathologist to note histopathological lesions, if any in different organs. Special attention was paid to observe effect of test item on reproductive system and spermatogenesis. The observed abnormalities were described according to morphological character, distribution, severity and included in Raw Data and Report.
Other examinations:
Gestation and Pups Observation: The duration of gestation was recorded and calculated from day 0 of pregnancy. Each litter was examined as soon as possible after delivery to establish the number and sex of pups, stillbirths, live births, runts (pups that are significantly smaller than corresponding control pups), and the presence of gross abnormalities. Live pups were counted and sexed within 24 hours of parturition (day 0 or 1 post-partum) and on day 4 post-partum.

Estrous cycle evaluation: Estrous cycle was monitored for its regularity

Pups body Weight: Live pups were weighed within 24 hours of parturition (day 0 or 1 post-partum) and on day 4 post-partum.

Gross pathology- Pups: Terminally sacrificed pups and pups died during the course of study were subjected to gross pathology
Statistics:
Raw data was analysed using statistical software “Sigma Plot 11.0” (Supplied by Cranes Software International Ltd. Bangalore). The mean and standard deviation was calculated using the software and all data was summarized in tabular form. All continuous data (body weight, feed consumption, Functional Observational Battery parameters, hematology, clinical chemistry, absolute and relative organ weights, maternal and pup parameters etc.) were checked for normality using Shapiro Wilk test. All homogenous data was analysed using ANOVA and data showing significance in their variances was subjected to Dunnett’s t-test. All heterogeneous data was analysed using F test and Student’s t-test, Dunn’s Test, Kruskal-Wallis, ANOVA on ranks,
Clinical signs:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
No apparent treatment related clinical signs were observed in any of the animals throughout the treatment and recovery period.

Detailed clinical examinations like Home cage observation, Handling observation and Open field observation of all animals were observed to be normal during study period.

Statistically significant decrease was observed in number of rears of G3 (556 mg/kg body weight) and G4 (1000 mg/kg body weight) male on pre-treatment as compared to control G1 (0 mg/kg body weight). The statistically significant increase was observed in number of urine pools of G3 (556 mg/kg body weight) and G4 (1000 mg/kg body weight) male at pre-treatment as compared to control G1 (0 mg/kg body weight). Statistically significant increase was observed in number of fecal bolus of G3 (556 mg/kg body weight) male at pre-treatment as compared to control G1 (0 mg/kg body weight). Statistically significant increase was observed in number of rears of G4 (1000 mg/kg body weight) male at week 4 as compared to control G1 (0 mg/kg body weight). Statistically significant increase was observed in number of urine pools of G3 (556 mg/kg body weight) male at week 6 as compared to control G1 (0 mg/kg body weight). Statistically significant increase was observed in number of rears of G2 (308 mg/kg body weight), G3 (556 mg/kg body weight) and G4 (1000 mg/kg body weight) female at pre-treatment as compared to control G1 (0 mg/kg body weight). Statistically significant increase was observed in number of fecal bolus of G4 (1000 mg/kg body weight) female at week 5 as compared to control G1 (0 mg/kg body weight).

The above changes observed were inconsistent/ biologically insignificant and not dose dependant, hence considered as incidental and not attributed to the effect of test item administration.
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Description (incidence):
No mortality or morbidity was observed in any animal of the control and treatment groups throughout the study period
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
A statistically significant decrease was observed in body weight of G4 (1000 mg/kg body weight) male on day 30 as compared to control G1 (0 mg/kg body weight). Statistically significant decrease was observed in body weight of G4 (1000 mg/kg body weight) female on day 20 of gestation as compared to control G1 (0 mg/kg body weight). Statistically significant decrease was observed in body weight of G4-R (1000 mg/kg body weight) male on day 29, 36, 41 as compared to control G1-R (0 mg/kg body weight). Statistically significant decrease was observed in percent body weight change of G3 (556 mg/kg body weight) and G4 (1000 mg/kg body weight) male on day 1-8, 1-14 whereas statistically significant decrease was observed in percent body weight change of G4 (1000 mg/kg body weight) male on day 1-21, 1-28, 1-30, 1-37, 1-44, 1-46 as compared to control G1-R (0 mg/kg body weight). Statistically significant decrease was observed in percent body weight change during gestation period of G4 (1000 mg/kg body weight) female on day 0-14, 0-20 as compared to control G1 (0 mg/kg body weight). Statistically significant decrease was observed in percent body weight change of G4-R (1000 mg/kg body weight) male on day 1-8, 1-15, 1-22, 1-29 as compared to control G1-R (0 mg/kg body weight).

Body weight and Percent body weight changes in animals of the all other test groups of both the sexes was comparable and did not show any significant difference as compared to the respective control group.

These changes observed were inconsistent, hence not considered as effect of the test item administration.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Statistically significant decrease in feed consumption was observed in G4 (1000 mg/kg body weight) female on gestation day 14-20 as compared to the control group G1. Feed consumption in animals of the all other test groups of both the sexes was comparable and did not show any significant difference as compared to the respective control group.

Changes observed in feed consumption were inconsistent, hence not considered as effect of the test item administration
Food efficiency:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Formulations were found to be homogeneous and stable upto 6 hour in vehicle corn oil. The mean active ingredient content at 61.6, 111.2 and 200 mg/ml concentration of Methyl Phenyl acetate (CAS No.: 101-41-7) was 61.770, 110.321 and 200.007 mg/ml on day 1; 62.045, 110.902 and 198.199 mg/ml on day 21 and 60.726, 111.912 and 201.231 mg/ml on day 40, respectively
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not specified
Ophthalmological findings:
not specified
Haematological findings:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
All hematological parameters in animals of different treated groups of both the sexes were comparable to their respective control groups, except statistically significant decrease observed for MCHC, WBC in males of G4 (1000 mg/kg body weight) as compared to G1, statistically significant increase observed for aPTT in males of G4 (1000 mg/kg body weight) and G3 (556 mg/kg body weight) as compared to G1. Statistically significant decrease observed for RBC, HCT, HGB, WBC in males of G4-R (1000 mg/kg body weight) as compared to G1-R. Statistically significant decrease observed for PT in females of G3 (556 mg/kg body weight) as compared to G1. Statistically significant decrease observed for MCHC and statistically significant increase observed for RBC, HCT, HGB in females of G4-R (1000 mg/kg body weight) as compared to G1-R.

The above changes were inconsistent, not related to the test item and may be due to the preanalytical and analytical variables
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
All clinical chemistry parameters in animals of different treated groups of both the sexes were comparable to their respective control groups, except statistically significant increase observed for ALT and statistically significant decrease observed for Sodium (Na) in males of G4 (1000 mg/kg Body weight) as compared to G1. Statistically significant increase observed for Creatinine in males of G2 (308 mg/kg Body weight) as compared to G1. Statistically significant decrease observed for Total Protein and statistically significant increase observed for A/G ratio in females of G3 (556 mg/kg Body weight) as compared to G1.

The above changes were inconsistent, not dose dependent hence considered as incidental in nature.
Urinalysis findings:
not specified
Behaviour (functional findings):
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The sensory reactivity measurements were comparable and no changes were revealed in any of the animals of all treated groups in both the sexes.

Foot splay and fore limb and hind limb grip strength parameters were comparable and no treatment related changes were revealed in any of the animals of all treated groups except a statistically significant decrease was observed in hindlimb foot splay in G4-R (1000 mg/kg body weight) male as compared to the repective control group G1-R.

The above changes observed were inconsistent/ biologically insignificant and not dose dependant, hence, considered as incidental and not attributed to the effect of test item administration.

Motor activity measurements were comparable and no changes were revealed in any of the animals from all treated groups of both the sexes as compare to control group except statistically significant decrease was observed in ST=Stereotypic time in G2, G3 and G4 male as compared to control group G1 and G4-R in female as compared to G1-R.

The above changes observed were inconsistent, hence considered as incidental and not attributed to the effect of test item administration.
Immunological findings:
not specified
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
At the end of treatment and recovery period, absolute and relative weight of organs of treated rats of either sex did not differ significantly except a significant increase in relative wieght of Adrenal of G4-R male group when compared to the respective control group rats
Gross pathological findings:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
External Findings: External examination of all male and female rats of control and all treated groups including recovery groups did not reveal any abnormality of pathological significance.

Internal Findings: Visceral examination of the rats of control and other treated groups did not reveal any pathological abnormality.
Neuropathological findings:
not specified
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Microscopic examination of control group and rats treated at 308, 556 and 1000 mg/kg revealed varying degree of pathological changes in different organs. This includes Liver: focal to multifocal minimal lymphocytic infiltration (Male: G1:1/5, G4:2/5; Female: G1: 1/5; G4: 2/5); focal minimal necrosis (Male: G1:1/5; Female: G1: 1/5); Kidneys: focal minimal lymphocytic infiltration (Male: G1:2/5; Female: G4:1/5); focal mild mineralization (Female: G1:1/5); Lungs: multifocal minimal lymphocytic infiltration (Male:G1:1/5, G4:1/5; Female: G1: 2/5, G4: 3/5); focal minimal histiocyte infiltration (Female: G1: 1/5, G4: 1/5); Heart: focal minimal lymphocytic infiltration (Male: G1:1/5, G4:1/5); Aorta: focal minimal aneurysm (Male:G1:1/5, G4:1/5); Mandibular Lymph Node: focal moderate cystic dilation of cortex (Female: G4:1/5); Stomach: focal mild squamous epithelium hyperplasia (Female: G1: 1/5); Mesenteric lymph node: focal moderate cystic dilation of cortex (Female:G1:1/5); Spleen: focal to diffuse minimal to mild extramedullary hematopoesis (Female: G1: 2/5, G4: 3/5); Thymus: mild to moderate atrophy (Female: G1:3/5, G4:4/5); focal mild cystic epithelial dilation (Male: G4:1/5; Female: G1: 1/5, G4:1/5); Trachea: focal to multifocal minimal to moderate Neutrophilic/lymphocytic infiltration (Male: G1:3/5, G4:3/5; Female: G1: 2/5, G4:1/5); Adrenals: unilateral accessory adrenocortical tissue (Male: G1:1/5, G4:1/5); Testes: focal to multifocal minimal to mild retention of mature sperm (Male: G1:4/13, G2:8/13, G3:8/13, G4:8/13); focal minimal to mild degeneration of seminiferous tubules (Male: G1:2/13, G2:1/13, G3:1/13, G4:1/13); focal to multifocal minimal sloughing of Pachytene Spermatocyte (Male: G1:2/13, G2:2/13, G3:2/13, G4:2/13); focal minimal sloughing of round spermatid (Male: G1:1/13, G2:1/13, G3:1/13, G4:1/13); focal mild infiltration of multinucleated giant cells (Male: G1:1/13); Seminal Vesicles: multifocal mild neutrophilic/lymphocytic infiltration (Male: G1:1/13); Prostate: focal moderate necrotic debris in lumen (Male: G2:1/13); Uterus: multifocal to diffuse mild reduction of stromal cells (Female: G1:1/13; G4:2/13); focal moderate necrosis (Female: G3:1/13); multifocal mild to moderate nodular hyperplasia (Female: G1:1/13; G2:1/13; G4:1/13); Cervix: focal minimal lymphocytic infiltration (Female: G2:1/13). Microscopic examination of thyroid of male and female pups of control group and treated group did not revealed any lesion of pathological significance.

From the patho-morphological results presented, it is concluded that, the treatment of Methyl Phenyl acetate at 308, 556 and 1000 mg/kg body weight in male and female rats did not affect adversely and no alteration of pathological significance was observed in any of the organs including reproductive organs.
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Lesions observed in liver, kidneys, lungs, heart, aorta, stomach, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, trachea, adrenal gland and reproductive organs of high dose treated group rats are well comparable with respective control group rats and exhibited no dose relationship. Further these observed lesions are common in occurrence in rodents during toxicological studies. Hence, occurrence of these lesions could be considered as spontaneous or incidental in nature and not to be attributed to the administration of the Test Item.
Other effects:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Gross pathology- Pups: Terminally sacrificed pups of all treated groups did not reveal any lesion of pathological significance in any of the group when compared with control group. Pups died during course of study revealed various lesions among the control and treated groups viz., external examination emaciated carcass (Male: G1:2/55, G2:1/44, G3:5/35; Female: G1:3/56, G2:1/30, G3:6/54); Cannibalism (Male: G1:3/55, G3:2/35; Female: G1:2/56, G3:3/54); Tearing of Neck Muscle (Female: G3:1/54; G4:1/18) and internal examination absence of milk in stomach (Male: G1: 6/55, G2: 6/44, G3: 12/35, G4: 3/16; Female: G1: 8/56, G3: 14/54, G4: 2/18); blood clot in thoracic cavity (Male: G1: 2/55, G2: 3/44, G3: 1/35; Female: G1: 1/56, G3: 1/54, G4: 1/18); reddish discoloration of brain (Male: G1: 1/55, G2: 1/44, G3: 1/35; Female: G1: 1/56, G3: 3/54, G4: 1/18); reddish discoloration of lungs (Male: G1: 5/55, G2: 5/44, G3: 7/35, G4: 1/16; Female: G2: 1/30, G3: 10/54, G4: 2/18); paleness of liver (Male: G1: 1/55, G2: 2/44, G3: 1/35; Female: G3: 4/54, G4: 2/18); congested intestine (Female: G1: 1/56, G3: 1/54); autolytic changes (Female: G2: 1/30, G3: 2/54, G4: 1/18).

Maternal and Pups parameter:There was no statistically significant difference between the control (G1) and treatment groups (G2, G3 and G4) in the maternal and fetal parameters. Gestational length, Litter size, No. of live births, Post-implantation loss, pups weight at birth and PND4, Post-natal loss, Survival Index and weight gain for pups at PND4. Pregnancy index was found to be 92.31, 84.62, 84.62 and 61.54 in G1, G2, G3 and G4 respectively. Marked decrease in Pregnancy index / Fertility index in G4 (1000 mg/kg body weight) was considered to be treatment related. Pups sex ratio (Male/Female) was found to be 55/57, 44/30, 43/58, and 21/26 in G1, G2, G3 and G4 respectively.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
> 1 000 mg/kg bw (total dose)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: No dose related alterations were noted at the mentioned dose level of 1000 mg/Kg bw
Remarks on result:
other: No toxic effects were observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
460 other: mg/kg/day
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male
Basis for effect level:
other: No significant effect were observed at this dose
Remarks on result:
other: No toxic effects were observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
480 other: mg/kg/day
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
female
Basis for effect level:
other: No significant effect were observed at this dose
Remarks on result:
other: No toxic effects were observed
Critical effects observed:
not specified
Conclusions:
No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of test substance was considered to be in a dose range of 1000-460 mg / kg body weight/day for subchronic study by oral route.
Executive summary:

The data available for the test chemical was reviewed to determine the toxic nature of test substance by repeated exposure by oral route. The study is as mentioned below:

Combined repeated dose repro-developmental toxicity study was to provide evaluations of general and reproduction/ developmental toxicity endpoints associated with administration of repeated doses of test substance in Wistar rats. The animals were randomly allocated to the four main groups (13/sex/group) and two recovery groups (5/sex/group). The doses selected for main groups were; 0 (G1-control),308 mg/kg body weight (G2), 556 mg/kg body weight (G3) and 1000 mg/kg body weight (G4) daily for 64 days. The recovery groups G1-R and G4-R were dosed with similar doses of respective main groups. Vehicle corn oil to G1 and G1-R and test item to G2, G3, G4 and G4-R animals were administered by oral gavage route each day during the dosing period. No mortality and morbidity were observed any of the groups of animals throughout the study period. Animals of all dose groups were observed for Clinical signs/ symptoms daily once during the experimental period. No apparent treatment related clinical signs were observed in any of the animals throughout the treatment and recovery period. All hematological and clinical chemistry parameters in animals of different treated groups of both the sexes were comparable to their respective control groups. No treatment related changes were observed in any of the treatment groups.  At the end of treatment and recovery period, absolute and relative weight of organs of treated group rats of either sex did not differ significantly when compared to the respective control group rats. External and visceral examination of all male and female rats of control and all treated groups including recovery groups did not reveal any abnormality of pathological significance. Terminally sacrificed pups of all treated groups did not reveal any lesion of pathological significance in any of the group when compared with control group. Pups that died among the control and treated groups during the course of study, revealed various lesions when examined externally and internally but the observations were not considered treatment related. From the patho-morphological results presented, it is concluded that, the treatment of test substance at 308, 556 and 1000 mg/kg body weight in male and female rats did not affect adversely and no alteration of pathological significance was observed in any of the organs and reproductive organs of high dose treated group rats are well comparable with respective control group rats and exhibited no dose relationship. Further these observed lesions are common in occurrence in rodents during toxicological studies. Hence, occurrence of these lesions could be considered as spontaneous or incidental in nature and not to be attributed to the administration of the Test Item. Based on the findings of Repeated Dose Oral Toxicity Study in combination with Reproduction/ Developmental Toxicity of test substance in Wistar Rats with 14 days recovery, where in 0, 308, 556 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, doses were tested; no test item related changes were observed at any of the dose level, hence the general No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of test substance is considered to be more than 1000 mg / kg body weight.

In a 13-week study in rats: Groups of 10 male and 10 female F344/N rats were fed diets containing 0, 3,130, 6,250, 12,500, 25,000, or 50,000 ppm (0, 230, 460, 900, 1,750, or 3,900 mg/kg body weight for males and 0, 240, 480, 930, 1,870, or 4,500 mg/kg for females) test substance for 13 weeks. Different observations and examinations were noted related to the effects of the substance on all the doses for both the sexes. The NOAEL for test substance via oral route of administration was determined to be 460 mg/kg/bw for male and 480mg/kg/bw for female rats on the basis of no effects on body weight gain; food consumption; clinical biochemistry; Neurobehavioral examination; Gross pathology and Histopathology.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
1 000 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
subchronic
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
Data is of K2

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation - systemic effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation - local effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Repeated dose toxicity: dermal - systemic effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Repeated dose toxicity: dermal - local effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

The data available for the test chemical was reviewed to determine the toxic nature of 2-phenylethyl benzoate (94-47-3) repeated exposure by oral route. The study is as mentioned below:

Repeated dose toxicity: via oral route;

Combined repeated dose repro-developmental toxicity study was to provide evaluations of general and reproduction/ developmental toxicity endpoints associated with administration of repeated doses of test substance in Wistar rats. The animals were randomly allocated to the four main groups (13/sex/group) and two recovery groups (5/sex/group). The doses selected for main groups were; 0 (G1-control),308 mg/kg body weight (G2), 556 mg/kg body weight (G3) and 1000 mg/kg body weight (G4) daily for 64 days. The recovery groups G1-R and G4-R were dosed with similar doses of respective main groups. Vehicle corn oil to G1 and G1-R and test item to G2, G3, G4 and G4-R animals were administered by oral gavage route each day during the dosing period. No mortality and morbidity were observed any of the groups of animals throughout the study period. Animals of all dose groups were observed for Clinical signs/ symptoms daily once during the experimental period. No apparent treatment related clinical signs were observed in any of the animals throughout the treatment and recovery period. All hematological and clinical chemistry parameters in animals of different treated groups of both the sexes were comparable to their respective control groups. No treatment related changes were observed in any of the treatment groups.  At the end of treatment and recovery period, absolute and relative weight of organs of treated group rats of either sex did not differ significantly when compared to the respective control group rats. External and visceral examination of all male and female rats of control and all treated groups including recovery groups did not reveal any abnormality of pathological significance. Terminally sacrificed pups of all treated groups did not reveal any lesion of pathological significance in any of the group when compared with control group. Pups that died among the control and treated groups during the course of study, revealed various lesions when examined externally and internally but the observations were not considered treatment related. From the patho-morphological results presented, it is concluded that, the treatment of test substance at 308, 556 and 1000 mg/kg body weight in male and female rats did not affect adversely and no alteration of pathological significance was observed in any of the organs and reproductive organs of high dose treated group rats are well comparable with respective control group rats and exhibited no dose relationship. Further these observed lesions are common in occurrence in rodents during toxicological studies. Hence, occurrence of these lesions could be considered as spontaneous or incidental in nature and not to be attributed to the administration of the Test Item. Based on the findings of Repeated Dose Oral Toxicity Study in combination with Reproduction/ Developmental Toxicity of test substance in Wistar Rats with 14 days recovery, where in 0, 308, 556 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, doses were tested; no test item related changes were observed at any of the dose level, hence the general No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of test substance is considered to be more than 1000 mg / kg body weight.

In a 13-week study in rats: Groups of 10 male and 10 female F344/N rats were fed diets containing 0, 3,130, 6,250, 12,500, 25,000, or 50,000 ppm (0, 230, 460, 900, 1,750, or 3,900 mg/kg body weight for males and 0, 240, 480, 930, 1,870, or 4,500 mg/kg for females) test substance for 13 weeks. Different observations and examinations were noted related to the effects of the substance on all the doses for both the sexes. The NOAEL for test substance via oral route of administration was determined to be 460 mg/kg/bw for male and 480mg/kg/bw for female rats on the basis of no effects on body weight gain; food consumption; clinical biochemistry; Neurobehavioral examination; Gross pathology and Histopathology.

Repeated inhalation study:

According to Annex IX of the REACH regulation, testing by the inhalation route is appropriate only if exposure of humans via inhalation is likely. Taking into account the low vapour pressure of the substance 2-methoxyethyl)benzene (3558-60-9 )which is reported as 0.549 mmHg at 25 C. Thus, exposure to inhalable dust, mist and vapour of the chemical 2-methoxyethyl) benzene is highly unlikely. Therefore this study is considered for waiver.

 

Repeated dermal study;

The acute toxicity value for 2-methoxyethyl) benzene (3558-60-9) (as provided in section 7.2.3) is >2000 mg/kg body weight. Also, given the use of the chemical; repeated exposure by the dermal route is unlikely since the use of gloves is common practice in industries. Thus, it is expected that 2-methoxyethyl) benzene shall not exhibit 28 day repeated dose toxicity by the dermal route. In addition, there is no data available that suggests that 2-methoxyethyl) benzene shall exhibit repeated dose toxicity by the dermal route. Hence this end point was considered for waiver.

Based on the data available for the test chemical not likely to exhibit toxic nature upon repeated exposure by oral, inhalation and dermal route of exposure and hence is not likely to classify as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Based on the data available for the test chemical not likely to exhibit toxic nature upon repeated exposure by oral, inhalation and dermal route of exposure and hence is not likely to classify as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.