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Long-term toxicity to fish

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In literature there are no data available and useful to describe in quantitative terms (EC10/LC10 or NOEC) the endpoint of long-term toxicity to fish for Malachite Green (MG).

Bills et al (1977; see 6.1.1) tried to define the chronic toxicity of MG, determining it in standardized laboratory tests for Rainbow trout and Bluegills; it was noted that mortality increased with time in both species. A TILC50 (lethal concentration producing 50% mortality independent of time) for Bluegills could not be calculated because mortality continued until all organisms succumbed at the lowest concentration (0.0316 mg/L) after 16 days of exposure, while for Rainbow trout a TILC50 of 0.0998 mg/l was determined after 36 days of exposure. Nevertheless this data is not adequate and enough to describe in quantitative way the end point.

Despite the fact that a specific study on the long-term toxicity of MG on fish is not available, in literature there are several studies describing the effects of MG exposure.

Hepatopancreas, posterior kidney and spleen are the most affected organs during chronic MG exposure; proliferative interlamellar hyperplasia with fusion in gills, hydropic degeneration of the hepatic cells, renal tubular and hemopoietic tissue necrosis and splenic lymphocytic necrosis and depletion were recorded as histopathological changes in the El-Neweshy (2011) study.

Long term MG exposure induce deleterious effect on blood parameters including anaemia and leucopoenia (El-Neweshy, 2011), additionally degeneration of the skin (Adeyemo, 2011).

The histological changes comprise detrimental effects to the skin and testes: pathological lesions as necrosis, disruption and depletion of the seminiferous tubules (Adeyemo, 2011).

MG significantly affects reproductive success; the eggs of treated fish present irregular shape with focal and necrotic lesions and the birth rate results reduced (Adeyemo, 2011).