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Environmental fate & pathways

Mode of degradation in actual use

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
mode of degradation in actual use
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Read across from a similar substance which has the same main component and with a different counter ion that doesn't influence the characteristics related to the specific end-point

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
review article or handbook
Title:
Biodegradation of synthetic dyes - A review
Author:
Hazrat Ali
Year:
2010
Bibliographic source:
Water Air Soil Pollutant (2010) 213:251 - 273

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
Review of biodegradation of synthetic dyes
Type of study / information:
Review of biodegradation of synthetic dyes

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
Review of biodegradation of synthetic dyes. Substance reported only as Malachite Green; salt form not specified

Results and discussion

Any other information on results incl. tables

Biodegradation of synthetic dye by fungi
Dye conc. Decolorizzation % Incubation period  Reference 
Acremonium kiliense 5 mg/L 95.4 72 h Youssef et al. (2008) 
Aspergillus flavus 50 μM  97.43 6 days Ali et al. (2009)
Alternaria solani 50 μM 96.91 6 days Ali et al. (2009)
Fusarium solani 2.5 mg/L 96 2 days Irpex Abedin (2009)

Biodegradation of synthetic dye by bacteria

Aeromonas hydrophila 50 mg/L  >90 10 h Ren et al. (2006)
Citrobacter sp.  5 μM 100 1 h An et al. (2002)
Kocuria rosea 50 mg/L 100 5 h Parshetti et al. (2006)

Biodegradation of synthetic dyes by yeasts

Galactomyces geotrichum 50 mg/L 97 9 h  Jadhav et al. (2008)
Trichosporon beigelii 50 mg/L 90 24 h  Saratale et al. (2009b)
Effect of initial dye concentration on microbial decolorization of synthetic dye
Acremonium kiliense 5 mg/L 10 mg/L  95.4 35.48 72hNM Youssef et al. (2008)
Kocuria rosea 10 mg/L 30 mg/L 50 mg/L 70 mg/L 100 mg/L 100 100 100 13 6 2 h 3 h 5 h NM NM Parshetti et al. (2006) 

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Several studies were made on decolorization and transformation of Malachite Green (MG). Mode of degradation in actual use include the utilization of various organisms: fungi, bacteria and yeast confirming that many organisms can be used to decolorate and transform Malachite Green; nevertheless studies reported on this review are focused only on transformation of the dye and not on the total degradation.
Executive summary:

Review of biodegradation of synthetic dyes.

Several studies were made on decolorization and transformation of Malachite Green (MG). Mode of degradation in actual use include the utilization of various organisms: fungi, bacteria and yeast confirming that many organisms can be used to decolorate and transform Malachite Green; nevertheless studies reported on this review are focused only on transformation of the dye and not on the total degradation.