Brief Profile

The Brief Profile summarizes the non-confidential data on substances as it is held in the databases of the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), including data provided by third parties. The Brief Profile is automatically generated; note that it does not currently distinguish between harmonised classification and minimum classification; information requirements under different legislative frameworks may therefore not be fully up to date or complete. For accuracy reasons, substance manufacturers and imports have the responsibility to consult official sources, e.g. the electronic edition of the Official Journal of the European Union.
This Brief Profile is covered by the ECHA Legal Notice.

Substance Description

Substance identity

  • EC / List name: Proxan-sodium
  • IUPAC name: sodium [(propan-2-yloxy)methanethioyl]sulfanide
  • Other names
EC / List no.:
205-443-5
CAS no.:
140-93-2
Index number:
006-024-00-8
Molecular formula:
C4H7NaOS2
SMILES:
[Na+].CC(C)OC([S-])=S
InChI:
InChI=1S/C4H8OS2.Na/c1-3(2)5-4(6)7;/h3H,1-2H3,(H,6,7);/q;+1/p-1
Type of substance:
Mono constituent substance
Origin:
Organic
Registered compositions:
9
Of which contain:
18 impurities relevant for classification
0 additives relevant for classification
Substance Listed:
EINECS (European INventory of Existing Commercial chemical Substances) List

Hazard classification & labelling

Warning! According to the harmonised classification and labelling (CLP00) approved by the European Union, this substance is toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects, is harmful if swallowed and causes skin irritation.

Additionally, the classification provided by companies to ECHA in REACH registrations identifies that this substance causes severe skin burns and eye damage, is a flammable solid, is harmful in contact with skin, causes serious eye irritation and is a highly flammable liquid and vapour.

Additionally, the classification provided by companies to ECHA in CLP notifications identifies that this substance is self-heating and may catch fire.

Breakdown of all 91 C&L notifications submitted to ECHA

Aquatic Chronic 2 H411 Harmonised Classification
Acute Tox. 4 H302 Harmonised Classification
Skin Irrit. 2 H315 Harmonised Classification
Self-heat. 1 H251
Flam. Sol. 1 H228
Acute Tox. 4 H312
Eye Irrit. 2 H319
Skin Corr. 1A H314
Flam. Liq. 2 H225
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

https://echa.europa.eu/diss-blank-theme/images/cnl/graph/tick.png Harmonised Classification

https://echa.europa.eu/diss-blank-theme/images/cnl/graph/Reach.png REACH registration dossiers notifications

https://echa.europa.eu/diss-blank-theme/images/cnl/graph/CLP.png CLP notifications

At least one notifier has indicated that an impurity or an additive present in the substance impacts the notified classification.

Properties of concern

Regulatory activities

Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation & Restriction of Chemicals (REACH)

Registration
Pre-registration:
Substance pre-registered under REACH.
Registration:
This substance has 10 active registrations under REACH, 1 Joint Submission(s) and 1 Individual Submission(s).
Please see Registrants/Suppliers details.
Evaluation
Dossier Evaluation:
Substance Evaluation:
Authorisation
Candidate List:
Annex XIV (Authorisation List):
Restriction
Annex XVII (Restriction List):

Classification Labelling & Packaging (CLP)

Harmonised C&L:
A European Union Harmonised Classification & Labelling has been assigned to this substance.
Notification:
Classification & Labelling has been notified by industry to ECHA for this substance.

Biocidal Products Regulation (BPR)

Active Substance:
Biocidal Products:

Prior Informed Consent (PIC)

Annex I:
Annex V:

European Union Observatory for Nanomaterials (EUON)

EUON:

About this substance

This substance is manufactured and/or imported in the European Economic Area in 1 000 - 10 000 tonnes per year.

This substance is used by consumers, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites and in manufacturing.

This substance is used in the following products: metals, metal surface treatment products, adsorbents, extraction agents and polymers. This substance has an industrial use resulting in manufacture of another substance (use of intermediates).

Other release to the environment of this substance is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners).

This substance is used in the following activities or processes at workplace: hot work operations with metals (e.g. welding, soldering, gouging, brazing, flame cutting), the low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials or articles, closed, continuous processes with occasional controlled exposure, production of mixtures or articles by tabletting, compression, extrusion or pelletisation, open transfer and processing with minerals/metals at elevated temperature, high energy work-up of substances bound in materials or articles (e.g. hot rolling/forming, grinding, mechanical cutting, drilling or sanding), closed batch processing in synthesis or formulation, transfer of chemicals at dedicated facilities and laboratory work.

Release to the environment of this substance can occur from industrial use: industrial abrasion processing with low release rate (e.g. cutting of textile, cutting, machining or grinding of metal). Other release to the environment of this substance is likely to occur from: outdoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. metal, wooden and plastic construction and building materials).

This substance can be found in products with material based on: paper (e.g. tissues, feminine hygiene products, nappies, books, magazines, wallpaper) and metal (e.g. cutlery, pots, toys, jewellery).

This substance is used in the following products: extraction agents and polymers.

This substance is used in the following areas: mining and formulation of mixtures and/or re-packaging. This substance is used for the manufacture of: chemicals, metals, pulp, paper and paper products and fabricated metal products.

This substance is used in the following activities or processes at workplace: closed, continuous processes with occasional controlled exposure, closed batch processing in synthesis or formulation, the low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials or articles, high energy work-up of substances bound in materials or articles (e.g. hot rolling/forming, grinding, mechanical cutting, drilling or sanding), batch processing in synthesis or formulation with opportunity for exposure, open transfer and processing with minerals/metals at elevated temperature, hot work operations with metals (e.g. welding, soldering, gouging, brazing, flame cutting) and treatment of articles by dipping and pouring.

Other release to the environment of this substance is likely to occur from: indoor use as processing aid and indoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. cooling liquids in refrigerators, oil-based electric heaters).

This substance is used in the following products: extraction agents and polymers.

This substance is used in the following activities or processes at workplace: closed, continuous processes with occasional controlled exposure, closed batch processing in synthesis or formulation, the low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials or articles, open transfer and processing with minerals/metals at elevated temperature, batch processing in synthesis or formulation with opportunity for exposure, production of mixtures or articles by tabletting, compression, extrusion or pelletisation, high energy work-up of substances bound in materials or articles (e.g. hot rolling/forming, grinding, mechanical cutting, drilling or sanding), hot work operations with metals (e.g. welding, soldering, gouging, brazing, flame cutting), transfer of substance into small containers and laboratory work.

Release to the environment of this substance can occur from industrial use: formulation of mixtures.

This substance is used in the following products: extraction agents, polymers and pH regulators and water treatment products.

This substance is used in the following areas: mining and formulation of mixtures and/or re-packaging. This substance is used for the manufacture of: chemicals, metals and pulp, paper and paper products.

This substance is used in the following activities or processes at workplace: closed batch processing in synthesis or formulation, closed, continuous processes with occasional controlled exposure, the low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials or articles, laboratory work, open transfer and processing with minerals/metals at elevated temperature, high energy work-up of substances bound in materials or articles (e.g. hot rolling/forming, grinding, mechanical cutting, drilling or sanding), potentially closed industrial processing with minerals/metals at elevated temperature (e.g. smelters, furnaces, refineries, coke ovens), production of mixtures or articles by tabletting, compression, extrusion or pelletisation and hot work operations with metals (e.g. welding, soldering, gouging, brazing, flame cutting).

Release to the environment of this substance can occur from industrial use: in processing aids at industrial sites and as processing aid.

This substance is used in the following activities or processes at workplace: closed, continuous processes with occasional controlled exposure, closed batch processing in synthesis or formulation, the low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials or articles, potentially closed industrial processing with minerals/metals at elevated temperature (e.g. smelters, furnaces, refineries, coke ovens), open transfer and processing with minerals/metals at elevated temperature, high energy work-up of substances bound in materials or articles (e.g. hot rolling/forming, grinding, mechanical cutting, drilling or sanding) and hot work operations with metals (e.g. welding, soldering, gouging, brazing, flame cutting).

Release to the environment of this substance can occur from industrial use: manufacturing of the substance.

Precautions for using this substance have been recommended by its registrants under REACH, as follows:

General statements

Keep out of reach of children.

Prevention statements

When handling this substance: keep away from heat, sparks, open flames and/or hot surfaces – No smoking; take any precaution to avoid mixing with combustibles or other incompatible materials specified by manufacture/supplier; avoid release to the environment; wear protective gloves and/or clothing, and eye and/or face protection as specified by manufacturer/supplier.

Response statements

In case of incident: If swallowed: immediately call a poison center or doctor/physician. If on skin (or hair): take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water or shower. If in eyes: rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses if present and easy to do – continue rinsing. If swallowed: call a poison center or doctor/physician if you feel unwell. If on skin: wash with soap and water.

Disposal statements

The substance must be disposed in accordance with local/regional/national/international regulation.

Guidance on the safe use of the substance provided by manufacturers and importers of this substance.

Registrants/suppliers

  • Algol Chemicals Oy, Karapellontie 6 02610 Espoo Finland
  • ELTON INTERNATIONAL TRADING COMPANY S.A., Draseza Place Industrial Park 190 11 Avlonas Attica Greece
  • Metchimtrade Ltd., 60-B Bulgaria Blvd. 1680 Sofia Bulgaria
  • NOZIB Ltd, 67 Georgi Peyachevic Str. 67 Georgi Peyachevic Str. 1505 Sofia Bulgaria Bulgaria
  • Polymethim Ltd., 60-B Bulgaria Blvd. 1680 Sofia Bulgaria
  • REACH 2008 Ltd, J.K.Mladost-1, bl.32, fl.5, ap.10 J.K.Mladost-1, bl.32, fl.5, ap.10 1784 Sofia Bulgaria Bulgaria
  • REACH 2008 LTD., j.k.Mladost-1,bl.32,entr.A,fl.5, ap.10 1784 Sofia Bulgaria Bulgaria
  • Robinson Brothers Ltd, Phoenix Street B70 0AH West Bromwich West Midlands United Kingdom
  • Shudu Import & Export GmbH, Moorhof 7A 22399 Hamburg Germany
  • SNF SA, ZAC de Milieux 42163 Andrézieux France

Other names

  • -
  • Carbonodithioic acid, O-Isopropyl ester, sodium salt
  • propan-2-yloxymethanedithioic acid
  • proxan-sodium
  • proxan-sodium (ISO)
  • sodium iso-pentyl xanthate
  • Sodium isopropyl xanhtate
  • Sodium Isopropyl Xanthate
  • Sodium Isopropyl Xanthate (SIPX)
  • sodium O-isopropyl carbonodithioate
  • sodium O-isopropyl dithiocarbonate
  • sodium O-isopropyldithiocarbonate
  • sodium O-propan-2-yl carbonodithioate
  • sodium [(propan-2-yloxy)methanethioyl]sulfanide
  • Proxan-sodium
  • proxan-sodium (ISO)
  • sodium O-isopropyldithiocarbonate
  • Carbonic acid, dithio-, O-isopropyl ester, sodium salt
  • Carbonodithioic acid, o-(1-methylethyl) ester, sodium salt
  • Carbonodithioic acid, O-Isopropyl ester, sodium salt
  • Isopropylxanthic acid, Na salt
  • SIPX
  • Sodium Isopropyl xanthogenate
  • Sodium O-Isopropyl Xanthate

Scientific properties

Physical and chemical properties

This section provides physicochemical information compiled from all automatically processable data from REACH registration dossiers that is available to ECHA at the time of generation. The quality and correctness of the information remains the responsibility of the data submitter. The Agency thus cannot guarantee the correctness of the information displayed.

Appearance/physical state / colour

Study results
  • 1 study submitted
  • 1 study processed
C Physical state at 20°C and 1013 hPa
Solid (100%) [1]
C Form
Pellets (50%), Powder (50%) [2]
C Odour
Odourless (100%) [1]
C Substance type
Organic (100%) [1]

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study 1
Supporting study
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
C Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Physical state at 20°C and 1013 hPa
Solid (100%)

Melting/freezing point

Study results
  • 1 study submitted
  • 1 study processed
R Melting / freezing point
196.89 °C @ 0 Pa [1]

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study 1
Supporting study
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
R Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Melting / freezing point at 101 325 Pa
196.89 °C

Boiling point

Study results
  • 1 study submitted
  • 1 study processed
R Boiling point
466.98 °C @ 0 Pa [1]

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study 1
Supporting study
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
R Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Boiling point at 101 325 Pa
466.98 °C

Density

Study results
  • 1 study submitted
  • 1 study processed
R Relative density
1.35 @ 25 °C [1]

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study 1
Supporting study
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
R Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Relative density at 20°C
1.35

Vapour pressure

Study results
  • 1 study submitted
  • 1 study processed
R Vapour pressure
0 Pa @ 25 °C [1]

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study 1
Supporting study
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
R Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Vapour pressure
0 Pa @ 25 °C

Partition coefficient

Study results
  • 1 study submitted
  • 1 study processed
R Log Pow
-1.82 @ 25 °C and pH 7 [1]

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study 1
Supporting study
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
R Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Log Kow (Log Pow)
-1.82 @ 25 °C

Water solubility

Study results
  • 2 studies submitted
  • 2 studies processed
R Water solubility (mass/vol.)
2.096 - 1 000 g/L @ 25 °C and pH 7 [2]

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence 2
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
R Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Water solubility
2.096 g/L @ 25 °C

Solubility in organic solvents / fat solubility

Study results
  • 1 study submitted
  • 0 studies processed

No automatically processable data submitted

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified
Exposure cons.
Other 1
Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 0 summaries processed

No automatically processable data submitted

Surface tension

Study results
  • 1 study submitted
  • 0 studies processed

No automatically processable data submitted

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified
Exposure cons.
Other 1
Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 0 summaries processed

No automatically processable data submitted

Flash point

Study results
  • 1 study submitted
  • 0 studies processed

No automatically processable data submitted

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified
Exposure cons.
Other 1
Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 0 summaries processed

No automatically processable data submitted

Auto flammability

Study results
  • 5 studies submitted
  • 3 studies processed
R Autoflammability / self-ignition
90 - 120 °C @ 101.3 kPa [3]

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study 1
Weight of evidence 3
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified
Exposure cons.
Other 1
R Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Autoflammability / self-ignition at 101 325 Pa
99 °C

Flammability

Study results
  • 2 studies submitted
  • 0 studies processed

No automatically processable data submitted

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study 1
Supporting study
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible 1
Sci. unjustified
Exposure cons.
Other
C Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Flammability
Flammable (100%)

Explosiveness

Study results
  • 1 study submitted
  • 0 studies processed

No automatically processable data submitted

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified
Exposure cons.
Other 1
C Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Explosiveness
Non-explosive (100%)

Oxidising

Study results
  • 1 study submitted
  • 0 studies processed

No automatically processable data submitted

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified
Exposure cons.
Other 1
C Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Oxidising
No (100%)

Oxidation reduction potential

Study results
  • 1 study submitted
  • 0 studies processed

No automatically processable data submitted

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified
Exposure cons.
Other 1
Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 0 summaries processed

No automatically processable data submitted

pH

Study results
  • 1 study submitted
  • 0 studies processed

No automatically processable data submitted

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified
Exposure cons.
Other 1

No summary exists for this scientific endpoint

Dissociation constant

Study results
  • 1 study submitted
  • 0 studies processed

No automatically processable data submitted

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified
Exposure cons.
Other 1
Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 0 summaries processed

No automatically processable data submitted

Viscosity

Study results
  • 1 study submitted
  • 0 studies processed

No automatically processable data submitted

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified
Exposure cons.
Other 1
Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 0 summaries processed

No automatically processable data submitted

Environmental fate and pathways

This section provides environmental fate and pathways information compiled from all automatically processable data from REACH registration dossiers that is available to ECHA at the time of generation. The quality and correctness of the information remains the responsibility of the data submitter. The Agency thus cannot guarantee the correctness of the information displayed.

Phototransformation in air

Study results
  • 2 studies submitted
  • 1 study processed
R Degradation rate constant (OH radicals)
0 cm³ molecule-1 d-1 [1]

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence 1
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified
Exposure cons.
Other 1
R Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Half life in air
21.096 h
Degradation rate constant with OH radicals
0 cm³ molecule-1 d-1

Hydrolysis

Study results
  • 4 studies submitted
  • 0 studies processed

Study data not processed for brief profile

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence 2 1
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified
Exposure cons.
Other 1
R Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Half-life for hydrolysis
10.833 days @ 25 °C

Phototransformation in water

Study results
  • 1 study submitted
  • 0 studies processed

No automatically processable data submitted

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified
Exposure cons.
Other 1
Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 0 summaries processed

No automatically processable data submitted

Phototransformation in soil

Study results
  • 1 study submitted
  • 0 studies processed

No automatically processable data submitted

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified
Exposure cons.
Other 1
Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 0 summaries processed

No automatically processable data submitted

Biodegradation in water - screening tests

Study results
  • 6 studies submitted
  • 2 studies processed
R COD
2.23 g O2/g test material [1]
C Interpretation of results
Readily biodegradable (100%) [2]

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study 1 2
Weight of evidence 2
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified
Exposure cons.
Other 1
C Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Biodegradation in water
Readily biodegradable (100%)

Biodegradation in water & sediment - simulation tests

Study results
  • 0 studies submitted
  • 0 studies processed

Study data not processed for brief profile

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 0 summaries processed

No automatically processable data submitted

Biodegradation in soil

Study results
  • 1 study submitted
  • 0 studies processed

Study data not processed for brief profile

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified 1
Exposure cons.
Other
Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 0 summaries processed

No automatically processable data submitted

Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment

Study results
  • 2 studies submitted
  • 0 studies processed

Study data not processed for brief profile

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence 1
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified
Exposure cons.
Other 1
R Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Bioaccumulation Factor (BCF) - L/kg ww
3.27 L/kg ww

Bioaccumulation: terrestrial

Study results
  • 1 study submitted
  • 0 studies processed

Study data not processed for brief profile

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified
Exposure cons.
Other 1
R Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Bioaccumulation Factor (BCF) - L/kg ww
3.27 L/kg ww

Adsorption/desorption

Study results
  • 2 studies submitted
  • 0 studies processed

No automatically processable data submitted

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence 1
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified
Exposure cons.
Other 1
R Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Koc at 20°C
6.132

Henrys law constant (H)

Study results
  • 1 study submitted
  • 1 study processed
R H - (pressure) m³/mol
0 Pa m³/mol @ 25 °C and 101.325 kPa [1]

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence 1
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
R Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Henry's law constant
0 Pa.m³.mol-1 @ 25 °C

Distribution modelling

Study results
  • 1 study submitted
  • 1 study processed
% Distribution in Media:
R Air 0 % [1]
R Water 33 % [1]
R Soil 67 % [1]
R Sediment 0.069 % [1]
R Suspended sediment 0 % [1]
R Biota 0 % [1]
R Aerosol 0 % [1]

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence 1
Other
Data waiving
no waivers

No summary exists for this scientific endpoint

Ecotoxicological information

This section provides ecotoxicological information compiled from all automatically processable data from REACH registration dossiers that is available to ECHA at the time of generation. The quality and correctness of the information remains the responsibility of the data submitter. The Agency thus cannot guarantee the correctness of the information displayed.

Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC)

R Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed

The Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC) value is the concentration of a substance below which adverse effects in the environment are not expected to occur. Please note that when more than one summary is provided, PNEC values may refer to constituents of the substance and not to the substance as a whole. More detailed information is available in the dossiers.

Hazard for Aquatic Organisms
Freshwater 217 µg/L (1)
Intermittent releases (freshwater) 180 µg/L (1)
Marine water 268 µg/L (1)
Intermittent releases (marine water) -
Sewage treatment plant (STP) 1 mg/L (1)
Sediment (freshwater) 5.62 mg/kg sediment dw (1)
Sediment (marine water) 560 µg/kg sediment dw (1)
Hazard for Air
Air 10 mg/m³ (1)
Hazard for Terrestrial Organism
Soil 282 µg/kg soil dw (1)
Hazard for Predators
Secondary poisoning 133.3 mg/kg food (1)

Short–term toxicity to fish

Study results
  • 26 studies submitted
  • 25 studies processed
P/RResults
LC50 (4 days) 10 - 1 000 000 µg/L [35]
LC50 (24 h) 10 mg/L [2]
LC100 (4 days) 56 - 180 mg/L [3]
LC100 (72 h) 300 µg/L [1]
LC100 (48 h) 500 - 100 000 µg/L [2]

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study 5
Supporting study 1
Weight of evidence 2 2 16
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
R Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
LC50 for freshwater fish
10 mg/L
LC50 for marine water fish
656.267 mg/L

Long–term toxicity to fish

Study results
  • 6 studies submitted
  • 4 studies processed
P/RResults
NOEC (30 days) 43.171 - 44.399 mg/L [2]
NOEC (8 days) 1 - 5.2 mg/L [5]
LC50 (28 days) 2.17 mg/L [1]

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study 1
Supporting study
Weight of evidence 2 3
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
R Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
EC10 / LC10 or NOEC for freshwater fish
434 µg/L
EC10 / LC10 or NOEC for marine water fish
43.171 mg/L

Short–term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

Study results
  • 9 studies submitted
  • 7 studies processed
P/RResults
EC50 (24 h) 350 - 3 700 µg/L [4]
LC50 (4 days) 52 - 742.541 mg/L [2]
LC50 (48 h) 226.816 mg/L [1]
EC10 (24 h) 180 - 1 900 µg/L [4]

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study 1 3
Supporting study 2
Weight of evidence 2 1
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
R Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
EC50 / LC50 for freshwater invertebrates
3.7 mg/L
EC50 / LC50 for marine invertebrates
22.7 mg/L

Long–term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

Study results
  • 3 studies submitted
  • 2 studies processed
P/RResults
NOEC (30 days) 23.479 - 79.333 mg/L [2]

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study 1
Weight of evidence 2
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
R Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
EC10 / LC10 or NOEC for freshwater invertebrates
23.479 mg/L
EC10 / LC10 or NOEC for marine invertebrates
79.333 mg/L

Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria

Study results
  • 4 studies submitted
  • 2 studies processed
P/RResults
EC50 (4 days) 21 - 78.923 mg/L [3]
NOEC (30 days) 26.769 mg/L [1]

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study 1
Weight of evidence 1 2
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
R Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
EC50 for freshwater algae
78.923 mg/L
EC50 for marine water algae
7.89 mg/L
EC10 or NOEC for freshwater algae
26.769 mg/L
EC10 or NOEC for marine water algae
2.68 mg/L

Toxicity to aquatic plants other than algae

Study results
  • 3 studies submitted
  • 3 studies processed
P/RResults
EC50 (14 days) 3.5 - 20 mg/L [3]

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study 1
Supporting study
Weight of evidence 2
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
R Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
EC50 for freshwater plants
3.5 mg/L
EC50 for marine water plants
350 µg/L
EC10 or NOEC for freshwater plants
700 µg/L
EC10 or NOEC for marine water plants
35 µg/L

Toxicity to microorganisms

Study results
  • 5 studies submitted
  • 1 study processed
P/RResults
EC50 (3 h) 50 mg/L [1]

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study 1
Supporting study 2
Weight of evidence 2
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
R Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
EC50 for microorganisms
50 mg/L
EC10 or NOEC for microorganisms
10 mg/L

Sediment toxicity

Study results
  • 2 studies submitted
  • 1 study processed
P/RResults
LC50 (14 days) 280.945 mg/kg sediment dw [1]

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence 1
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified
Exposure cons.
Other 1
R Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
EC50 / LC50 for freshwater sediment
280.945 mg/kg sediment dw
EC50 / LC50 for marine water sediment
28.09 mg/kg sediment dw
EC10 / LC10 or NOEC for freshwater sediment
56.19 mg/kg sediment dw
EC10 / LC10 or NOEC for marine water sediment
5.62 mg/kg sediment dw

Endocrine disrupter testing in aquatic vertebrates – in vivo

Data not provided by the registrant

Toxicity to terrestrial macroorganisms except arthropods

Study results
  • 2 studies submitted
  • 1 study processed
P/RResults
LC50 (14 days) 280.945 mg/kg soil ww [1]

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study 1
Supporting study 1
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
R Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Short-term EC50 / LC50
280.945 mg/kg soil dw
Long-term EC10 / LC10 / NOEC
56.19 mg/kg soil dw

Toxicity to terrestrial arthropods

Study results
  • 5 studies submitted
  • 2 studies processed
P/RResults
LC50 (7 days) 6.8 - 14.1 mg/kg soil dw [2]
LC50 (7 h) 75 - 155.85 mg/kg soil dw [2]

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study 1
Weight of evidence 3
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified
Exposure cons. 1
Other
R Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Short-term EC50 / LC50
155.85 mg/kg soil dw
Long-term EC10 / LC10 / NOEC
2.82 mg/kg soil dw

Toxicity to terrestrial plants

Study results
  • 4 studies submitted
  • 1 study processed
P/RResults
NOEC (30 days) 26.769 mg/kg soil dw [1]
EC50 (4 days) 78.923 mg/kg soil dw [1]

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study 3
Weight of evidence 1
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
R Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Short-term EC50 / LC50
78.923 mg/kg soil dw
Long-term EC10 / LC10 / NOEC
26.769 mg/kg soil dw

Toxicity to soil microorganisms

Study results
  • 3 studies submitted
  • 1 study processed
P/RResults
EC50 (14 days) 2.1 - 4.36 mg/kg soil dw [2]
EC50 (5 days) 210 - 440 µg/kg soil dw [2]

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study 1
Weight of evidence 1
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified
Exposure cons. 1
Other
R Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Short-term EC50
20.8 mg/kg soil dw
Long-term EC10 / NOEC
872 µg/kg soil dw

Toxicity to birds

Study results
  • 1 study submitted
  • 0 studies processed

No automatically processable data submitted

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified
Exposure cons.
Other 1
Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 0 summaries processed

No automatically processable data submitted

Toxicity to mammals

Study results
  • 3 studies submitted
  • 2 studies processed
P/RResults
NOEC (30 days) 4 000 mg/kg diet [1]
NOEC (24 h) 4 150 - 8 623.7 mg/kg diet [2]

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study 1
Supporting study
Weight of evidence 1
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified
Exposure cons.
Other 1
R Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Short-term EC50 / LC50
20.75 g/kg food
Long-term EC10 / LC10 / NOEC
4 g/kg food

Toxicological information

This section provides toxicological information compiled from all automatically processable data from REACH registration dossiers that is available to ECHA at the time of generation. The quality and correctness of the information remains the responsibility of the data submitter. The Agency thus cannot guarantee the correctness of the information displayed.

Derived No- or Minimal Effect Level (DN(M)EL)

M/C Summaries
  • 2 summaries submitted
  • 2 summaries processed

The derived no- or minimum effect level (DN(M)EL) is the level of exposure above which a human should not be exposed to a substance. Please note that when more than one summary is provided, DN(M)EL values may refer to constituents of the substance and not to the substance as a whole. More detailed information is available in the dossiers.

Data for WORKERS
INHALATION Exposure Threshold Most sensitive study
Systemic Effects
Long-term: (DNEL) 4.6 mg/m³ repeated dose toxicity
Acute /short term: (DNEL) 4.6 mg/m³ repeated dose toxicity
Local Effects
Long-term: (DNEL) 4.6 mg/m³ repeated dose toxicity
Acute /short term: (DNEL) 4.6 mg/m³ repeated dose toxicity
DERMAL Exposure Threshold Most sensitive study
Systemic Effects
Long-term: (DNEL) 31.04 mg/kg bw/day repeated dose toxicity
Acute /short term: (DNEL) 40 mg/kg bw/day acute toxicity
Local Effects
Long-term: (DNEL) 790 µg/cm² acute toxicity
Acute /short term: (DNEL) 790 µg/cm² acute toxicity
EYE Exposure
High hazard (no threshold derived)
Data for the GENERAL POPULATION
INHALATION Exposure Threshold Most sensitive study
Systemic Effects
Long-term: (DNEL) 2.3 mg/m³ repeated dose toxicity
Acute /short term: (DNEL) 2.3 mg/m³ repeated dose toxicity
Local Effects
Long-term: (DNEL) 2.3 mg/m³ repeated dose toxicity
Acute /short term: (DNEL) 2.3 mg/m³ repeated dose toxicity
DERMAL Exposure Threshold Most sensitive study
Systemic Effects
Long-term: (DNEL) 15.52 mg/kg bw/day repeated dose toxicity
Acute /short term: (DNEL) 20 mg/kg bw/day acute toxicity
Local Effects
Long-term: (DNEL) 394 µg/cm² acute toxicity
Acute /short term: (DNEL) 394 µg/cm² acute toxicity
ORAL Exposure Threshold Most sensitive study
Systemic Effects
Long-term: (DNEL) 20 mg/kg bw/day acute toxicity
Acute /short term: (DNEL) 20 mg/kg bw/day acute toxicity
EYE Exposure
Medium hazard (no threshold derived)

Toxicokinetics, metabolism, and distribution

Study results
Study data: basic toxicokinetics
  • 9 studies submitted
  • 0 studies processed

Study data not processed for brief profile

Type of Study provided
Study data: basic toxicokinetics
Studies with data
Key study 2
Supporting study 3
Weight of evidence 4
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
Study data: dermal absorption
  • 2 studies submitted
  • 0 studies processed

Study data not processed for brief profile

Study data: dermal absorption
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study 1
Weight of evidence 1
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
M/C Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Bioaccumulation potential:
No bioaccumulation potential
Absorption values
Dermal: 1 %

Acute toxicity

Study results
oral
  • 9 studies submitted
  • 9 studies processed
P/RResults
LD50 500 - 2 000 mg/kg bw (rat) [6]
LD0 250 mg/kg bw (rat) [1]
LD50 411 - 730 mg/kg bw (mouse) [5]
M/CInterpretations of results
Other [9]

Type of Study provided
oral
Studies with data
Key study 1 8
Supporting study
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
inhalation
  • 3 studies submitted
  • 2 studies processed
P/RResults
LC50 (6 h) 10 000 ppm (rat) [1]
LC50 (4 h) 32.19 - 10 350 mg/m³ air (rat) [2]
M/CInterpretations of results
Other [2]

inhalation
Studies with data
Key study 1
Supporting study 1
Weight of evidence 1
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
dermal
  • 2 studies submitted
  • 2 studies processed
P/RResults
LD50 1 000 - 2 000 mg/kg bw (rabbit) [2]
M/CInterpretations of results
Category 4 based on GHS criteria [1]

dermal
Studies with data
Key study 1
Supporting study
Weight of evidence 1
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
other routes
  • 3 studies submitted
  • 0 studies processed

No automatically processable data submitted

other routes
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study 3
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
M/C Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Oral route:
Adverse effect observed LD50 1 250 mg/kg bw
Inhalation route:
No adverse effect observed LC50 32.19 mg/m³
Dermal route:
Adverse effect observed LD50 1 000 mg/kg bw

Irritation / corrosion

Study results
Study data: skin
  • 3 studies submitted
  • 0 studies processed

Study data not processed for brief profile

Type of Study provided
Study data: skin
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence 2
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified 1
Exposure cons.
Other
Study data: eye
  • 4 studies submitted
  • 0 studies processed

Study data not processed for brief profile

Study data: eye
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence 3
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified 1
Exposure cons.
Other
M/C Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Skin
Adverse effect observed (irritating)
Eye
Adverse effect observed (irritating)
Respiratory
No adverse effect observed (not irritating)

Sensitisation

Study results
Study data: skin
  • 4 studies submitted
  • 0 studies processed

Study data not processed for brief profile

Type of Study provided
Study data: skin
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study 1
Weight of evidence 2
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified 1
Exposure cons.
Other
Study data: respiratory
  • 2 studies submitted
  • 0 studies processed

Study data not processed for brief profile

Study data: respiratory
Studies with data
Key study 1
Supporting study
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified
Exposure cons.
Other 1
M/C Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Skin sensitisation
No adverse effect observed (not sensitising)
Respiratory sensitisation
No adverse effect observed (not sensitising)

Repeated dose toxicity

Study results
Study data: oral
  • 3 studies submitted
  • 2 studies processed
P/RResults
NOAEL (rat): 10 - 60 mg/kg bw/day [2]

Type of Study provided
Study data: oral
Studies with data
Key study 1
Supporting study 1
Weight of evidence 1
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
Study data: inhalation
  • 4 studies submitted
  • 4 studies processed
P/RResults
NOAEL (rat): 5 000 ppm [1]
NOEL (rat): 500 - 5 000 ppm [2]
NOAEC (rat): 23 mg/m³ air [1]
NOAEC (mouse): 23 mg/m³ air [1]
NOAEC (rabbit): 23 mg/m³ air [1]

Study data: inhalation
Studies with data
Key study 3
Supporting study
Weight of evidence 1
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
Study data: dermal
  • 1 study submitted
  • 1 study processed
P/RResults
NOAEL (rabbit): 155.2 - 300 mg/kg bw/day [2]

Study data: dermal
Studies with data
Key study 1
Supporting study
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
M/C Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Oral route - systemic effects:
No adverse effect observed NOAEL 10 mg/kg bw/day (subchronic, rat)
Dermal route - systemic effects:
No adverse effect observed NOAEL 155.2 mg/kg bw/day (subacute, rabbit)
Dermal route - local effects:
No adverse effect observed NOAEL 2.93 mg/cm² (subacute, rabbit)
Inhalation route - systemic effects:
No adverse effect observed NOAEC 23 mg/m³ (subacute, rat)
Inhalation route - local effects:
No adverse effect observed NOAEC 23 mg/m³ (subacute, rat)

Genetic toxicity

Study results
Study data: in vitro
  • 5 studies submitted
  • 0 studies processed

Study data not processed for brief profile

Type of Study provided
Study data: in vitro
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence 1 4
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
Study data: in vivo
  • 6 studies submitted
  • 0 studies processed

Study data not processed for brief profile

Study data: in vivo
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study 1
Weight of evidence 5
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
M/C Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Toxicity - InVitro
No adverse effect observed (negative)
Toxicity - InVivo
No adverse effect observed (negative)

Carcinogenicity

Study results
  • 5 studies submitted
  • 0 studies processed

Study data not processed for brief profile

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence 4
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified
Exposure cons.
Other 1
M/C Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Oral route:
No adverse effect observed NOAEL 82 mg/kg bw/day (chronic, mouse)
Dermal route:
No adverse effect observed NOAEL 640 µg/kg bw/day (chronic, mouse)
Inhalation route:
No adverse effect observed NOAEC 3.5 mg/m³ (chronic, mouse)

Toxicity to reproduction

Study results
Study data: reproduction
  • 12 studies submitted
  • 0 studies processed

Study data not processed for brief profile

Type of Study provided
Study data: reproduction
Studies with data
Key study 2 2
Supporting study 2
Weight of evidence 4 1
Other
Data waiving
Not feasible
Sci. unjustified 1
Exposure cons.
Other
Study data: developmental
  • 10 studies submitted
  • 0 studies processed

Study data not processed for brief profile

Study data: developmental
Studies with data
Key study 1 1
Supporting study 3
Weight of evidence 5
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
Study data: other studies
  • 1 study submitted
  • 0 studies processed

Study data not processed for brief profile

Study data: other studies
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study 1
Weight of evidence
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
M/C Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Effect on fertility
Oral route:
No adverse effect observed NOAEL 89.36 mg/kg bw/day (subacute, rat)
Dermal route:
No adverse effect observed NOAEL 2.23 mg/kg bw/day (subacute, rat)
Inhalation route:
No adverse effect observed NOAEC 1 554 mg/m³ (subacute, rat)
Effect on developmental toxicity
Oral route:
No adverse effect observed NOAEL 250 mg/kg bw/day (subacute, rat)
Dermal route:
No adverse effect observed NOAEL 6.25 mg/kg bw/day (subacute, rat)
Inhalation route:
No adverse effect observed NOAEC 948 mg/m³ (subacute, rabbit)

Neurotoxicity

Study results
  • 10 studies submitted
  • 0 studies processed

Study data not processed for brief profile

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study 1
Weight of evidence 9
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
M/C Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Oral route:
No adverse effect observed LOAEL 300 mg/kg bw/day (subchronic, rat)
Dermal route:
No adverse effect observed LOAEL 7.5 mg/kg bw/day (subchronic, rat)
Inhalation route:
No adverse effect observed NOAEC 156 mg/m³ (subchronic, rat)

Immunotoxicity

Study results
  • 1 study submitted
  • 0 studies processed

Study data not processed for brief profile

Type of Study provided
Studies with data
Key study
Supporting study
Weight of evidence 1
Other
Data waiving
no waivers
M/C Summaries
  • 1 summary submitted
  • 1 summary processed
Oral route:
No adverse effect observed NOAEL 138 mg/kg bw/day (subacute, mouse)
Dermal route:
No adverse effect observed NOAEL 1.1 mg/kg bw/day (subacute, mouse)
Inhalation route:
No adverse effect observed NOAEC 6 mg/m³ (subacute, mouse)

Endocrine disrupter mammalian screening - in vivo

Data not provided by the registrant