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Toxicological information

Acute Toxicity: dermal

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
acute toxicity: dermal
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Read-across from highly water soluble chromates. Comparable to guideline study. Symposium paper.
Cross-reference
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
secondary source
Title:
Acute toxicity of chromate salts
Author:
Gad, S. C., B. J. Dunn, et al.
Year:
1986
Bibliographic source:
Serrone D. editor: Proceedings of Chromium Symposium 1986: an update., Industrial Health Foundation.

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
a standard set of protocol for acute dermal toxicity
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): sodium chromate, sodium dichromate, potassium dichromate, ammonium dichromate

Test animals

Species:
rabbit
Strain:
New Zealand White
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Summit View Farms, Bellvidere, New Jersey
- Housing: individually in suspended stainless steel cages with wire mesh on the front and bottom
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): Purina Rodent Chow No. 5001 ad libidum
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): ad libidum
- Acclimation period: quarantined for at least two weeks prior to study

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 72+-2 F
- Humidity (%): 50+-5
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12

Administration / exposure

Details on dermal exposure:
The test substance was applied to the skin and wetted with an equivalent amount of physiological saline.
Duration of exposure:
24 h
Doses:
1.5 and 2.0 g/kg of sodium chromate; 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 g/kg of sodium dichromate, of potassium dichromate or of ammonium dichromate
No. of animals per sex per dose:
5 M / 5 F
Control animals:
yes

Results and discussion

Effect levelsopen allclose all
Sex:
male/female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
1.6 other: g/kg
Remarks on result:
other: sodium chromate
Sex:
male/female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
1 other: g/kg
Remarks on result:
other: sodium dichromate
Sex:
male/female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
1.17 other: g/kg
Remarks on result:
other: potassium dichromate
Sex:
male/female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
1.64 other: g/kg
Remarks on result:
other: ammonium dichromate

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
relatively harmless
Remarks:
Migrated information Criteria used for interpretation of results: OECD GHS
Conclusions:
LD50s of highly water soluble chromates fall into category 4 'harmful in contact with skin'. This data is not suggested to be used as such in the classification of sparingly water soluble zinc tetraoxychromate (dermal absorption of <1% for water soluble chromate has been identified and sparingly soluble chromates may be even less effective on skin; judgement for zinc tetraoxychromate is thus 'no classification').
Executive summary:

Gad et al. (1986) studied sodium chromate, sodium dichromate, potassium dichromate and ammonium dichromate by a standard set of protocols for acute inhalation by dermal route. In a single 24-hour dermal exposure, rabbits (five males and five females in each group) were exposed to the following chromium salt doses: 1.5 and 2.0 g/kg for sodium chromate, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 g/kg for sodium dichromate, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 g/kg for potassium dichromate, and 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 g/kg for ammonium dichromate.

Numerous clinical observations were seen with all test compounds and both sexes, such as dermal necrosis, eschar formation, dermal corrosion, diarrhea, hypoacitivity and dermal edema and erythema. Single-dose dermal LD50 values in rabbits exposed to chromium(VI) as chromium salts ranged from 1.03 g/kg for sodium dichromate to 1.73 g/kg for sodium chromate in females and from 0.96 g/kg for sodium dichromate to 1.86 g/kg for ammonium dichromate in males.