Registration Dossier

Toxicological information

Exposure related observations in humans: other data

Currently viewing:

Administrative data

Endpoint:
exposure-related observations in humans: other data
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Evaluation performed by an authoritative institution.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
other: evaluation
Title:
Toxicity review 21. The toxicity of chromium and inorganic chromium compounds.
Author:
Fairhurst, S. and C. A. Minty
Year:
1989
Bibliographic source:
Health and Safety Executive, Merseyside, UK.

Materials and methods

Type of study / information:
The Health and Safety Executive reviewed and evaluated available data on chromium.
Endpoint addressed:
skin irritation / corrosion
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The Health and Safety Executive reviewed and evaluated available data on chromium.
GLP compliance:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
All available data on chromium and chromium compounds were reviewed.

Method

Details on study design:
The Health and Safety Executive reviewed and evaluated available data on irritation or corrosion caused by chromium.

Results and discussion

Results:
The Health and Safety Executive concluded that the predominant effect of hexavalent chromium on the skin is the formation of chrome-ulcers ('chrome holes' or 'chrome sores'). The formation of ulcers was first described more than 150 years ago, in dye workers handling chromate solutions. Some initial damage of the skin (small cuts, scratches or abrasions, or injuries caused by extreme pH or high temperature) seems to be necessary for the production of ulcers. The severity of the lesions depends on the frequency and duration of skin contamination. The ulcer is formed gradually, processing slowly to deeper skin layers. Typically it is circular (diameter up to one centimetre), with a hard raised periphery and a central, clean-cut cavity

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
The Health and Safety Executive concluded that the predominant effect of hexavalent chromium on the skin is the formation of chrome-ulcers ('chrome holes' or 'chrome sores'). Some initial damage of the skin (small cuts, scratches or abrasions, or injuries caused by extreme pH or high temperature) seems to be necessary for the production of ulcers. The severity of the lesions depends on the frequency and duration of skin contamination.
Executive summary:

The predominant effect of hexavalent chromium on the skin is the formation of chrome-ulcers ('chrome holes' or 'chrome sores') (reviewed by Fairhurst and Minty (HSE) 1989. The formation of ulcers was first described more than 150 years ago, in dye workers handling chromate solutions. Some initial damage of the skin (small cuts, scratches or abrasions, or injuries caused by extreme pH or high temperature) seems to be necessary for the production of ulcers. The severity of the lesions depends on the frequency and duration of skin contamination. The ulcer is formed gradually, processing slowly to deeper skin layers. Typically it is circular (diameter up to one centimetre), with a hard raised periphery and a central, clean-cut cavity.