Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Endpoint:
toxicity to reproduction: other studies
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Supporting study only

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Effects of sulfate in water on swine reproduction and young pig performance.
Author:
Paterson DW, Wahlstrom RC, Libal GW & Olson OE
Year:
1979
Bibliographic source:
Journal of Animal Science, 49(3): 664-667

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of high sulphate waters given to swine during gestation and lactation
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of method:
in vivo

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent

Test animals

Species:
pig
Sex:
female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
During gestation all animals were housed in uninsulated wooden colony type houses located in dry lots. Feed was restricted to 1.8 kg per head daily and fed in individual feeding stalls. Water was availabel ad libitum. Sows were allowed access to feed and water each morning adn evening for 2.0 and 1.5 hr respectively. Saline water was available in the creep area for pigs after 10 days of age

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: drinking water
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Sulfate content was determined weekly by a turbidimetric method. The average and their standard deviations for the entire experimental period were as follows: control 320 ± 24 ppm; low sulfate, 1790 ± 35 ppm and high sulfate, 3298 ± 139 ppm.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
30 days postbreeding through 28 days lactation
Frequency of treatment:
Water was added ad libitum
Doses / concentrationsopen allclose all
Dose / conc.:
320 ppm
Dose / conc.:
620 ppm
Dose / conc.:
1 820 ppm
Dose / conc.:
2 840 ppm
Dose / conc.:
3 320 ppm
Dose / conc.:
5 060 ppm
Details on study design:
The reproductive trial involved 31 sows and 27 gilts of Hampshire x Yorkshire x Duroc breeding. Sows and gilts were grouped separately on the basis of ancestry and weight. Outcome groups were randonly assigned to the three treatments. The three treatments consisted of sodium sulfate added to water to give sulfate and total dissolved solids in ppm as follows (1): 320, 620, (2) 1820, 2840 and (3) 3320, 5060.

Results and discussion

Effect levels

Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
3 320 ppm
Remarks on result:
other: Sulfates up to and including 3320 ppm in water have no significant effect on reproduction in the gilt or sow.

Any other information on results incl. tables

Table 1: Effect of sulfate content of water on reproductive performance

Parameter

Added sulfates (ppm)

Gilts

Sows

0

1500

3000

No. litter

12

13

14

16

23

Avg gestation gain, kga

30.2

27.5

26.0

41.0

18.6

Avg lactation gain, kgb

1.5

-5.5

1.7

5.5

-7.0

Water consumption, litters/day

Gestation

13.3

11.2

10.6

15.1

9.2

Lactation

13.6

14.2

16.8

14.4

15.5

Pigs/litter

Total

11.1

10.9

10.0

9.8

11.7

Live

9.6

10.0

8.2

8.7

9.9

Avg pig birth weight, kgb

1.4

1.4

1.5

1.3

1.5

Avg litter birth weight, kg

13.5

13.5

11.8

11.6

14.2

No. pigs at 28 days

6.7

6.9

6.3

6.5

6.8

28-day pig weight, kg

6.1

6.2

6.3

6.1

6.4

28-day litter weight, kg

40.4

42.2

40.2

39.5

42.3

aSignificant difference (P 0.01) between gilts and sows

bSignificant difference (P 0.05) between gilts and sows

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Sulfates up to and including 3320 ppm in water have no significant effect on reproduction in the gilt or sow.