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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Description of key information

Data is available on the acute toxicity of calcium sulfate to fish. The results from these studies demonstrate that calcium sulfate is not acutely toxic at the limit of its solubility in water.

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Additional information

A reliable GLP guideline study was performed which assessed the acute toxicity of calcium sulfate dihydrate (NIER, 2003) to Oryzias latipes in a limit test. The 96 h LC50 for calcium sulfate dihydrate was found to be >100 mg/L, which is equivalent to >79 mg/L for calcium sulfate anhydrous. No mortalities or adverse effects were noted at this concentration.

Supporting studies are also available from literature. Trama (1995) tested the acute toxicity of a saturated solution of calcium sulfate at 20 °C to Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill sunfish). No significant mortalities were observed at the concentration tested (2980 ppm). Therefore, the 96 h LC50 of calcium sulfate to bluegill sunfish was >2980 mg/L.

Mount et al (1997) investigated the acute toxicity of calcium sulfate to Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow). The 96 h LC50 for calcium sulfate was >1970 mg/L.

Wallen et al (1957) cited a 96 h LC50 of calcium sulfate to Gambusia affinis >56,000 mg/L. The LC50 value is therefore greater than the maximum solubility of calcium sulfate in water.

Using a weight of evidence approach, the acute toxicity of calcium sulfate to fish is greater than the highest concentration tested and is greater than the maximum solubility of calcium sulfate in water.

Calcium sulfate showed no short-term toxicity to fish and is not acutely toxic to fish at the limit of its water solubility.