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NOTE: Not all of polyol esters within the category are discussed in this endpoint summary i.e. only polyol esters of the PE group relevant for this discussion, in particular PE polyol esters which have terrestrial toxicity data available. For further information on the complete polyol ester category please refer to category justification (IUCLID Section 13).

 

In accordance with Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006, Annex XI, 1.5, grouping and read-across, the polyol esters, which of course includes the polyol PE group, are not considered to be harmful to aquatic organisms based on the results from short-term studies with fish, aquatic invertebrates and algae and long-term results on toxicity to aquatic invertebrates. Moreover, all polyol PE esters within the polyol esters category are structurally similar and read-across was performed to the structurally most similar polyol esters category member(s). The available studies cover the variability of the PE esters group with different alcohol and fatty acid chain lengths. The data gaps within the PE esters group were filled by interpolation since the category members are characterized by a similar pattern in the ecotoxicological toxicity profile. No trend in toxicity was observed since no effects were recorded up to the limit of water solubility. There is no convincing evidence that any one of the category members might lie out of the overall profile of this category.

Short-term toxicity studies with freshwater species for numerous members of the category are available for all three trophic levels (algae, aquatic invertebrates and fish). Ten acute toxicity studies to fish according to internationally accepted guidelines are available for the PE esters group: fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., esters with pentaerythritol (CAS 85711-45-1), 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediyl dioleate (CAS 25151-96-6), fatty acids, C5-9 tetraesters with pentaerythritol (CAS 67762-53-2), decanoic acid, mixed esters with heptanoic acid, octanoic acid, pentaerythritol and valeric acid (CAS 71010-76-9), decanoic acid, mixed esters with octanoic acid and pentaerythritol (CAS 68441-68-9), pentaerytritol tetraoleate (CAS 19321-40-5), pentaerythritol tetraisostearate (CAS 62125-22-8) and Fatty acids, lanolin, esters with pentaerythritol (CAS 68440-09-5), fatty acids, C8-10 mixed esters with dipenaterythritol, isooctanoic acid, pentaerythritol and tripentaerythritol (CAS 189200-42-8) and decanoic acid, ester with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol octanoate (CAS 11138-60-6). All test results led to the same conclusion: No effects were observed up to the limit of water solubility, for any of the above mentioned test substances.

Furthermore, this lack of toxicity was further confirmed in eight short-term toxicity studies with aquatic invertebrates for the PE esters group; fatty acids, C5-9 tetraesters with pentaerythritol (CAS 67762-53-2), decanoic acid, mixed esters with heptanoic acid, octanoic acid, pentaerythritol and valeric acid (CAS 71010-76-9), pentaerytritol tetraoleate (CAS 19321-40-5), fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsaturated, tetraesters with pentaerythritol (CAS 68604-44-4), 2,2-bis[[(1-oxoisooctadecyl)oxy]methyl]-1,3-propanediyl bis(isooctadecanoate) (CAS 62125-22-8), fatty acids, lanolin, esters with pentaerythritol (CAS 68440-09-5), fatty acids, C8-10 mixed esters with dipenaterythritol, isooctanoic acid, pentaerythritol and tripentaerythritol (CAS 189200-42-8) and decanoic acid, ester with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol octanoate (CAS 11138-60-6). No toxicity was observed up to the limit of water solubility in the available studies. The available studies cover the variability within the group with regards to different alcohol components and representative fatty acid chain lengths. Thus, the data gaps can be confidently covered by interpolation.

Reliable standard guideline studies investigating the toxicity to aquatic algae are available for the five following substances fatty acids, C16-18, esters with pentaerythritol (CAS 85116-93-4), fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsaturated, tetraesters with pentaerythritol (CAS 68604-44-4), 2,2-bis[[(1-oxoisooctadecyl)oxy]methyl]-1,3-propanediyl bis(isooctadecanoate) (CAS 62125-22-8), fatty acids, C8-10 mixed esters with dipenaterythritol, isooctanoic acid, pentaerythritol and tripentaerythritol (CAS 189200-42-8) and decanoic acid, ester with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol octanoate (CAS 11138-60-6). No toxicity was observed up to the limit of water solubility in the available studies. The studies adequately cover the variability of the PE ester group with regards to the different alcohol components and fatty acid chain lengths at both the lower and upper end of the category. Thus, the data gaps can be again confidently predicted by interpolation.

Three long-term studies with Daphnia magna are available for fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., esters with pentaerythritol (CAS 85711-45-1), decanoic acid, mixed esters with heptanoic acid, octanoic acid, pentaerythritol and valeric acid (CAS 71010-76-9) and decanoic acid, ester with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol octanoate (CAS 11138-60-6). The study with fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., esters with pentaerythritol (CAS 85711-45-1) was performed as a limit test according to OECD 211 and GLP (Schlechtriem, 2013). Exposure of Daphnia magna to a 1 mg/L WAF of the test substance had no statistically significant effect on reproduction. Therefore the NOEL is determined to be ≥ 1 mg/L. The GLP study with decanoic acid, mixed esters with heptanoic acid, octanoic acid, pentaerythritol and valeric acid (CAS 71010-76-9) was conducted under semi-static conditions according to OECD 211 using Daphnia magna as test organism (Letinski & Bragin, 2012). A nominal test concentration of 135 mg/L was applied in a limit test. No significant effect on reproduction was observed in the treatment throughout the test period of 21 d. Hence, the 21 d-NOELR is determined to be > 135 mg/L. The second study with decanoic acid, ester with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol octanoate (CAS 11138-60-6) was performed under semi-static conditions under GLP similar to OECD 211(Low, 1996). Daphnia magna was exposed to five nominal concentrations up to 2570 mg/L. No effects were observed up to the highest test concentration resulting in a NOELR of > 2570 mg/L based on reproduction and immobilization.

It can be concluded that the latter two substances can be seen as a worst case read-across approach based on the smaller fatty acid chain lengths (C5-C10) which probably exhibits a higher water solubility since the hydrocarbon chain lengths of the fatty acid is directly correlated with the water solubility (Lide, 2005).

In summary, based on these results from acute tests with fish, daphnia and algae as well as chronic tests with aquatic invertebrates, there is no convincing evidence that the other polyol esters category members lie out of the overall toxicity profile.

Toxicity to microorganisms was investigated in four GLP studies within the polyol PE group for decanoic acid, mixed esters with heptanoic acid, octanoic acid, pentaerythritol and valeric acid (CAS 71010-76-9), pentaerytritol tetraoleate (CAS 19321-40-5), pentaerythritol tetraisostearate (CAS 62125-22-8) and decanoic acid, ester with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol octanoate (CAS 11138-60-6). Additionally, toxicity controls of biodegradation studies for four substances (pentaerytritol tetraoleate (CAS 19321-40-5, pentaerythritol tetraisostearate (62125-22-8), fatty acids, lanolin, esters with pentaerythritol (68440-09-5) and fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsaturated, esters with pentaerythritol (85711-45-1)) were taken into consideration. No effects on O2-consumption and no effects on respiration of activated sludge microorganisms were observed. In combination with results from all other category members, the available biodegradation studies, it can be concluded that no effects on the STP microorganism community and the subsequent degradation process in sewage treatment plants is anticipated for the polyol esters category.

In conclusion, in the available studies for the PE esters show no effects on aquatic organisms were observed up to the water solubility in any of the three trophic levels (fish, aquatic invertebrates, algae), either in the short-term toxicity tests or in the long-term test with daphnids. The polyol esters category is a robust category with a large amount of reliable data which allows a conclusive overview about the overall ecotoxicological profile of all category members. In each case of read-across, the best suited read-across was chosen. Nevertheless, as it can be seen in the data matrix of the category justification in IUCLID Section 13, all reliable data in the category support the hazard assessment of each category member by showing a consistent pattern of results.

The polyols category was updated during the completion of the second phase of REACH registrations in 2013.Because of the large size of the category, and the impracticality of continued revision as new substances are registered, the Fatty Esters Umbrella Consortium agreed not to revise the category on an ongoing basis.For this practical reason, the registered substance has not been formally included into the Polyols Category, but may be considered a member of this category by means of the close relation to the existing Category members.

Like three existing members of the Polyols Category, the registered substance is identified by the CAS No. 68424-31-7. What sets this substance uniquely apart from those previously registered is the presence of C9 fatty acids in moderately low levels (5-10% of the total fatty acid pool).This subtle difference is not expected to lead to uniquely different physicochemical or toxicological properties. Furthermore, because the existing registered substances contain C5, 7, 8 and 10 fatty acids, the C9 is effectively bracketed by the other fatty acids also present in other registrations of CAS No. 68424-31-7.Therefore, while the registered substance is not explicitly included in the Polyols Category, it can be considered by interpolation with other substances bearing the same CAS identifiers. 

A detailed reference list is provided in the technical dossier (see IUCLID, section 13) and within the CSR

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