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EC number: 278-770-4
CAS number: 77804-81-0
No effects observed
The purpose of this Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test in Wistar rats by oral gavage was to determine the possible health hazards likely to arise from repeated exposure over a relatively limited period of time. Further, this study provides initial information on possible effects of test item on male and female reproductive performance such as gonadal function, mating behaviour, conception, development of the conceptus and parturition.
The test item was suspended in vehicle [0.5 % (w/v) of carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt (medium viscosity) in Milli-Q®water] and administered at the graduated dose levels of 111, 333 and 1000 mg/kg bwt/day for low dose (G2), mid dose (G3) and high dose (G4)/high dose recovery (G4R) group rats, respectively. The rats in the vehicle control (G1)/vehicle control recovery (G1R) groups received vehicle alone. The dose volume administered was 10 mL/kg body weight/day. Each main group in the experiment comprised of 10 male and 10 female rats and each recovery group comprised of 5 male and 5 female rats.
The dose formulations were administered once daily to a specific group of rats for two weeks prior to mating, during mating and post-mating periods (for males), during pregnancy and up to Lactation Day (LD) 13 for females.
The identity of the test item was provided by the Sponsor by a Certificate of Analysis (CoA). The authenticity of the test item was not determined at the test facility. The stability of the test item in the vehicle was established separately under Eurofins Advinus Study No. G19468 at 1 and 100 mg/mL. Based on the results, the test item was found to be stable and homogeneous in the vehicle for up to 48 hours when stored at room temperature.
During the conduct of this study, the prepared dose formulations were analysed for test item concentration prior to dosing on Day 1 and during Week 4 (Day 23) of the treatment period. The results indicated that the analysed concentrations were within ± 15 % variation from the claimed concentrations.
All rats were observed for clinical signs once daily. Body weight was recorded prior to the start of treatment on Day 1 and at weekly intervals thereafter. The body weights were also recorded at termination. Food consumption was recorded at weekly intervals except during the cohabitation period.
After confirmation of mating by vaginal smear, the dams were weighed on presumedGestation Days (GDs) 0, 7, 14 and 20 and the food consumption was recorded on GD 7, 14 and 20.
The littered dams were weighed on LDs 0, 4 and 13 and the food consumption was recorded on LD 4 and 13.
The number, survival and mortality of pups were observed during the lactation period. The body weight and ano-genital distance of each live pup was measured on LD 0. The size of each litter was adjusted by eliminating extra pups by random selection on LD 4 after recording the body weight of each live pup. After standardization, the individual pup body weight was recorded on LD 13. All the surviving male pups were examined for the appearance of nipples/areolae on LD 13.
Neurological examinations were conducted for randomly selected 5 main group females on LD 13 and randomly selected 5 main group males on treatment day 56 and towards the end of recovery period for the recovery group animals.
Laboratory investigations such as hematology, coagulation, clinical chemistry and urinalysis were performed on randomly selected 5 parental males and 5 parental females from each group at the end of the pre-mating period after overnight fasting. Thyroxine 4 (T4) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) analysis were performed in all main group males at termination, all dams on LD 13 and from available pups on LD 4 and 13.
At sacrifice, the parental males (Day 58), parental females (LD14) and the recovery animals (Day 65) were subjected to detailed necropsy after overnight fasting (water allowed) and the study plan specified tissues were collected. The pups were sacrificed on LD 13 after examining the external reproductive genitals for signs of altered development.
Tissues/organs collected from randomly selected 5 males and females in the control and high dose groups (including reproductive organs) were examined microscopically for histopathological changes. Histopathological examination of the testes also included a qualitative assessment of stages of spermatogenesis and interstitial testicular cell structure. All gross lesions were examined in all the groups.In the absence of test item related histopathological changes in any of the suspected tissues in the high dose group (G4), tissues from the lower dose groups were not evaluated. The available thyroid gland from a male and a female pup per litter (randomly selected) were also evaluated from all the groups.
Under the experimental conditions employed, the following results were obtained:
Clinical signs and Mortality:There were no treatment related clinical signs or mortality observed at any of the doses tested. The yellowish faeces were observed in the test item administered rats from treatment day 2 to end of treatment. It was not observed in the high dose recovery group rats from day 2 of recovery period. This clearly indicates that the yellowish coloured faecal matter was due to physical nature of the test item.
There were no abnormalities observed in pups.
Functional Observation Battery:No treatment-related neurological abnormalities were observed at any of the doses tested.
Body weights:The mean body weights and body weight gainswere unaffected by the treatment at all the tested doses in both sexes.
Food consumption:Treatment did not affect the food consumption at any of the tested doses in either sex.
Maternal body weights and food consumption:The maternal body weight and food consumption during gestation and lactation periods were unaffected by the treatment at all the tested doses.
Fertility parameters:Treatment had no effect on the pre-coital interval, gestation length, oestrous cycle length. The mating and fertility parameters in both sexes were unaffected by the treatment.
Litter parameters:There were no treatment-related effects on the uterine/implantation data, mean litter size and mean viable litter size. There were no external abnormalities in live or dead pups in any of the groups. No treatment-related changes in the ano-genital distance, ano-genital ratio, pup body weights were observed at any of the doses tested when compared to the control. The male pups did not exhibit areola/nipple retention on LD 13 at any of the doses tested.
Haematology, Coagulation, Clinical chemistry and Urine Parameters:No test item-related changes were observed in the haematology, coagulation, clinical chemistry, and urine parameters at all the doses tested in both sexes.
Hormone analysis:The thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine (T4) levels in adult rats and pups remained unaffected by test item administration.
Terminal fasting body weights, organ weights and its ratios:There were no test item-related changes in terminal fasting body weights, organ weight and their ratios in adult male and female rats of all groups compared to the control group.There were no significant intergroup differences observed in the terminal body weights and thyroid gland weights in male/female pups.
Gross and histopathology:
Grossly noted yellow contents in intestinal segments ≥333 mg/kg bwt/day were attributed to the test item colour.
There were no test item-related adverse histopathological changes observed either in parents or the offspring. The staging of spermatogenesis did not reveal any stage specific changes in testes and the spermatogenic cycles observed in the different seminiferous tubules were complete. The qualitative assessment of stages of spermatogenesis and evaluation of interstitial testicular structures did not reveal any test item associated findings in parental rats.
In view of the results observed:
As there were no treatment related effects on systemic, reproduction and fertility parameters up to and including the highest dose tested 1000 mg/kg bwt/day, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test by Oral Gavage in Wistar ratsfor the test itemHostaperm-Gelb H6G (C. I. Pigment Yellow 175) is determined to be 1000 mg/kg bwt/dayunder the test conditions and doses employed.
Based on the findings of a study on a close structural ananlogue (PO 36)according to OECD TG 414 in rats, it is concluded that the No Observed Adverse- Effect Level (NOAEL) for :
• Maternal toxicity is 1000 mg/kg/day as the maternal body weight and weight gain, corrected body weight gain and food consumption was unaffected up to 1000 mg/kg/day.
• Fetal developmental toxicity and Teratogencity is 1000 mg/kg/day as fetal resorptions or post implantation loss were comparable to the controls, no effects on fetal body weights and further the fetal external, visceral and skeletal examinations revealed no signs of teratogenicity or developmental toxicity up to 1000 mg/kg/day
The same result was found in a screening study according to OECD TG 422
The objective of this study was to evaluate the developmental toxicity (teratogenic) potential of the test item C.I. Pigment Orange 36 to cause adverse effects on the pregnant female rats and development of the embryo and fetus consequent to exposure of C.I. Pigment Orange 36 to pregnant rats by oral route during gestation days (GD) 5 to 19. This study was intended to provide a rational basis for risk assessment in humans and to establish a No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for maternal and developmental toxicity in rats.
A total of 96Day 0 pregnant ratswere randomly divided into different groups according to the study design as follows:
Dosage volume (mL/kg)
No. of Day 0 pregnant rats
*0.5 % Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium salt (medium viscosity) in Milli-Q®Water
The following parameters and end points were evaluated in this study: Clinical signs, body weights, body weight gains, food consumption, gross pathology, gravid uterine weights, intrauterine growth and survival,number of corpora lutea, and fetal parameters [sex, weight and anogenital distance, and external, visceral and skeletal observations].Approximately half of the fetuses from each litter were examined for visceral malformations and the remaining half were evaluated for skeletal malformations. In addition, from each dam the thyroids were weighed and subjected to microscopic evaluation, and thyroid hormones were estimated from the blood collected at terminal sacrifie (GD20).
Results of the study are summarized below:
· Clinical signs and gross necropsy changes: There were no clinical signs, or mortalities in treated rats at any of the doses tested.Expected light to dark orange coloured faeces were observed in the test item treated groups which can be accounted for the physical nature of the test item.
Grossly, orangecontents noted in cecum at 333 and 1000 mg/kg/day and in ileum and colon at 1000 mg/kg/day was also related to the physical nature of test item and there were no other gross findings in the intestinal mucosa.
· Maternal Parameters: No treatment-related effects on maternal body weights and food consumption up to the highest tested dose of 1000 mg/kg/day. The other maternal parameters comprising of uterine weight, implantations and early and late resorptions, post implantation loss were comparable to vehicle control group up to the high dose of 1000 mg/kg/day. Gross evaluation of placenta revealed no remarkable findings.
· Litter Parameters: No treatment-related effects on litter parameters comprising of total number of fetuses, fetal weights, anogenital distance in male and female fetuses, were observed.
· Fetal examination: The fetal external, visceral and skeletal examinations revealed no signs of teratogenicity or developmental toxicity up to 1000 mg/kg/day.
· Thyroid hormone levels (T3, T4 and TSH), thyroid gland weights and histology of thyroid gland were unaffected by treatment with C.I. Pigment Orange 36 up to the highest dose of 1000 mg/kg/day.
Based on the above findings, it is concluded that, No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for
· Maternal toxicity is1000 mg/kg/dayas the maternal body weight and weight gain, corrected body weight gain and food consumption was unaffected up to 1000 mg/kg/day.
Fetal developmental toxicity and Teratogencity is1000 mg/kg/dayas fetal resorptions or post implantation loss were comparable to the controls, no effects on fetal body weights and further the fetal external, visceral and skeletal examinations revealed no signs of teratogenicity or developmental toxicity up to 1000 mg/kg/day
The day of confirmed mating (sperm positive vaginal smear or presence of vaginal plug) was designated as GD 0.
No classification: No adverse effects observed
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