Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Effects on fertility

Description of key information

No full animal studies are available on effects on fertility. No indications for reproduction toxicity are indicated by results form available 90-day study on C12-14-diamine and a developmental study on Oleyl-diamine. Possible exposures are very limited due to the characteristics of the substance.

Effect on fertility: via oral route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Effect on fertility: via inhalation route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Effect on fertility: via dermal route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Additional information

There are no reproduction studies available with N-C12,14 alkyl-1,3-diaminopropane (CAS 90640-43-0), also referred to as C12-14-diamine.

No adverse effects on reproductive organs were identified in the 90 day study in rats on C12-14-diamine. This study was performed according to OECD 408 and does not include detailed reproductive parameters as indicated in OECD 416. Nevertheless, the 90 day study did not indicate any effects on weight of testes, prostate, seminal vesicles, ovaries, and uterus. Histological examination of these tissues also confirmed no treatment-related effects. There was a very slight increase in relative weight of the epididymis in the high dose animals but there were no corresponding histological changes. There was also no indication of a dose-response relationship. Accordingly, the effect on epididymis is not believed to be treatment related.

Additional data is available from Oleyl-diamine and from other polyamines. Cross-reading from this substance is acceptable on the basis of identical alkyl-diamine structure, resulting to the same functional groups with similar properties leading to common biological activity, and common metabolic degradation. Further information on the applicability of the read-across from various diamines and other polyamines to C12/14-diamine can be obtained from the document "Category polyamines - 20170314.pdf" added to IUCLID Ch. 13.

A developmental toxicity study performed on Oleyl-diamine also included endpoints relevant to assessing an effect on fertility. No effects on pre/post implantation rate, late/early resorptions, corpora lutea or number of live fetuses were seen in this study. Although the available data on Oleyl-diamine does not include information on sperm parameters and oestrus cycle, it supports the conclusion that there are no indications of an effect of diamines on fertility.

 

The table below further presents available data from reproduction toxicity studies in rat on various polyamines:

Sub-group

Alkyl chain

Study

Results NOAEL (in mg/kg bw/d)

Diamines

Oleyl

Development rat (OECD 414)

No effects on pre/post implantation rate, late/early resorptions, corpora lutea or number of live fetuses were seen in this study.

There was a slight increase in visceral and skeletal variations. No malformations were observed.

NOAEL development: 1.25 mg

Triamines

Coco

OECD 422

NOAEL reproduction and development: 30 mg (highest dose since all animals were sacrificed at 100 mg/kg/day, and hence no potential effect on reproductive/developmental parameters could be determined at this dose level.)

 

Tallow

Development rat (OECD 414)

NOAEL maternal = 30 mg/kg based on signs of toxicity and lower BW seen from 60 mg/kg.

NOAEL development: 30 mg/kg, based on the observation of pale adrenals in 7 foetuses, and signs of retarded skeletal ossification seen at 60 and 120 mg/kg.

Y-triamines

C12

Development rat (OECD 414)

NOAEL maternal = 7.5 mg

NOAEL development = 22.5 mg, based on secondary effects due to maternal toxicity observed in the foetuses (increase in incidence of early embryonic deaths and slightly decreased mean foetal weight seen at 60 mg).

 

 

Development rabbit (OECD 414)

NOAEL maternal = 9 mg

NOAEL teratology > 20 mg

NOAEL development = 9 mg, based on incidence of resorptions suggesting early embryonic deaths secondary to maternal toxicity seen at 20 mg.

 

 

2-Gen reproduction (OECD 416)

NOAEL maternal, F1 and F2: 9 mg. Based on reduced body weight gain, clinical signs of reaction to treatment at higher levels. There were no obvious adverse effects on mating and littering performance at any of the levels tested.

Tetramines

Tallow

OECD 422

NOAEL reproduction and development: 100 mg (highest dose since all animals were sacrificed at 300 mg/kg/day, and hence no potential effect on reproductive/developmental parameters could be determined at this dose level.)

 

Additionally, no adverse effects on reproductive organs were identified in any of the available repeated dose studies on Polyamines.

There are various reproduction screening studies, a full 2-generation study and various developmental toxicity studies available, covering the range of Polyamines, that show a clear lack for concern for reproduction toxicity.

 

 

N-C12,14 alkyl-1,3-diaminopropane is a fluid/paste with mp of 27°C and has a vapour pressure of 0.0015 Pa at 20°C. Its use is limited to industrial and professional users and does not involve the forming of aerosols, particles or droplets of an inhalable size. So exposure to humans via the inhalation route will be unlikely to occur.

Manufacture and use are highly controlled. Its use is limited to industrial and professional users where following its severe corrosive properties sufficient protection measures will be in place to prevent exposure. Furthermore, diamines are not expected to easily pass the skin, and in view of their severe corrosive properties, testing via dermal route for developmental toxicity is not a first choice.

In addition, there is no consumer exposure to C12 -14 -diamine.

Effects on developmental toxicity

Description of key information

Prenatal developmental toxicity (OECD 414, GLP) is available on Oleyl-diamine: NOAEL for embryo-fetal toxicity was found to be 20 mg/ kg body weight.

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
developmental toxicity
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2008-05-14 - 2010-04-27
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP - Guideline study
Justification for type of information:
Further information on the applicability of the read-across from various diamines to C12/14-diamine can be obtained from the document "Category polyamines - 20170314.pdf" added to IUCLID Ch. 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 414 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EU Method B.31 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Janvier S.A.S, Route des Chênes secs-B.P.4105-53941 LE GENEST-ST-ISLE-France
- Age at study initiation: 11 - 12 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: within ± 20% of the mean weight (no more information given)
- Housing: The animals were housed individually in IVC cages (except during mating
period where 2 females were paired with one male), type III H, polysulphone cages on Altromin saw fiber bedding
- Diet: Free access to Altromin 1324 maintenance diet for rats and mice
- Water: Free access to tap water, sulphur acidified to a pH of approximately 2.8 (drinking water, municipal residue control, microbiol. controlled periodically)
- Acclimation period: 5 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 22 ± 3 °C
- Humidity (%): 55 ± 10%
- Air changes (per hr): 10 x / hour
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): Artificial light, sequence being 12 hours light, 12 hours dark

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
corn oil
Details on exposure:
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS:
The test item was dissolved or suspended corn oil. The vehicle was chosen as suggested by sponsor and the test item’s solubility. The test item formulation was prepared freshly on each administration day before the administration procedure.

VEHICLE
- Lot/batch no. (if required): 058K0070 and 128K0040 (Sigma)

- Administered dose volume: 4 mL/kg bw
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
The assessment of homogeneity as well as a determination of the nominal concentration of the test item in the vehicle was performed at specified intervals. Analysis of the dose formulations of the test item in the vehicle (nominal concentration) was performed in the first and last week of the study for all doses. Samples for homogeneity were taken from the top, middle and bottom of the high dose and low dose preparation. The determination was performed in the first and last week of the study. The dose formulation analysis was performed at BSL BIOSERVICE Scientific Laboratories GmbH under the BSL study Nr. 081567.
Details on mating procedure:
- Impregnation procedure: cohoused
- if cohoused:
- M/F ratio per cage: 1/2
- Length of cohabitation: overnight
- Proof of pregnancy: vaginal plug / sperm in vaginal smear referred to as day 0 of pregnancy
Duration of treatment / exposure:
The test item was administered to sperm positive females (presumed pregnant) from respective GD 0 to GD 19.
Frequency of treatment:
daily
Duration of test:
Duration of test: 20 days (animals were killed on day 20)
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
1.25, 5.0, 20.0 mg/kg bw
Basis:
actual ingested
No. of animals per sex per dose:
20
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Maternal examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: No data

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: Each animal was observed twice daily during entire gestation period except during weekends and holidays where clinical observation was made only once. Mortality, morbidity, pertinent behavioural changes and all signs of overt toxicity were recorded.

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: The sperm positive females were weighed during GD 0, 3, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17 and 20. Males were not weighed in this study.

FOOD CONSUMPTION: Yes
- Food consumption of sperm positive females was measured on respective GD 3, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17 and 20.

POST-MORTEM EXAMINATIONS: Yes
- Sacrifice on gestation day 20
- Organs examined: uterus, ovaries

OTHER:
- Inflammatory Markers:
Serum samples were collected at terminal sacrifice from all females and stored at ≤ -20 °C for the possible analysis of inflammatory markers by ELISA technique.
Ovaries and uterine content:
The ovaries and uterine content was examined after termination: Yes
Examinations included:
- Gravid uterus weight: Yes
- Number of corpora lutea: Yes
- Number of implantations: Yes
- Number of early resorptions: Yes
- Number of late resorptions: Yes
Fetal examinations:
- External examinations: Yes: all per litter
- Soft tissue examinations: Yes: half per litter
- Skeletal examinations: Yes: half per litter
- Head examinations: Yes
Statistics:
For statistical analysis one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett’s multiple comparison test was carried out to reveal any differences between control and test groups. Statistical significance for fetal anamolies were determined by Chi Square analysis. Statistical analysis was performed with GraphPad Prism (Version V) software (p < 0.05 was considered as statistical significant).
Details on maternal toxic effects:
Maternal toxic effects:yes

Details on maternal toxic effects:
Test item related clinical signs were observed in high dose females during the entire treatment period. 4 decedents were found (1 in the MD and 3 in the HD group). But the death of only 2 animals might be considered due to toxicity. Statistically significant decrease for the body weight and for the food consumption in the HD group was observed. Also statistical anlysis of parental data revealed significance in the parental parameters gravid uterus weight and adjusted maternal weight in HD group compared to corresponding controls. Decrease in pregnancy rate was observed in HD group (69.56% compared to LD (96%), MD (96.8%) and, control (95.8%)).
The terminally sacrificed animals belonging to the HD group revealed incidences of few lesions at necropsy, which were as gas filled stomach and intestine, whitish spots on adrenals, discoloured liver, small spleen and thymus, enlarged adrenals, bloody lung, discoloured heart, bloody lung.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1.25 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: maternal toxicity
Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:yes

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Few gross abnormalities were seen in fetuses among the control and the treatment groups. Typical external finding noted were protruding tongue,
malrotated limbs, micrognathia, edematous neck, small neck and hematoma (localised). But no statistical deviation was observed for these above findings except for hematoma which were localised and did not show dose related pattern.
Internal observation of the viscera by free hand micro discussion technique revealed range of visceral abnormalities in all groups including control.
However, the statistical analysis revealed differences for findings viz., hemorrhagic kidney-bilateral (HD group), convoluted ureter-bilateral (HD
group), dilated renal pelvis-left side (MD group), split thymus (MD), small spleen (MD group). Most of the above findings (except for hemorrhagic kidney and convoluted ureter in HD group) were not attributed to toxicity due to lack of dose dependent effect.
Skeletal examination of the Alizarin red stained fetuses revealed a range of abnormalities which were of a type or which occurred at an incidence in both treatment and control groups. The statistical difference observed for supernumerary 14th rib-right side –bilaterally (MD group) and right (HD group), large naso-frontal suture (MD group), incomplete ossification of 4th sternebrum (LD group), split interparietal (HD group) and small hyoid (HD group) were attributed to toxicity, but the statistical difference observed for other anamalies were not considered of toxicological relevance due to lack of dose related pattern.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
20 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: fetotoxicity
Abnormalities:
not specified
Developmental effects observed:
not specified

Summary of clinical observations

Clinical Finding

Group

C (0 mg/kg)

LD (1.25 mg/kg)

MD (5 mg/kg)

HD (20 mg/kg)

Total number of animals examined

24

25

25

26

Regurgitation

0

1

1

0

Dyspnoea

0

1

0

1

Moving the bedding

0

0

2

1

Salivation

0

0

3

15

Vocalization

0

0

4

9

Sneezing

0

0

0

4

Bloody nasal discharge

0

0

0

1

Weight loss

0

0

0

5

Piloerection

0

0

0

3

Half eye lid closure

0

0

0

1

Apnoea

0

0

0

2

Swollen abdomen

0

0

0

1

Swollen snout

0

0

0

1

Cyanosis

0

0

0

1

Diarrhea

0

0

0

1

Summary of prenatal data

Parameters

 

C (0 mg/kg)

LD (1.25 mg/kg)

MD (5 mg/kg)

HD (20 mg/kg)

Terminal Body weight (g)

Mean

± SD

N

420.17

24.94

23

412.33

38.72

24

408.83

24.85

23

369.13*

53.44

16

Uterus weight (g)

Mean

± SD

N

73.16

13.83

23

68.79

26.44

24

74.52

16.57

23

67.5*

24.25

16

Adjusted maternal weight (g)

Mean

± SD

N

347.04

20.66

23

343.54

19.42

24

334.3

18.97

23

301.63*

34.13

16

Corpora lutea

Mean

± SD

N

14.26

1.48

23

14.88

2.76

24

15.0

2.58

23

15.19

1.42

16

Implantation

Mean

± SD

N

12.74

2.14

23

12.63

4.22

24

12.74

3.15

23

13.5

3.2

16

Live Fetuses

Mean

± SD

N

12.22

2.26

23

11.75

4.70

24

12.74

3.15

23

11.88

4.5

16

Early resorptions

Mean

± SD

N

0.48

0.79

23

0.88

1.03

24

0.52

0.9

23

0.75

1.44

16

Late resorptions

Mean

± SD

N

0.04

0.21

23

0.0

0.0

24

0.0

0.0

23

0.88

3.5

16

Total resorptions

Mean

± SD

N

0.52

0.79

23

0.88

1.03

24

0.52

0.9

23

1.63

3.59

16

Dead Fetuses

Mean

± SD

N

0.0

0.0

23

0.04

0.2

24

0.09

0.29

23

0.0

0.0

16

Sex Ratio (M/F)

Mean

± SD

N

2.27

2.37

23

0.96*

0.61

23

1.02*

0.66

22

12.67

3.31

15

Pre-implantation loss

Mean

± SD

N

10.86

10.55

23

16.96

22.51

24

15.17

15.3

23

11.07

19.09

16

Post-implantation loss

Mean

± SD

N

4.24

6.04

23

11.88

22.48

24

0.0

0.0

23

11.38

25.65

16

Summary of Fetal Visceral Examination

Observations

Group

Control

Low Dose

Mid Dose

High Dose

Dose

0 mg/kg bw

1.25 mg/kg bw

5 mg/kg bw

20 mg/kg bw

No. Of litters evaluated

23

24

23

16

No. Of pups evaluated

147

147

152

99

 

A

B

A

B

A

B

A

B

Hemorrhagic Kidney (B)

0

0.0

1*

0.75

3

2.11

5

5.49

Convoluted Ureter (B)

7

5.19

11

8.21

16

11.27

15*

16.48

Dilated Renal Pelvis (L)

0

0.0

3

2.24

5*

3.52

0

0.0

                Thymus

0

0.0

2

1.49

4*

2.82

1

1.1

Small Spleen

2

1.48

2

1.49

9*

6.34

2

2.2

Summary of Fetal Skeletal Examination

Observations

Group

Control

Low Dose

Mid Dose

High Dose

Dose

0 mg/kg bw

1.25 mg/kg bw

5 mg/kg bw

20 mg/kg bw

No. Of litters evaluated

23

24

23

16

No. Of pups evaluated

147

147

152

99

 

A

B

A

B

A

B

A

B

Supernumerary rib-14th T (B)

6

4.08

10

6.8

24*

15.79

4

4.04

Supernumerary rib-14th T (R)

2

1.36

8

5.44

8

5.26

6*

6.06

Large-NasoFrontal Suture

0

0.0

1

0.68

5*

3.29

0

0.0

IO-4th Sternerbum

0

0.0

5*

3.4

1

0.66

0

0.0

Split-Interparietal

15

10.2

13

8.84

18

11.84

19*

19.19

Small-Hyoid

0

0.0

2

1.36

3

1.97

3*

3.03

Conclusions:
Based on the findings, the NOAEL (No observed adverse effect level) for maternal toxicity is believed to be 1.25 mg/ kg body weight based on clinical observations seen in some animals at 5 mg/kg, whereas the NOAEL for embryo-fetal toxicity is believed to be 20 mg/ kg body weight.
Executive summary:

This Prenatal developmental toxicity study of N-Oleyl-1,3-diaminopropane was conducted in pregnant female Wistar rats to detect the possible adverse effect on pregnant females and embryofetal development when administered by oral gavage from respective gestation day 0 to 19.

Nulliparous and non pregnant females were mated with males (2:1 ratio) and divided into four groups based on their body weights on day of positive vaginal smears (GD 0). Four groups of presumed pregnant females were dosed daily by oral gavage with 1.25, 5 and 20 mg/kg body weight per day of N-Oleyl-1,3-diaminopropane at dose volume of 4 mL/kg body weight. Control animals were handled identically as treated groups and received vehicle in similar volume as treated groups. The test item formulation was prepared freshly and dose volumes were adjusted based on the most recent body weight measurement. Animals were examined daily for the clinical signs and mortality. Body weight and food consumption was measured on various gestation days. The treated and control females were sacrificed on respective gestation day 20.

Followed by the gross necropsy evaluation of the females, the uteri and ovaries were removed, weighed and examined for number of implantations, resorptions (early and late) live and dead fetuses. Fetuses were identified by colour strings, sexed and weighed. All fetuses were observed for the external abnormalities, half of the fetuses for the visceral abnormalities, craniofacial examination and remain half of the litter for skeletal abnormalities. Uteri of the non pregnant females were processed with 0.5 % ammonium sulphide solution and checked for the early embryonic deaths if any.

 

Results:

Test item related clinical signs were observed in high dose females during the entire treatment period. Also effects on clinical observations were observed in animals of the MD group.

However, there were four decedents in this study [1 in MD group (Animal 62) and 3 in HD group (Animals 80, 82 and 98)]. Animal no. 82 was euthanised for humane reason. The death of two animals (Animals 62 and 98) were considered due to gavaging error and other two (Animals 80 and 82) might be considered due to toxicity. 

Statistically significant decrease was observed for body weight and body weight change throughout the gestation period in HD group.  Statistically significant decrease in overall food consumption was observed in HD group compared to corresponding control. Statistical analysis of prenatal data revealed significance in prenatal parameters like gravid uterus weight and adjusted maternal weight in HD group compared to corresponding controls. No other prenatal parameters like No. of corpora lutea, implantations percent preimplantation loss, group mean number of live fetuses, early resorptions, late resorptions, total resorptions, group mean number of female fetuses, sex ratio (M/F) and percent post implantation loss showed statistical deviation compared to corresponding controls.

 

Statistically significant difference was observed for group male litter weight (LD group), sex ratio (LD and MD groups) and total number of male fetuses (LD group) compared with controls. These findings were not attributed to toxicity as no dose related pattern was observed. Decrease in pregnancy rate was observed in HD group (69.56%) as compared to LD (96%), MD (95.8%), and control (95.8%).

Few gross external abnormalities were seen in fetuses among the control and treatment groups. Typical external findings noted were protruding tongue, malrotated limbs, micrognathia, edematous neck, small neck and hematoma (localised).But no statistical deviation was observed for these above findings except for hematoma which were localised and did not show dose related pattern.

Internal observation of the viscera by free hand micro discussion technique revealed range of visceral abnormalities in all groups including control. However, the statistical analysis revealed differences for findings viz., hemorrhagic kidney-bilateral (HD group), convoluted ureter-bilateral (HD group), dilated renal pelvis-left side (MD group), split thymus (MD), small spleen (MD group). Most of the above findings (except for hemorrhagic kidney and convoluted ureter in HD group) were not attributed to toxicity due to lack of dose dependent effect.

Craniofacial examination by razor blade serial sectioning technique revealed no statistical significant difference for any of the findings observed in treatment and control groups. 

Skeletal examination of the Alizarin red stained fetuses revealed a range of abnormalities which were of a type or which occurred at an incidence in both treatment and control groups. The statistical difference observed for supernumerary 14th rib-right side-bilaterally (MD group) and right (HD group), large naso-frontal suture (MD group), incomplete ossification of 4th sternebrum (LD group), split interparietal (HD group) and small hyoid (HD group) were attributed to toxicity, but the statistical difference observed for other anomalies were not considered of toxicological relevance due to lack of dose related pattern.

The terminally sacrificed animals belonging to the HD group revealed incidences of few lesions at necropsy, which were as gas filled stomach and intestine, whitish spots on adrenals, discoloured liver, small spleen and thymus, enlarged adrenals, bloody lung, discoloured heart, bloody lung. The finding like dark coloured food rest in caecum observed in most of the animals of control and treatment groups cannot be considered as toxicity related and in most of the animals this finding observed was not reported.

 

Based on the findings, the NOAEL (No observed adverse effect level) for maternal toxicity is believed to be 1.25 mg/ kg body weight based on clinical observations seen in some animals at 5 mg/kg, whereas the NOAEL for embryo-fetal toxicity is believed to be 20 mg/ kg body weight.

Effect on developmental toxicity: via oral route
Endpoint conclusion:
adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
20 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
subacute
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
The study is GLP compliant and has Klimisch score 1. Although based on Oleyl-diamine, the results are relevant for C12-14-diamine.
Effect on developmental toxicity: via inhalation route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Effect on developmental toxicity: via dermal route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Additional information

No study was available on N-C12,14 alkyl-1,3-diaminopropane (CAS 90640-43-0), also referred to as C12-14-diamine. However, a study according to the OECD 414 guideline and under GLP conditions is available with (Z)-N-9-octadecenyl-1,3-diaminopropane (Oleyl-diamine).

Cross-reading from this substance is acceptable on the basis of similarities of structure with same functional groups, properties leading to common biological activity, and common metabolic degradation. The higher level of unsaturation in oleyl-alkyl chains can be considered a worst case representation. Further information on the applicability of the read-across from various diamines to C12/14-diamine can be obtained from the document "Category polyamines - 20170314.pdf" added to IUCLID Ch. 13.

This study was performed by dosing pregnant rats from day 0-19 of gestation with either 0, 1.25, 5 or 20 mg/kg bw of (Z)-N-9-octadecenyl-1,3-diaminopropane (Oleyl-diamine). The animals were then sacrificed and the fetuses subject to external, visceral and skeletal examination. There was a slight increase in visceral and skeletal variations. No malformations were observed. Neither of the variations are considered to be of toxicological relevance as there were no dose-response pattern. Maternal toxicity including deaths in the high dose group, reduced bodyweight gain and reduced pregnancy rate were observed.

The NOAEL (No observed adverse effect level) for maternal toxicity is believed to be 1.25 mg/ kg body weight based on clinical observations seen in some animals at 5 mg/kg, whereas the NOAEL for embryo-fetal toxicity is believed to be 20 mg/ kg body weight.

N-C12,14 alkyl-1,3-diaminopropane is a fluid/paste with mp of 27°C and has a vapour pressure of 0.0015 Pa at 20°C. Its use is limited to industrial and professional users and does not involve the forming of aerosols, particles or droplets of an inhalable size. So exposure to humans via the inhalation route will be unlikely to occur.

Manufacture and use are highly controlled. Its use is limited to industrial and professional users where following its severe corrosive properties will provide for sufficient protection measures to prevent exposure. Furthermore, diamines arenot expected to easily pass the skin, and in view of their severe corrosive properties, testing via dermal route for developmental toxicity is not a first choice.

Mode of Action Analysis / Human Relevance Framework

Based on structure and mechanism of cytotoxicity, reproduction toxicity is not expected. The observed effects are local, reflecting a point-of-first-contact effect.

In physiological circumstances, the diamines have a cationic surfactant structure (nitrogens are fully protonated) which leads to high adsorptive properties to negatively charged surfaces as cellular membranes. The apolar hydrophobic tails are pushed out of solution and easily dissolve in the lipid bilayer, whereas the polar head causes disruption and leakage of the membranes leading to cell damage or lysis of the cell content. As a consequence, the whole molecule will not easily pass membrane structures. Cytotoxicity through disruption of cell membrane at exposure site will occur rather than absorption over the cell membrane. Consequently, significant uptake followed by placental transfer is not expected to occur.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Adequate study data is only available for developmental toxicity from a valid OECD 414 guideline compliant study, showing no specific concerns for developmental toxicity. Further information from repeated dose studies up to 90-days OECD 408 performed on C12-14-diamine showed no indication of concern with respect to reproductive organs evaluated, and also the developmental toxicity study did not show effects on reproductive parameters. Also the available data within the category of polyamines, substances with comparable structure and Mode of Action, do not indicate a concern for reproduction toxicity.

In addition, there are no consumer exposures to C12-14-diamine. Further, manufacture and use are highly controlled. Its use is limited to industrial and professional users where following its severe corrosive properties the applied protection measures will provide for sufficient protection to prevent exposure.

However, as a firm conclusion from a study with this compound is lacking, no definite conclusion might be drawn for classification purposes.

But based on limited exposures by dermal route (substance is severely irritating/ corrosive) or by inhalation (very low vapour pressure), as well as lack of indication for concerns regarding reproductive toxicity from repeated dose studies and a developmental toxicity study there are no concerns and further testing is not indicated.