Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Endpoint:
in vivo mammalian somatic cell study: cytogenicity / erythrocyte micronucleus
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: chromosome aberration
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1991
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study performed under GLP and according to standard protocol.
Justification for type of information:
Further information on the applicability of the read-across from various diamines to C12/14-diamine can be obtained from the document "Category polyamines - 20170314.pdf" added to IUCLID Ch. 13.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
1991
Report Date:
1991

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: 40 CFR Part 158 US-EPA-FIFRA, Section 158.340, Guideline 84-3
Principles of method if other than guideline:
This method is similar to OECD474. The humidity was out of the recommended range of 50-60%. It was8-53% this deviation is not thought to have influenced the outcome of the study.
GLP compliance:
yes
Type of assay:
micronucleus assay

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Test material form:
semi-solid (amorphous): gel
Remarks:
migrated information: paste
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Duomeen C
- Chemical name: N-Coco-1,3-diaminopropane, CAS 61791-63-7 (not indicated in the report)
- Substance type: White-paste like solid
- Physical state: solid
- Analytical purity: not indicated
- Impurities (identity and concentrations): no data
- Composition of test material, percentage of components: no data
- Purity test date: no data
- Lot/batch No.: 1090225M01
- Expiration date of the lot/batch: no data
- Stability under test conditions: test substance changed to a clear, yellow liquid after being placed in the water bath prior to test substance dilutions
- Storage condition of test material: stored in a secondary container at room temperature.

Test animals

Species:
mouse
Strain:
Swiss Webster
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River Breeding Laboratories, Inc.
- Age at study initiation: Approximately 6 weeks (born on approximately November 21, 1990)
- Weight at study initiation: one or two mice from each cage were selected randomly to be weighed. The weights of 17 male mice ranged from 21.8 to 26.7 g and those of 15 female mice from 18.7 to 22.7 g at the time of receipt.
- Assigned to test groups randomly: yes
- Fasting period before study: no data
- Housing: Mice were housed no more than 10 to a cage dufing quarantine, 3 to a cage for the range-finding assay, and 5 to a cage during the definitive assay. Polycarbmate cages with hardwood-chip bedding were used throughout the study.
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum; Purina Certified Rodent Chow #5002 ad libitum. Purina Mills, Inc., St. muis, MO. Lot no. NOV05901C.
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): Deionized tap water ad libitum via an automatic watering system.
- Acclimation period: 7 days


ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 20-25.5
- Humidity (%): 8-53
- Air changes (per hr): no data
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12 hours light/l2 hours dark


IN-LIFE DATES: From: 1990-11-10 To: -

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
- Vehicle(s)/solvent(s) used: corn oil
- Justification for choice of solvent/vehicle: standard; well-known, non-toxic
- Concentration of test material in vehicle: no data
- Amount of vehicle (if gavage or dermal): 10ml/kg
- Lot/batch no. (if required): M05X1
- Purity: no data
Details on exposure:
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS:
The test chemical was mixed well in corn oil immediately before dosing.
Assays to verify concentration, stability, and homogeneity of the test substance in the carrier vehicle were not performed.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Animals w ill be dosed once each day on two consecutive days.
Frequency of treatment:
Animals w ill be dosed once each day on two consecutive days.
Post exposure period:
Animals are sacrificed 24 or 48 hours after the second dose.
Doses / concentrationsopen allclose all
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
range finding: 0, 150, 300, 600, 1200, 2500, or 5000 mg/kg day
Basis:
other: administered by gavage
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
main study:0, 31.3, 62.5, or 125 mg/kg/day
Basis:
other: administered by gavage
No. of animals per sex per dose:
range finding: 3
main study: 10
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Positive control(s):
benzene
- Justification for choice of positive control(s): known clastogen
- Route of administration: oral gavage in corn oil
- Doses / concentrations: 500 mg/kg day
administered to male mice only

Examinations

Tissues and cell types examined:
Peripheral blood smears were analyzed for the polychromatic erythrocyte (PCE) to red blood cell (RBC) ratio in the range-finding assay. Bone marrow smears were analyzed for micronucleus in both the range-finding and definitive assays.
Details of tissue and slide preparation:
CRITERIA FOR DOSE SELECTION: range finding study
TREATMENT AND SAMPLING TIMES: no additional data
DETAILS OF SLIDE PREPARATION:
Peripheral blood smears were analyzed for the polychromatic erythrocyte (PCE) to red blood cell (RBC) ratio in the range-finding assay. Blood samples were obtained by pricking the ventral tail vessel with a 25-gauge needle and drawing 2-3 µl of blood into a capillary lube. The sample was transferred to three clean, prelabeled microscope slides per mouse, spread, air-dried, fixed in absolute methanol for 5 minutes, and stored until staining. Two of the three prepared slides were coded, Both coded slides from each test animal were visually examined, and the slide with the most uniform
preparation of smear was stained with acridine orange. Unstained slides were filed for future use should extras be needed.

Bone marrow smears were analyzed in both the range-finding and definitive assays. The right femur from each mouse was removed and
flushed gently with 0.2 ml of fetal bovine serum (FBS) into 0.5 ml of FBS in a 2-ml conical polycarbonate tube. Cells were concentrated by
centrifugation and then resuspended in an equal volume of supernate. The sample was transferred to three clean, prelabeled microscope
slides per mouse, spread, air-dried, fixed in absolute methanol for 5 minutes, and stored until staining. Two of the three prepared slides
were coded. Both coded slides from each test animal were visually examined, and the slide with the most uniform preparation of smear was
stained with acridine orange. Unstained slides were filed for future use should extras be needed.
METHOD OF ANALYSIS:
Peripheral blood smears and bone marrow smears were evaluated using epifluorescence microscopy.

Other: Criteria for a Valid Assay
The data from this assay were considered acceptable if
(1) the frequency of micronucleated cells in the vehicle control group was within the normal historical range,
(2) administration of the positive
control substance resulted in a statistically significant elevation of micronucleated cells
(3) there were at least three surviving animals of each sex with a percentage of RNA-positive erythrocytes greater than or equal to 15% of the control value.
Evaluation criteria:
In the range-finding assay, peripheral blood smears and bone marrow smears were analyzed for the number of RNA-positive polychromatic erythrocytes in at least 500 and 200 erythrocytes, respectively, per animal, In the definitive assay, two parameters were determined in the bone marrow smears: (1) the number of micronucleated RNA-positive erythrocytes in at least 1000 RNA-positive erythrocytes per animal, which provides an index of - chromosomal damage; and (2) the number of RNA-positive erythrocytes in at least 200 erythrocytes per animal, which provides an index of cytotoxicity to the nucleated erythrocyte precursors.
The criteria used for MN are those described by Schmid (1976), with the additional requirement that the MN exhibit fluorescence characteristic of the stain used (i.e., bright yellow in the case of acridine orange). The ratio of RNA-containing erythrocytes to mature erythrocytes (RBC) was based on the number of RNA-positive cells in approximately 200 erythrocytes. Data from a given slide were directly captured by an IBM PC computer data file during scoring. After analysis, the slides were decoded and data summarized using a decoding program on an IBM PC.
Statistics:
Data were analyzed according to sex. The ratio of micronucleated RNA-containing erythrocytes (i. e. , micronucleated PCE) to RNA-positive
erythrocytes and the RNA-positive erythrocytes as a percentage of total erythrocytes were calculated for each animal. The statistical
significance of differences in the percentage of RNA-positive erythrocytes among groups was evaluated using the Kruskall-Wallace
analysis of variance on ranks (calculated using the SAS software package on an IBM PC). In experiments where the frequencies of micronucleated cells are determined by scoring 1000 cells per animal, data are not expected to be distributed normally. Such data were analyzed using the Cochran-
Armitage test (using an SRI-developed software package on an IBM PC) for trends in binomial proportions (to determine a significant doseresponse
relationship) and the normal test for equality of binomial proportions (to determine if values for individual dose groups were'
statistically different from those for controls) (Kastenbaum and Bowman, 1970; an SRI-developed software package on an IBM PC was
used). These tests and the rationale for each are discussed in the ASTM Standard Guide for Conduct of Micronucleus Assays in mammalian
Bone Marrow Erythrocytes (ASTM Committee, 1988) and in Margolin et al; (1983).

Results and discussion

Test results
Sex:
male/female
Genotoxicity:
negative
Toxicity:
yes
Remarks:
Salient clinical signs included rough fur and loose stools in all Duomeen C dosage groups. One test-substance-related death was observed in the 62.5 mg/kg/day dosage group. Cytotoxicity, as indicated by a slight decrease in the PCE/RBC ratio was observed
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Negative controls validity:
not applicable
Positive controls validity:
valid
Additional information on results:
see attached tables

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Interpretation of results (migrated information): negative
It was concluded that Duomeen C at dosages up to and including the MTD of 125 mg/kg/day did not induce increased incidences of
micronuclei in the bone marrow erythrocytes of male and female Swiss- Webster mice. Therefore, Duomeen C was considered to be nongenotoxic
under these test conditions.
Executive summary:

The genotoxic potential of orally administered N-C12-18-alkyltrimethylenediamine (Coco-diamine) to induce micronucleus formation in bone marrow erythrocytes was determined in Swiss-Webster mice.

The study was conducted according to OECD 474 guideline and under GLP.

 

In the range-finding assay, three mice per sex received orally administered Coco-diamine in corn oil at dosage levels of 150, 300, 600, 1200, 2500, or 5000 mg/kg body weight/day (mg/kg/day) to determine a maximum tolerated dosage (MTD) that would be used in setting dosages for the definitive study. A control group of three male and three female mice received corn oil only. All mice were observed and dosed for two consecutive days. Mice surviving the dosing regimen were euthanized 48 hours after the administration of the last dose and evaluated for specific signs of cytotoxicity reflected in hematopoietic indices.

All mice receiving dosages of 300 mg/kg/day or greater died on study, while in the 150 mg/kg/day dosage group only one male mouse died. Adverse clinical observations reported for the 150 mg/kg/day dosage group included decreased body weight in female mice. A set number of erythrocytes in both bone marrow and peripheral red blood cell (RBC) pools from mice surviving to euthanasia were examined and the number of RNA-positive (polychromatic) erythrocytes was counted to determine cellularity and the frequency of PCEs among erythrocytes. Suppression of PCE/RBC ratio to approximately 65% of that of the corn oil control group was observed in both pools from mice receiving doses of 150 mg/kg/day. From this suppression and the minimal mortality observed at 150 mg/kg/day, an MTD of approximately 125 mg/kg/day was determined for Coco-diamine.

In the definitive assay, at least 10 mice per sex per dosage group were orally administered Coco-diamine in corn oil dosage levels of 31.3, 62.5, or 125 mg/kg/day for two consecutive days. Five mice per sex per dosage group were euthanized 24 hours after the final dose and the same number 48 hours after the final dose; all were evaluated for cytotoxicity and micronucleus formation in bone marrow erythrocytes. A corn oil vehicle control group (10 mice per sex) and a benzene positive control group (10 male mice only) were treated similarly and evaluated concurrently with test groups. Salient clinical signs included rough fur and loose stools in all Coco-diamine dosage groups. One test-substance-related death was observed in the 62.5 mg/kg/day dosage group. Cytotoxicity, as indicated by a slight decrease in the PCE/RBC ratio was observed in both sexes in the top two dosage groups of Coco-diamine. However, all Coco-diamine-treated groups, when compared to that of the corn oil control group, had average micronucleus counts approximately equal to that of the control groups. Background micronucleus incidences in bone marrow' erythrocytes of male and female mice treated with corn oil alone averaged 0.18% and 0.22%, respectively. The benzene positive control induced micronucleus rates at least 5-fold greater than that of the background.

In summary, Coco-diamine at dosages up to and including the MTD of 125 mg/kg/day did not induce increased incidences of micronuclei in the bone marrow erythrocytes of Swiss-Webster mice. Therefore, Coco-diamine was considered to be non-genotoxic under these test conditions.