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EC number: 295-033-2 | CAS number: 91782-61-5
Relevant and reliable data used for the determination of a PNEC for the freshwater and marine environments were retrieved for 12 different species: Aeolosoma sp. (oligochaete), Daphnia magna (cladoceran), Hyalella azteca (isopod), Lymnaea stagnalis (snail), Ceriodaphnia dubia (cladoceran), Chironomus tentans (midge), Mysidopsis bahia (mysid), Neanthes arenaceodentata (marine annelid), Dendraster excentricus (sand dollar), Stronglyocentrotus purpuratus (sea urchin), and Crassostrea sp. (pacific oyster). Tests followed international accepted guidance and were based on measured levels of dissolved cobalt as cobalt dichloride. Values ranged from 1.4 to 45 µg Co/L for the freshwater species and 206 to 2763 µg Co/L for the marine species.
From the database of chronic cobalt toxicity to freshwater invertebrates, 55 individual EC10 or NOEC values for 6 different individual species were reported. The NOEC/L(E)C10 ranged from 1.4 µg/L to 45 µg/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia exposed to a range of water types (CDI 2010i). The table below represents the EC10 values of high quality studies used for the derivation of HC5 and aquatic freshwater PNEC. Where multiple data exist for a given species (>5), e.g., Ceriodaphnia dubia, the geometric mean of the available EC10s for the most sensitive endpoints from each test were used.
Table X. High quality studies used for derivation of the HC5and freshwater PNEC
Selected values for the most sensitive endpoints used for derivation of the aquatic freshwater HC5
Value (µg Co/L)
Aeolosoma sp (oligochaete)
Heijerick et al 2007
Daphnia magna (cladoceran)
Heijerick et al 2007
Hyalella azteca (isopod)
Lymnaea stagnalis (snail)
Ceriodaphnia dubia (cladoceran)
EC10: 19 (baseline)
EC10: 14.1 (low pH)
EC10: 13 (high pH)
EC10: 11.5 (high hardness, high alkalinity)
EC10: 8.6 (high alkalinity)
EC10: 15.8 (high DOC)
EC10: 45.2 (Magnesium 57.5 mg/L)
EC10: 28.8 (Upper Penninsula)
EC10: 5.4 (South Santiam)
EC10: 11.7 (Lake Texoma)
From the database of chronic cobalt toxicity to marine invertebrates, 13 NOEC or EC10 values are reported for 2 species. The NOEC/L(E)C10 values range from 206 µg Co/L for reproductive effects with the marine annelid, Neanthes arenaceodentata (CDI 2010j) to 2763 µg Co/L for the developmental endpoint with the oyster, Crassostrea sp (CDI 2010e).
The table below represents the EC10 values of high quality studies used for the derivation of HC5 and aquatic marine PNEC
Table X. High quality studies used for derivation of the HC5and aquatic marine PNEC
Selected values for the most sensitive endpoints used for derivation of the aquatic marine HC5
Mysidopsis bahia (mysid)
neonatal total young
Neanthes arenaceodentata (marine annelid)
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