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EC number: 209-151-9 | CAS number: 557-05-1
In accordance with column 2 of Annex VIII of the REACH regulation, testing for this endpoint is scientifically not feasible and does not need to be conducted since the test chemical is insoluble in water.
Biodegradation in water:
42-days Closed Bottle test following the OECD guideline 301 D was performed to determine the ready biodegradability of the test chemical. The study was performed at a temperature of 20°C. The test system included control, test item and reference item. Polyseed were used for this study. 1 polyseed capsule were added in 500 ml D.I water and then stirred for 1 hour for proper mixing and functioning of inoculum. This gave the bacterial count as 10E7 to 10E8 CFU/ml. At the regular interval microbial plating was also performed on agar to confirm the vitality and CFU count of microorganism. The concentration of test and reference item (Sodium Benzoate) chosen for both the study was 4 mg/L, while that of inoculum was 32 ml/l. OECD mineral medium was used for the study. ThOD (Theoretical oxygen demand) of test and reference item was determined by calculation. % degradation was calculated using the values of BOD and ThOD for test item and reference item. The % degradation of procedure control (reference item) was also calculated using BOD & ThOD and was determined to be 70.48%. Degradation of Sodium Benzoate exceeds 45.18 % on 7 days & 70.48 % on 14th day. The activity of the inoculum was thus verified and the test can be considered as valid. The BOD42 value of test chemical was observed to be 0.6 mgO2/mg. ThOD was calculated as 2.6 mgO2/mg. Accordingly, the % degradation of the test item after 42 days of incubation at 20 ± 1°C according to Closed Bottle test was determined to be 23.07%. Based on the results, the test item, under the test conditions, was considered to be primary inherently biodegradable in nature.
Biodegradation in water and sediments:
Estimation Programs Interface (2018) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test chemical. If released in to the environment, 15.9% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of Zinc distearate in water is estimated to be 37.5 days (900 hrs). The half-life (37.5 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low whereas the half-life period of test chemical in sediment is estimated to be 337.5 days (3240 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.00575%), indicates that test chemical is not persistent in sediment.
Biodegradation in Soil:
The half-life period of test chemical in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (2018). If released into the environment, 83.9% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of test chemical in soil is estimated to be 75 days (1800 hrs). Based on this half-life value of test chemical, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.
Using BCFBAF Program (v3.00) model of EPI suite (2018) the estimated bio concentration factor (BCF) for test chemical is 3.162 L/kg wet-wt at 25 deg. c which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000. Therefore it is concluded that test chemical is nonbioaccumulative in food chain.
Transport and distribution:
The Adsorption Coefficient of test chemical was determined as per the HPLC method (OECD Guideline-121). The Log Koc value was determined to be 3.179 ± 0.001 at 25°C.This log Koc value indicates that the test chemical has a moderate sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have slow migration potential to ground water.
Two studies have been carried out to determine bioaccumulation potential of test chemical and and their results are summarized below.
In first study the bio concentartion of test chemical was determined by using BCFBAF Program (v3.00) model of EPI suite (2018) the estimated bio concentration factor (BCF) for test chemical is 3.162 L/kg wet-wt at 25 deg. c which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000. Therefore it is concluded that test chemical is nonbioaccumulative in food chain.
In next study the test chemical is not expected to be bioaccumulative in nature.
By considering resulst of both studies it is concluded that test chemical is not expected to bioaccumulative in aquatic organisms.
The adsorption coefficient Koc in soil and in sewage sludge of test chemical was determined by the Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method according to OECD Guideline No. 121 for testing of Chemicals. The solutions of the test substance and reference substances were prepared in appropriate solvents. A test item solution was prepared by accurately weighing 4 mg of test item and diluted with Acetonitrile up to 10 ml. Thus, the test solution concentration was 400 mg/l. The pH of test substance was 7.4. Each of the reference substance and test substance were analysed by HPLC at 210 nm. After equilibration of the HPLC system, Urea was injected first, the reference substances were injected in duplicate, followed by the test chemical solution in duplicate. Reference substances were injected again after test sample, no change in retention time of reference substances was observed. Retention time tR were measured, averaged and the decimal logarithms of the capacity factors k were calculated. The graph was plotted between log Koc versus log k (Annex - 2).The linear regression parameter of the relationship log Koc vs log k were also calculated from the data obtained with calibration samples and therewith, log Koc of the test substance was determined from its measured capacity factor. The reference substances were chosen according to estimated Koc range of the test substance and generalized calibration graph was prepared. The reference substances were Acetanilide, 4 -chloroaniline, 4-methylaniline(p-Tolouidine), N-methylaniline, p-toluamide, Aniline, 2,5-Dichloroaniline, 4 -nitrophenol, 2 - nitrophenol, 2-nitrobenzamide, 3-nitrobenzamide, Nitrobenzene, 4-Nitrobenzamide, 1- naphthylamine, 1-naphthol, Direct Red 81, Benzoic acid methylester, Carbendazim, Benzoic acid phenylester, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, Toluene, Naphthalene, 1,2,3-trichloro benzene, Pentachlorophenol, Phenol, N,Ndimethylbenzamide, 3,5-dinitrobenzamide, N-methylbenzamide, Benzamide, phenanthrene, DDT having Koc value ranging from 1.25 to 5.63. The Log Koc value of test chemical was determined to be 3.179 ± 0.001 at 25°C. This log Koc value indicates that the test chemical has a moderate sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have slow migration potential to ground water.
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