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Key value for chemical safety assessment

Genetic toxicity in vitro

Description of key information

Prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.4 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for 2-amino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-1,7-disulfonic acid ( 6535-70-2). The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with and without S9 metabolic activation system. 2-amino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-1,7-disulfonic acid was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro. Based on the predicted result it can be concluded that the substance is considered to not toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with limited documentation / justification
Justification for type of information:
Data is from OECD QSAR Toolbox version 3.4 and the supporting QMRF report has been attached.
Reference:
Composition 1
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: As mention below
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Prediction is done using OECD QSAR Toolbox version 3.4, 2017
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay
Test material information:
Composition 1
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material: 2-amino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-1,7-disulfonic acid
- Molecular formula: C10H9NO7S2
- Molecular weight: 319.3131 g/mol
- Smiles notation: c1cc(c(c2c1c(cc(c2)S(=O)(=O)O)O)S(=O)(=O)O)N
- InChl: 1S/C10H9NO7S2/c11-8-2-1-6-7(10(8)20(16,17)18)3-5(4-9(6)12)19(13,14)15/h1-4,12H,11H2,(H,13,14,15)(H,16,17,18)
- Physical state: Solid
- Substance type: Organic
Target gene:
Histidine
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102
Details on mammalian cell lines (if applicable):
Not applicable.
Additional strain characteristics:
not specified
Cytokinesis block (if used):
not specified
Metabolic activation:
with
Metabolic activation system:
S9 metabolic activation
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
not specified
Vehicle:
not specified
Negative controls:
not specified
Solvent controls:
not specified
True negative controls:
not specified
Positive controls:
not specified
Details on test system and conditions:
not specified
Rationale for test conditions:
not specified
Evaluation criteria:
Prediction was done considering a dose dependent increase in the number of revertants/plate.
Statistics:
not specified
Species / strain:
other: TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102
Metabolic activation:
with
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity:
not specified
Vehicle controls valid:
not specified
Negative controls valid:
not specified
Positive controls valid:
not specified
Remarks on result:
other: No mutagenic effect were observed
Additional information on results:
not specified

The prediction was based on dataset comprised from the following descriptors: "Gene mutation"
Estimation method: Takes highest mode value from the 6 nearest neighbours
Domain  logical expression:Result: In Domain

((((((((("a" or "b" or "c" or "d" or "e" or "f" )  and ("g" and ( not "h") )  )  and ("i" and ( not "j") )  )  and ("k" and ( not "l") )  )  and ("m" and ( not "n") )  )  and "o" )  and ("p" and ( not "q") )  )  and "r" )  and ("s" and "t" )  )

Domain logical expression index: "a"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Naphthalene sulfonic acids, condensates by OECD HPV Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "b"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Anilines (Acute toxicity) by US-EPA New Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "c"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Non-covalent interaction AND Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation AND Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines AND Radical AND Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) AND Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines AND SN1 AND SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation AND SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.4

Domain logical expression index: "d"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Strong binder, NH2 group AND Strong binder, OH group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "e"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as AN2 AND AN2 >> Michael-type addition to quinoid structures  AND AN2 >> Michael-type addition to quinoid structures  >> Substituted Anilines by Protein binding by OASIS v1.4

Domain logical expression index: "f"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acid moiety AND Anilines (Unhindered) AND Phenol Amines AND Phenols by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "g"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Non-covalent interaction AND Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation AND Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines AND Radical AND Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) AND Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines AND SN1 AND SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation AND SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.4

Domain logical expression index: "h"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as AN2 OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures >> Flavonoids OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures >> Quinoneimines OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures >> Quinones and Trihydroxybenzenes OR AN2 >> Nucleophilic addition reaction with cycloisomerization OR AN2 >> Nucleophilic addition reaction with cycloisomerization >> Hydrazine Derivatives OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation by aldehyde formed after metabolic activation OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation by aldehyde formed after metabolic activation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR No alert found OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Acridone, Thioxanthone, Xanthone and Phenazine Derivatives OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Amino Anthraquinones OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Aminoacridine DNA Intercalators OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Coumarins OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> DNA Intercalators with Carboxamide and Aminoalkylamine Side Chain OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Fused-Ring Nitroaromatics OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Naphthalenediimide Derivatives OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Quinones and Trihydroxybenzenes OR Non-specific OR Non-specific >> Incorporation into DNA/RNA, due to structural analogy with  nucleoside bases    OR Non-specific >> Incorporation into DNA/RNA, due to structural analogy with  nucleoside bases    >> Specific Imine and Thione Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Acridone, Thioxanthone, Xanthone and Phenazine Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Amino Anthraquinones OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Coumarins OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Flavonoids OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Fused-Ring Nitroaromatics OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Hydrazine Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitro Azoarenes OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitroaniline Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitrobiphenyls and Bridged Nitrobiphenyls OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitrophenols, Nitrophenyl Ethers and Nitrobenzoic Acids OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> p-Aminobiphenyl Analogs OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Polynitroarenes OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Quinones and Trihydroxybenzenes OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Single-Ring Substituted Primary Aromatic Amines OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Specific Imine and Thione Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Thiols OR Radical >> ROS formation after GSH depletion (indirect) OR Radical >> ROS formation after GSH depletion (indirect) >> Quinoneimines OR SN1 >> Alkylation after metabolically formed carbenium ion species OR SN1 >> Alkylation after metabolically formed carbenium ion species >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Naphthalenediimide Derivatives OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after diazonium or carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after diazonium or carbenium ion formation >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> Amino Anthraquinones OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrenium ion formation >> p-Aminobiphenyl Analogs OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrenium ion formation >> Single-Ring Substituted Primary Aromatic Amines OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Fused-Ring Nitroaromatics OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitro Azoarenes OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitroaniline Derivatives OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitrobiphenyls and Bridged Nitrobiphenyls OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitrophenols, Nitrophenyl Ethers and Nitrobenzoic Acids OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Polynitroarenes OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic substitution on diazonium ion OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic substitution on diazonium ion >> Specific Imine and Thione Derivatives OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group after metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group after metabolic activation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> Alkylation OR SN2 >> Alkylation >> Alkylphosphates, Alkylthiophosphates and Alkylphosphonates OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Naphthalenediimide Derivatives OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation >> Coumarins OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation >> Quinoline Derivatives OR SN2 >> Direct nucleophilic attack on diazonium cation OR SN2 >> Direct nucleophilic attack on diazonium cation >> Hydrazine Derivatives OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom after thiol (glutathione) conjugation OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom after thiol (glutathione) conjugation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom >> Quinoline Derivatives OR SN2 >> SN2 attack on activated carbon Csp3 or Csp2 OR SN2 >> SN2 attack on activated carbon Csp3 or Csp2 >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.4

Domain logical expression index: "i"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Strong binder, NH2 group AND Strong binder, OH group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "j"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Moderate binder, NH2 group OR Moderate binder, OH grooup OR Non binder, impaired OH or NH2 group OR Non binder, MW>500 OR Weak binder, NH2 group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "k"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as AN2 AND AN2 >> Michael-type addition to quinoid structures  AND AN2 >> Michael-type addition to quinoid structures  >> Substituted Anilines by Protein binding by OASIS v1.4

Domain logical expression index: "l"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as AN2 >> Nucleophilic addition to pyridonimine tautomer of aminopyridoindoles or aminopyridoimidazoles (hypothesized) OR AN2 >> Nucleophilic addition to pyridonimine tautomer of aminopyridoindoles or aminopyridoimidazoles (hypothesized) >> Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines OR AR OR AR >>  Radical-type addition to imino tautomer of aminoacridines OR AR >>  Radical-type addition to imino tautomer of aminoacridines >> Benzoquinoline and Аcridine derivatives OR Radical reactions OR Radical reactions >> ROS generation and direct attack of hydroxyl radical to the C8 position of nucleoside base OR Radical reactions >> ROS generation and direct attack of hydroxyl radical to the C8 position of nucleoside base >> Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines OR SE reaction (CYP450-activated heterocyclic amines) OR SE reaction (CYP450-activated heterocyclic amines) >> Direct attack of arylnitrenium cation to the C8 position of nucleoside base  OR SE reaction (CYP450-activated heterocyclic amines) >> Direct attack of arylnitrenium cation to the C8 position of nucleoside base  >> Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Ring opening nucleophilic substitution involving arene oxide derivatives and proteins OR SN2 >> Ring opening nucleophilic substitution involving arene oxide derivatives and proteins >> Benzoquinoline and Аcridine derivatives OR SNAr OR SNAr >> Nucleophilic substitution on activated Csp2-atoms in quinolines OR SNAr >> Nucleophilic substitution on activated Csp2-atoms in quinolines >> Benzoquinoline and Аcridine derivatives OR SR reaction (peroxidase-activated heterocyclic amines) OR SR reaction (peroxidase-activated heterocyclic amines) >> Direct attack of arylnitrenium radical to the C8 position of nucleoside base OR SR reaction (peroxidase-activated heterocyclic amines) >> Direct attack of arylnitrenium radical to the C8 position of nucleoside base >> Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines by Protein binding by OASIS v1.4

Domain logical expression index: "m"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by Protein binding alerts for Chromosomal aberration by OASIS v.1.2

Domain logical expression index: "n"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as AN2 OR AN2 >> Michael addition to the quinoid type structures OR AN2 >> Michael addition to the quinoid type structures >> Substituted Anilines by Protein binding alerts for Chromosomal aberration by OASIS v.1.2

Domain logical expression index: "o"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Bioavailable by Lipinski Rule Oasis ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "p"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aniline AND Fused carbocyclic aromatic AND Naphtalene AND Overlapping groups AND Phenol AND Sulfonic acid by Organic Functional groups (nested)

Domain logical expression index: "q"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Alkoxy OR Alkyl arenes OR Aromatic amine OR Aryl OR Azo OR Carbazole OR Ether OR Fluorene OR Fused heterocyclic aromatic OR Precursors quinoid compounds by Organic Functional groups (nested)

Domain logical expression index: "r"

Similarity boundary:Target: Nc1ccc2c(O)cc(S(O)(=O)=O)cc2c1S(O)(=O)=O
Threshold=40%,
Dice(Atom centered fragments)
Atom type; Count H attached; Hybridization

Domain logical expression index: "s"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is >= -2.69

Domain logical expression index: "t"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is <= -0.908

Conclusions:
2-amino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-1,7-disulfonic acid ( 6535-70-2 )was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.
Executive summary:

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.4 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for 2-amino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-1,7-disulfonic acid ( 6535-70-2). The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with S9 metabolic activation system. 2-amino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-1,7-disulfonic acid was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro. Based on the predicted result it can be concluded that the substance is considered to not toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (negative)

Genetic toxicity in vivo

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

Genetic toxicity in vitro;

Prediction model based estimation and data from read across chemical have been reviewed to determine the mutagenic nature of 2-amino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-1, 7-disulfonic acid (6535-70-2). The studies are as mentioned below

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.4 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for 2-amino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-1,7-disulfonic acid ( 6535-70-2). The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with and without S9 metabolic activation system. 2-amino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-1,7-disulfonic acid was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro. Based on the predicted result it can be concluded that the substance is considered to not toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

In a study for structurally and functionally similar read across chemical, Gene mutation toxicity study was performed by R. Colin Garneret.al. (Mutation Research, 1977) to determine the mutagenic nature of2-Amino 1, 5 naphthalene disulfonic acid (117-62-4). The read across substances share high similarity in structure and log kow .Therefore, it is acceptable to derive information on mutation from the analogue substance. Gene mutation toxicity study was performed to determine the mutagenic nature of 2-Amino 1, 5 naphthalene disulfonic acid. The study was performed using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA1538 in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system. The test chemical was dissolved in DMSO and used at dose levels of 0, 50 or 100 µg/plate. The plates were incubated for 48 hrs. Concurrent solvent and positive control chemicals were included in the study. All assays were performed in duplicate and the numbers of revertants on test plates greater than 30 was classified as being significantly mutagenic. 2-Amino 1, 5 naphthalene disulfonic acid did not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA1538 and hence the chemical is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

 

In a study for structurally and functionally similar read across chemical, Gene mutation toxicity study was performed by F. Rafii et al.( Food and Chemical Toxicology ,1997)to determine the mutagenic nature of D&C Red No. 33; IUPAC Name disodium 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-(phenyldiazenyl) naphthalene-2,7-disulfonate (3567-66-6). The read across substances share high similarity in structure and log kow . In a gene toxicity test, Salmonella typhimurium Strain-TA 98, TA 100 were exposed to D&C Red No. 33 in the concentration of 50 and 200 µg/plate with and without metabolic activation. In addition D&C Red No. 33 metabolites were also prepared by treating with azo reductase -producing bacteria namely Clostridium strain isolated from the human gastrointestinal tract. The results showed that there was no evidence of gene toxicity after treatment with D&C Red No. 33 in the concentration of 50 and 200 µg/plate in Salmonella typhimurium Strain-TA 98, TA 100. Independently of tested D&C Red No. 33 reduced metabolite in the concentration of 50 and 200 µg/plate showed that there was no evidence of gene toxicity. Therefore, it is considered that D&C Red No. 33 and its reduced metabolites in the concentration of 50 and 200 µg/plate do not cause genetic mutation(s) when Salmonella typhimurium Strain-TA 98, TA 100 exposed to the test chemical in the presence and absence of metabolic activation (S9). Hence the test substance cannot be classified as gene mutant in vitro.

 Based on the data available for the target chemical and its read across substance and applying weight of evidence of 2-amino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-1, 7-disulfonic acid (6535-70-2) does not exhibit gene mutation in vitro. Hence the test chemical is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Thus based on the above annotation and CLP criteria for the target chemical . 2-amino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-1, 7-disulfonic acid (6535-70-2) does not exhibit gene mutation in vitro. Hence the test chemical is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.