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Administrative data

Endpoint:
additional ecotoxicological information
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Not specified.
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
Experimental design that follows the recommendations of the OECD guidance document on transformation/dissolution (T/D) (OECD 2001)(1) and the standard operating procedures (SOP) proposed by CANMET and LISEC(2) for the Dissolution Transformation protocol to the ad hoc OECD Validation Management Group (VMG). (1)OECD Guideline for testing of chemicals - draft proposal - February 2001. Transformation dissolution of metals and metal compounds in aqueous media. (2)The Standard Operating Procedure for the Transformation/Dissolution of Metals and Sparingly Soluble Metal Compounds, Version February 2004.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2009
Report date:
2009

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: Experimental design that follows the recommendations of the OECD guidance document on transformation/dissolution (T/D) (OECD 2001)(1) and the standard operating procedures (SOP) proposed by CANMET and LISEC(2) for the Dissolution Transformation protocol
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of study / information:
The report aims to describe the transformation/dissolution behavior of Cellcore QX.

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
aluminium(3+) nickel(2+) λ²-cobalt(2+) lithium(1+) tetraoxidandiide
EC Number:
700-042-6
Cas Number:
177997-13-6
Molecular formula:
LiNiCoAlO2 where stoichiometry of Ni+Co+Al equals 1 and ranges are Li = 0.9 – 1.3, Co = 0.01 – 0.2, Ni = 0.75 – 0.99 and Al = 0.01 – 0.2
IUPAC Name:
aluminium(3+) nickel(2+) λ²-cobalt(2+) lithium(1+) tetraoxidandiide
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Cellcore QX
- Substance type: Inorganic
- Physical state: Black powder
-molecular formula LiNiCoAlO2. The stoechiometry of Ni+Co+Al equals 1 but the nickel, cobalt and aluminium content can vary. The sample provided for this test had a composition of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2.

Results and discussion

Any other information on results incl. tables

Samples of a commercially available complex called oxide Cellcore QX were first tested in a screening test at pH 6, 7 and 8 at 100 mg/l loading. The results indicated that the maximum release of Aluminium and Lithium were almost independent of the pH. Cobalt and Nickel showed the maximum release at pH 6. Since Cobalt and Nickel are more relevant to environmental toxicity than Lithium and Aluminium a pH 6 was selected to perform the full 7 days tests (acute toxicity) at the 3 recommended loadings (1, 10, 100 mg/l). Also the chronic 28 days tests at 1mg/l loading were performed.

The results are summarized in the tables below and can be used to compare with existing ecotoxicity reference values to establish the aquatic hazard classification of the tested substance.

Table 1.- Screening test: summary of dissolution transformation test for 24 hours at pHs 6, 7 and 8, 200 RPM and 100 mg/L loading.

 

pH 6.0

Time, h

Li, μg/L

SD

Al, μg/L

SD

Co, μg/L

SD

Ni, μg/L

SD

0 h

657.6

3.3

94.2

17

0.47

0.29

13.1

0.1

24 h

801.4

37.8

54.2

12

7.83

0.17

91.0

3.5

 

 

pH 7.0

 

 

Time, h

Li, μg/L

SD

Al, μg/L

SD

Co, μg/L

SD

Ni, μg/L

SD

0 h

661.7

37.6

181

2

0.40

0.05

10.8

0.2

24 h

909.0

16.2

81

1

3.16

0.03

43.6

0.8

 

 

pH 8.0

 

 

Time, h

Li, μg/L

SD

Al, μg/L

SD

Co, μg/L

SD

Ni, μg/L

SD

0 h

656.4

3.2

171

3

0.34

0.07

14.7

0.7

24 h

937.9

9.6

136

1

2.96

0.05

61.3

0.2

Table 2.- 7 and 28 days tests: summary of dissolution transformation test for 7 days at pH 6, 100 RPM at 1, 10 and 100 mg/L loading and 28 days 1mg/L loading.

1 mg/L, pH 6

Time, h

Li, μg/L

SD

Al, μg/L

SD

Co, μg/L

SD

Ni, μg/L

SD

0 h

5.9

1.0

4

-

0.04

0.03

0.4

0.1

168 h

12.6

0.4

3

-

1.35

0.24

8.0

1.2

672 h

16.9

1.0

BDL

-

1.72

0.28

10.7

1.7

10 mg/L, pH 6

Time, h

Li, μg/L

SD

Al, μg/L

SD

Co, μg/L

SD

Ni, μg/L

SD

0 h

59.6

4.7

2

-

0.15

0.02

3.1

0.5

168 h

92.3

1.8

2

0.4

3.46

0.25

28.4

1.7

100 mg/L, pH 6

Time, h

Li, μg/L

SD

Al, μg/L

SD

Co, μg/L

SD

Ni, μg/L

SD

0 h

692.8

7.0

36

5

 

0.74

0.06

21.1

0.6

168 h

997.4

16.8

17

4

13.59

1.29

148.0

9.1

 

The elemental reference values used for the comparison were produced from literature values (please see attached background material for the relevant reports used to determine the elemental toxicity reference values).

Based on the transformation/dissolution study Cobalt and Nickel are considered more relevant to environmental toxicity than Lithium and Aluminium.

In comparison to the study values observed at the pH of maximum metal release (pH6) in both 7 day test and 28 days test, with the ecotoxicity reference values it is proposed that the substance is classified as Aquatic Chronic category 3. Please see attached backgroud material for the document comparing the results and the reasoning for the proposed environmental classification based upon CLP guidance.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
The substance is classified as Aquatic Chronic category 3. based upon a comparison between the results of a transformation/dissolution test (to measure the amount of metal released from the substance) and ecotoxicity reference values for the elements.
Executive summary:

The transformation / dissolution of Cellcore QX was tested in accordance to the draft OECD Transformation/Dissolution protocol. The experimental design includes refinements, agreed by the ad hoc OECD Validation Management Group (VMG), as described in the Standard Operating Procedures prepared by CANMET and LISEC. Samples of a commercially available complex called oxide Cellcore QX were first tested in a screening test at pH 6, 7 and 8 at 100 mg/l loading. The results indicated that the maximum release of Aluminium and Lithium were almost independent of the pH. Cobalt and Nickel showed the maximum release at pH 6. Since Cobalt and Nickel are more relevant to environmental toxicity than Lithium and Aluminium a pH 6 was selected to perform the full 7 days tests (acute toxicity) at the 3 recommended loadings (1, 10, 100 mg/l). Also the chronic 28 days tests at 1mg/l loading were performed.

The results are summarized in the tables below and can be used to compare with existing ecotoxicity reference values to establish the aquatic hazard classification of the tested substance.

Table 1.- Screening test: summary of dissolution transformation test for 24 hours at pHs 6, 7 and 8, 200 RPM and 100 mg/L loading.

 

pH 6.0

Time, h

Li, μg/L

SD

Al, μg/L

SD

Co, μg/L

SD

Ni, μg/L

SD

0 h

657.6

3.3

94.2

17

0.47

0.29

13.1

0.1

24 h

801.4

37.8

54.2

12

7.83

0.17

91.0

3.5

 

 

pH 7.0

 

 

Time, h

Li, μg/L

SD

Al, μg/L

SD

Co, μg/L

SD

Ni, μg/L

SD

0 h

661.7

37.6

181

2

0.40

0.05

10.8

0.2

24 h

909.0

16.2

81

1

3.16

0.03

43.6

0.8

 

 

pH 8.0

 

 

Time, h

Li, μg/L

SD

Al, μg/L

SD

Co, μg/L

SD

Ni, μg/L

SD

0 h

656.4

3.2

171

3

0.34

0.07

14.7

0.7

24 h

937.9

9.6

136

1

2.96

0.05

61.3

0.2

Table 2.- 7 and 28 days tests: summary of dissolution transformation test for 7 days at pH 6, 100 RPM at 1, 10 and 100 mg/L loading and 28 days 1mg/L loading.

1 mg/L,pH 6

Time, h

Li, μg/L

SD

Al, μg/L

SD

Co, μg/L

SD

Ni, μg/L

SD

0 h

5.9

1.0

4

-

0.04

0.03

0.4

0.1

168 h

12.6

0.4

3

-

1.35

0.24

8.0

1.2

672 h

16.9

1.0

BDL

-

1.72

0.28

10.7

1.7

10 mg/L,pH 6

Time, h

Li, μg/L

SD

Al, μg/L

SD

Co, μg/L

SD

Ni, μg/L

SD

0 h

59.6

4.7

2

-

0.15

0.02

3.1

0.5

168 h

92.3

1.8

2

0.4

3.46

0.25

28.4

1.7

100 mg/L,pH 6

Time, h

Li, μg/L

SD

Al, μg/L

SD

Co, μg/L

SD

Ni, μg/L

SD

0 h

692.8

7.0

36

5

 

0.74

0.06

21.1

0.6

168 h

997.4

16.8

17

4

13.59

1.29

148.0

9.1

Cellcore QX has been assessed for environmental effects using the T/D protocol as appropriate for poorly soluble metal compounds. The full test was conducted at pH6 due to the max. solubility of Ni and Co. Results were compared to the relevant ERV and the additivity rule was applied. Based on the available data the registrant concludes that Cellcore QX should be classified as Aquatic Chronic category 3 under Regulation EC nr. 1272/2008 (CLP) and R52/53 under Directive 67/548/EC (DSD).