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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP compliant, guideline study, available as an unpublished report, no restrictions, fully adequate for assessment

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2012
Report date:
2012

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Due to good solubility, stirring time was reduced during test media preparation; analytical samples of test media had to be filtered prior to analysis
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Diamminedichloropalladium (II)
IUPAC Name:
Diamminedichloropalladium (II)
Test material form:
solid: particulate/powder
Remarks:
migrated information: powder
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Diamminedichloropalladium (II)
- Molecular formula (if other than submission substance): Cl2H6N2Pd
- Molecular weight (if other than submission substance): 211.39 g/mole
- Physical state: yellow powder
- Analytical purity: >99.5%
- Composition of test material, percentage of components: 50.33% Palladium
- Lot/batch No.: 11011
- Expiration date of the lot/batch: 31 October 2012
- Storage condition of test material: Room temperature (15 - 30°C)

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Samples were taken from the test media at test start and after 48 hours. At test start a sample of fresh control media and freshly prepared test media of each treatment were taken just before distributing the test media to the test containers. After 48 hours all samples of the replicate vessels from each treatment were pooled prior to analysis. Duplicate samples of 20mL were taken and filtered (0.45 µm) at room temperature. Solutions were acidified with nitric acid (final concentration 1-3% HNO3). If samples were not analysed immediately they were stored deep-frozen at -20°C until analysis

Test solutions

Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Test solutions were prepared by dissolving adequate amounts of test item in purified drinking water (filtered through activated charcoal, passed through a limestone column and aerated) and stirring for one hour.

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: water flea
- Strain: Clone V
- Source: German Federal Environment Agency, Location Berlin-Marienfelde, Ecotoxicology Lab, 12307 Berlin, Germany
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 4 - 24 hours old

Study design

Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h

Test conditions

Hardness:
70 - 120 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
At test start: 20.1°C
At end of test: 20.5°C
pH:
At test start: 8.03 - 8.07
At end of test: 7.93 - 8.05
Dissolved oxygen:
At test start: 8.9 - 9.7 mg/L
At end of test: 8.7 - 9.2 mg/L
Salinity:
Not relevant
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Range finding test: nominal concentrations 10, 100 and 1000 µg palladium/L
Definitive test: nominal concentrations: Control, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 µg palladium/L,
corresponding to Control, 12.4, 24.8, 49.7, 99.3 and 198.7 µg DDP/L.
Mean measured concentrations: control, 4.73, 9.69, 20.52, 40.1 and 81.28 µg palladium/L,
corresponding to 9.4, 19.25, 40.77, 79.67 and 161.49 µg DDP/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: beaker
- Type: closed, covered with glass pane
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass beakers filled with 50 mL test solution
- Aeration: No
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Purified drinking water: filtered through activated charcoal, passed through a limestone column and aerated
- Conductivity: 171.6 µS/cm
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: 0 and 48 hours

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: No
- Photoperiod: 16 hours light: 8 hours dark
- Light intensity: 592 - 597 lux

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : immobilisation was determined daily and abnormalities in appearance noted

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2
- Range finding study: yes
- Test concentrations:10, 100, 1000 µg palladium/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: ) 0% immobilisation at 10µg palladium/L, 100% immobilisation in 100 µg palladium/L at 24 and 48 hours.
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
potassium dichromate

Results and discussion

Effect concentrationsopen allclose all
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
35.19 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
palladium
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
69.91 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
Diamminedichloropalladium
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
20.52 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
palladium
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
40.77 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
Diamminedichloropalladium
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
40.1 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
palladium
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
79.67 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
Diamminedichloropalladium
Basis for effect:
mobility
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: None observed
- Mortality of control: None
Results with reference substance (positive control):
24-hour EC50 0.77 mg/L
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Determination of EC50 values was performed by probit analysis. NOEC and LOEC values were determined by the Fisher's Exact Binomial Test with Bonferroni correction.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The 48-hour EC50 for Diamminedichloropalladium is 69.91 µg test item/L, corresponding to 35.19 µg Pd/L. The 48-hour NOEC is 40.77 µg test item/L, corresponding to 20.52 µg Pd/L.
Executive summary:

A GLP compliant, OECD guideline study to assess the acute immobilisation of Daphnia magna was carried out (Fraunhofer 2012). It

is considered to be suitable for use as the key study for this endpoint.