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PBT assessment

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PBT assessment: overall result

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Name:
Boundary composition_Ashes (residues), cenospheres
Type of composition:
boundary composition of the substance
State / form:
solid: particulate/powder
Reference substance:
Boundary composition_Ashes (residues), cenospheres
Reference substance:
Boundary composition_Ashes (residues), cenospheres
Reference substance:
Boundary composition_Ashes (residues), cenospheres
Reference substance:
Boundary composition_Ashes (residues), cenospheres
Reference substance:
Boundary composition_Ashes (residues), cenospheres
Reference substance:
Boundary composition_Ashes (residues), cenospheres
Reference substance:
Boundary composition_Ashes (residues), cenospheres
Name:
Legal entity composition_Ashes (residues), cenospheres, mineralogical composition
Type of composition:
legal entity composition of the substance
State / form:
solid: particulate/powder
Related composition:
Boundary composition_Ashes (residues), cenospheres
Reference substance:
Legal entity composition_Ashes (residues), cenospheres, mineralogical composition
Reference substance:
Legal entity composition_Ashes (residues), cenospheres, mineralogical composition
Reference substance:
Legal entity composition_Ashes (residues), cenospheres, mineralogical composition
Reference substance:
Legal entity composition_Ashes (residues), cenospheres, mineralogical composition
PBT status:
PBT assessment does not apply
Justification:

The PBT/vPvB criteria as set out in Annex XIII of the REACH Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 are not applicable to inorganic substances.

Persistence assessment

Ashes (residues), cenospheres are inorganic substances. The PBT and vPvB criteria of Annex XIII to the Regulation do not apply to inorganic substances. Based on the chemical nature of ashes (inorganic structure and chemical stability of the main compound: Si-O bond is highly stable), neither photo- or chemical degradation, nor biodegradation (due the absence of carbon atoms within the molecule) is expected. Therefore, degradation is considered negligible.

Bioaccumulation Assessment

The PBT and vPvB criteria of Annex XIII to the Regulation do not apply to inorganic substances. And it is not appropriate to apply classical concepts (e. g. use of bioconcentration factors; BCF -biomagnification factors; BMF) to an inorganic UVCB substance as they would be applied to organic substances. Due to the fact that ashes (residues), cenospheres are UVCBs no overall BCF can be determined, however considering the extremely low recovery rate of ash contents, experiences from toxicological investigations and based on the structure-related properties of the substance, bioavailability and therefore bioconcentration is not expected. Furthermore, the measured data for the related fly ashes shows also only an insignificant content of metals. The Bioaccumulation Factors (BAFs) are negligible, all BAF values for the measured heavy metals are below 1; the maximum BAF among metals was for zinc (mean = 0.343, range = 0.146 - 0.591 kg sediment (dry wt) / kg body weight (wet wt).

Toxicity Assessment

The PBT and vPvB criteria of Annex XIII to the Regulation do not apply to inorganic substances. From the ecotoxicity perspective the toxicity criterion is not met for ashes (residues), cenospheres with EC/LC50 of > 100 mg/L being clearly beyond the ecologically relevant EC or LC triggers of less than 0.1 mg/L. All data give comparable results for fish, invertebrates and aquatic plants. The substance is not classified as carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic for reproduction nor is there any evidence of chronic toxicity, as identified by the classifications: T, R48, or Xn, R48 according to Directive 67/548/EEC.

Therefore, ashes (residues), cenospheres does not meet the T criterion.