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Toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods

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Endpoint:
toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods: short-term
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
ISO 11268-1 (Effects of Pollutants on Earthworms. 1. Determination of Acute Toxicity Using Artificial Soil Substrate)
Version / remarks:
(1997)
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Eisenia fetida
Animal group:
annelids
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: earthworm
- Source: own laboratory culture (ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Flörsheim am Main, Germany)
- Age at test initiation (mean and range, SD): adult animals with a fully developed clitellum
- Weight at test initiation (mean and range, SD): 300 - 600 mg per animal
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
artificial soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
14 d
Test temperature:
20 ± 2 °C
pH:
5.5 - 6.5 (in control vessels)
Moisture:
40 - 60% (of the maximum water holding capacity of the tested soil)
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container (material, size): glass vessels with lids , 1.5 L
- Amount of soil or substrate: 500 g dry weight
- No. of organisms per container (treatment): 10
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 4
- No. of replicates per control: 4


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Artificial soil: according to OECD requirements


OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 h light / 8 h dark
- Light intensity: 400 - 800 lx


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) :
- number of animals alive/dead
- fresh weight per animal alive
- morphological and behavioral abnormalities
Nominal and measured concentrations:
see table 1 in "any other information on materials and methods incl. tables"
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
Chloroacetamid
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 333.3 - < 1 000 other: g/kg soil d.w.
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: dilution: >1/4 - <1/2
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
333.3 other: g/kg soil d.w.
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: dilution: 1/4
Results with reference substance (positive control):
- Results with reference substance valid? yes
- Relevant effect levels: LC50 = 29.2 mg/kg soil
- Other: the LC50 of 29.2 mg/kg meets the requirements of ISO guideline 11268-1 (LC50 should be between 20 and 80 mg/kg)

Table 2: Mortality of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) after 14 days

Dilution

1/32

1/24

1/16

1/8

1/4

1/3

1/2

100% ash

mortality [%]

-

-

0

0

0

-

100

100

Conclusions:
Under the conditions of this study the test substance caused no mortality in earthworm at a concentration of 333 g/kg soil d.w. (NOEC). Meanwhile at a concentration of 1000 g/kg soil d.w. all animals were dead after an exposure period of 14 days. LC50 was not calculated but must be between 333 and 1000 g/kg soil d.w..
Endpoint:
toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods: long-term
Data waiving:
other justification
Justification for data waiving:
other:

Description of key information

The  NOEC is > 333.3 g/kg soil d.w..

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

On behalf of the VGB PowerTech e. V. the toxicity of ashes to earthworm was assessed by Roembke (2008) according to the ISO guideline 11268-1 (Effects of Pollutants on Earthworms. 1. Determination of Acute Toxicity Using Artificial Soil Substrate, 1997).

The tested fly ash (FA1) was structural related to ash (residues), cenospheres and as cenospheres are a component of fly ash, these results can be used as read across.

During an exposure period of 14 days the earthworm species Eisenia fetida was exposed to different concentrations of the substance in soil, ranging from an substance to soil ratio of 1/32 (3.1% ash, 96.9% soil) up to a substrate consisting only of fly ash (100% ash). The test was conducted in covered glass vessels containing 500 g of substrate and 10 adult earthworms per concentration. After 7 days as well as at the end of the experiment on day 14 the number of earthworms alive and their weight was determined.

The substance only caused mortality in earthworms only at the highest test concentration. The fly ashes showed 100% mortality at a concentration of 1000 g/kg (FA1). The NOEC is > 333 g/kg soil d. w.

Therefore, it can be concluded that the substance is not toxic to soil macroorganisms and adverse effects are only expected in very high concentrations.

For long-term testing, a test should only be proposed by the registrant if the results of the chemical safety assessment according to Annex I indicate the need to investigate further the effects of the substance and/or degradation products on terrestrial organisms. As the ash (residues), cenospheres are not classified and data for terrestrial macroorganisms, plants and terrestrial microorganisms are available for fly ash and as cenospheres are a component of fly ash, these results can be used as read across. These endpoints are in the same order of magnitude for the ashes and there was no sign, that terrestrial maroorganisms except arthropods are more sensitive than other soil macroorganisms, plants or microorganisms. Therefore, no further long-term  test was proposed and the PNEC is derived from available data.