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EC number: 201-067-0
CAS number: 77-90-7
ATBC can be rapidly absorbed via oral route of exposure. Absorption via dermal and inhalation routes is limited. Absorbed ATBC was rapidly metabolized and eliminated in rats.
The metabolism of ATBC after oral dosing in male rats was
tested in an ADME study (Hiser et al., 1992; Dow Chem. Co., 1992). In
this study groups of 4 – 5 male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed once via
gavage with 70 mg [14C]ATBC/kg bw and urine, faeces, cage wash, expired
organics and [14C]CO2, blood, tissues (including GI tract and contents)
and carcass were analysed for [14C] and/or unchanged ATBC. Absorption of
dosed [14C] was rapid (t1/2 = 1.0 h) and extensive (>= 67 %). Absorbed
[14C]ATBC was rapidly and completely metabolized and eliminated. More
than 87 % of the administered radioactivity was excreted during the
initial 24 hrs after dosing. For [14C] in blood an elimination half-life
of 3.4 hrs was calculated during this interval. Less than 1 % of the
dosed radioactivity remained in tissues and carcass 48 hrs post-dosing.
The principleroute of [14C] excretion was via urine (59 – 70 % of the
[14C] dose), while 25 – 36 % were excreted via faeces and 2 % as
[14C]CO2. At least 9 radiolabeled metabolites were found in urine and 3
in faeces. Urinary metabolites positively identified were acetyl
citrate, mono-butyl citrate (tentatively the major metabolite), acetyl
mono-butyl citrate, dibutyl citrate, and acetyl dibutyl citrate.
It was concluded that the low oral toxicity of ATBC is
not due to poor absorption but is caused by an intrinsic property of
ATBC and/or its metabolites or is due to rapid clearance in the rat.
No experimental studies on dermal uptake are available
for ATBC. An assessment of its penetration ability through the skin is
assessed based on the physico-chemical properties. Taken into account
molecular weight of 402, logPow of 4.86 and water solubility of 4.49
mg/L, dermal absorption is expected to be low. However, according to the
criteria outlined in TGD (Appendix IV, 2003) 100% dermal absorption
should be considered for ATBC (worst-case).
Due to the logPow of 4.86, a directly absorption of ATBC
across the respiratory epithelium is possible. Water solubility of 4.49
mg/L indicates a certain potential for accumulation. On the other hand,
vapour pressure of 0.049 Pa and boiling point of 331°C point to a low
volatility. Based on these data, it can be expected that ATBC is
marginally available in the air for inhalation. However, 100% for
absorption by inhalation is considered due to the absence of
substance-specific information on absorption rates.
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