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Toxicity to terrestrial plants

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Reference
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
09/03/2012-25/05/2012
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP comparable to OECD guideline
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reference:
Composition 0
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 208 (Terrestrial Plants Test: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
/
GLP compliance:
yes
Test material information:
Composition 1
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
- Method of mixing into soil (if used):Treatment group soils were prepared by incorporating a one kilogram pre-mixture of sand, soil, and test substance into 59 kg of bulk soil and mixing. Treatment group soils were prepared by incorporating a one kilogram pre-mixture of sand, soil, and test substance into 59 kg of bulk soil and mixing.

- Controls:The negative control pre-mixture consisted of a combined 200 grams of sand and 800 grams of soil. Pre-mixtures were incorporated into 59 kg of bulk soil in a soil mixer by mixing the ingredients for a total of approximately 20 minutes.
Species:
Allium cepa
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Onion
- Plant family: Liliaceae
- Variety:Yellow Granex Hybrid 33
- Source of seed: Park Seed Co., Greenwoud, SC USA
Species:
Lolium perenne
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name:Ryegrass
- Plant family:Poaceae
- Variety:Gator 3 Perennial
- Source of seed: Meyer Seed Co, Baltimore, MD, USA
- Prior seed treatment/sterilization: /
Species:
Brassica rapa
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Turnip
- Plant family: Brassicaceae
- Variety: Purple Top White Globe
- Source of seed: Meyer Seed Co, Baltimore, MD, USA

Species:
Cucumis sativus
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Cucumber
- Plant family: Cucurbitaceae
- Variety:Tendergreen Burpless
- Source of seed: Meyer Seed Co, Baltimore, MD, USA

Species:
Lactuca sativa
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Lettuce
- Plant family:Asteraceae
- Variety: Summertime
- Source of seed: Sustainable Seed Co., Covelo, CA, USA
Species:
Lycopersicon esculentum
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Tomato
- Plant family: Solanaceae
- Variety: Rutgers
- Source of seed: Meyer Seed Co., Baltimore, MD, USA

Test type:
seedling emergence toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
artificial soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
21 d
Post exposure observation period:
/
Test temperature:
23.33+/- 0.60 °C
pH:
5.7
Moisture:
49.42 +/- 11.72 %
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Testing facility:subirrigation trays on the greenhouse benches
- Test container (type, material, size):plastic pot (16cm diameter, 12cm in depth)
- Amount of soil:1940cm3
- Method of seeding:a template was used to indent the soil surface and leave ten holes of similar size and depth for planting
- No. of seeds per container:10
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 4
- No. of replicates per control:4





GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod:16-hour
- Light source:artificial + natural sunlight
- Light intensity and quality:/
- Day/night temperatures: min 18°C, max: 32°C
- Relative humidity (%): 49.42 +/- 11.72
- Wind velocity: /
- Air exchange rate: /
- Watering regime and schedules: plants were watered on: 12/03/2012, 16/03/2012, 23/03/2012, 24/03/2012, 26/03/2012, 28/03/2012, 30/03/2012, 01/04/2012
- Water source/type:well water
- Volume applied:/
- Interval of applications:/
- Method of application:subirrigation


ACCLIMATION PERIOD:/

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) :
- emergence
- condition of the seedling: phytotoxicity rating on a scale of 0 to 100
- height and dry weight


- Phytotoxicity rating system (if used):Frans et al., 1977


TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations:3
- Justification for using less concentrations than requested by guideline:/
- Range finding study: yes
-Results used: yes
Nominal and measured concentrations:
12.3; 37.0; 111, 333, 1000 mg/kg dry soil
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Species:
Brassica rapa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: not applicable since there was no effect larger than 50%
Species:
Cucumis sativus
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: not applicable since there was no effect greater than 50%
Species:
Lolium perenne
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: not applicable since there was no effect greater than 50%
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: not applicable since there was no effect greater than 50%
Species:
Lycopersicon esculentum
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: not applicable since there was no effect greater than 50%
Species:
Allium cepa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: not applicable since there was no effect greater than 50%
Species:
Brassica rapa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: not applicable since there was no effect observed
Species:
Cucumis sativus
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: not applicable since there was no effect observed
Species:
Lolium perenne
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: not applicable since there was no effect observed
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: not applicable since there was no effect observed
Species:
Allium cepa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
333 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Details on results:
Lollium perenne

SEEDLING EMERGENCE
SEEDLING EMERGENCE
- Percent seedling emergence (Day 21)
12.3 mg/kg: 85
37.0 mg/kg: 90
111 mg/kg:85
333 mg/kg:95
1000 mg/kg:93.3
- Percent survival:
12.3 mg/kg: 100
37.0 mg/kg: 100
111 mg/kg:97.5
333 mg/kg:100
1000 mg/kg:100
- Plant height (cm):
12.3 mg/kg: 16.7
37.0 mg/kg15.3
111 mg/kg:18.0
333 mg/kg:15.9
1000 mg/kg:16.9
- Biomass (mg):
12.3 mg/kg: 299
37.0 mg/kg: 284
111 mg/kg:304
333 mg/kg:291
1000 mg/kg:289

Allium cepa
SEEDLING EMERGENCE
- Percent seedling emergence (Day 21)
12.3 mg/kg: 92.5
37.0 mg/kg90.0
111 mg/kg:97.5
333 mg/kg:90.0
1000 mg/kg:83.3
- Percent survival:
12.3 mg/kg: 100
37.0 mg/kg100
111 mg/kg:97.5
333 mg/kg:100
1000 mg/kg:100
- Plant height:
12.3 mg/kg:17.6
37.0 mg/kg14.3
111 mg/kg:13.7
333 mg/kg:15.5
1000 mg/kg:15.2
- Biomass (mg):
12.3 mg/kg: 219
37.0 mg/kg161
111 mg/kg:153
333 mg/kg:169
1000 mg/kg:148

Brassica rapa:
SEEDLING EMERGENCE
- Percent seedling emergence (Day 21)
12.3 mg/kg: 92.5
37.0 mg/kg:90
111 mg/kg:95
333 mg/kg:90
1000 mg/kg:93.3
- Percent survival:
12.3 mg/kg: 97.2
37.0 mg/kg100
111 mg/kg:100
333 mg/kg:100
1000 mg/kg:100
- Plant height:
12.3 mg/kg: 21.5
37.0 mg/kg20
111 mg/kg:21.6
333 mg/kg:21.7
1000 mg/kg:20.4
- Biomass (mg):
12.3 mg/kg: 4.84
37.0 mg/kg: 4.58
111 mg/kg:4.99
333 mg/kg:5.03
1000 mg/kg:5.28

Cucumis sativa:
SEEDLING EMERGENCE
- Percent seedling emergence (Day 21)
12.3 mg/kg: 95
37.0 mg/kg92.5
111 mg/kg:90
333 mg/kg:97.5
1000 mg/kg:80
- Percent survival:
12.3 mg/kg:100
37.0 mg/kg100
111 mg/kg:100
333 mg/kg:100
1000 mg/kg:100
- Plant height:
12.3 mg/kg: 12.7
37.0 mg/kg14.1
111 mg/kg:13.4
333 mg/kg:13.4
1000 mg/kg:13.4
- Biomass (mg):
12.3 mg/kg: 4.54
37.0 mg/kg4.93
111 mg/kg:5.05
333 mg/kg:5.18
1000 mg/kg:5.41

Lactuca sativa:
SEEDLING EMERGENCE
- Percent seedling emergence (Day 21)
12.3 mg/kg: 97.5
37.0 mg/kg95
111 mg/kg:87.5
333 mg/kg:95
1000 mg/kg:93.3
- Percent survival:
12.3 mg/kg: 100
37.0 mg/kg100
111 mg/kg:100
333 mg/kg:94.7
1000 mg/kg:100
- Plant height:
12.3 mg/kg: 13.9
37.0 mg/kg13.1
111 mg/kg:12.3
333 mg/kg:13.3
1000 mg/kg:13.2
- Biomass (mg):
12.3 mg/kg: 1.7
37.0 mg/kg1.59
111 mg/kg:1.3
333 mg/kg:1.45
1000 mg/kg:1.62

Lycopersicon esculentum:
SEEDLING EMERGENCE
- Percent seedling emergence (Day 21)
12.3 mg/kg: 95
37.0 mg/kg92.5
111 mg/kg:92.5
333 mg/kg:90
1000 mg/kg:90
- Percent survival:
12.3 mg/kg: 100
37.0 mg/kg100
111 mg/kg:100
333 mg/kg:100
1000 mg/kg:96.3
- Plant height:
12.3 mg/kg: 18.3
37.0 mg/kg17.0
111 mg/kg:18.2
333 mg/kg:15.2
1000 mg/kg:17.5
- Biomass (mg):
12.3 mg/kg: 2.63
37.0 mg/kg2.63
111 mg/kg:2.53
333 mg/kg:2.67
1000 mg/kg:2.50


Results with reference substance (positive control):
/
Reported statistics and error estimates:
/
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Seeds of the test species planted in soils with nominal test substance concentrations of up to 1000 mg/kg dry soil resulted in the following EC50 and NOEC for the most sensitive endpoint of the six species tested: EC50 > 1000 mg/kg dry soil for the six species, NOEC = 1000 mg/kg dry soil for five species, except NOEC = 333 mg/kg dry soil for Allium cepa.
Executive summary:

Brominated Epoxy having Epoxy equivalent of 400gr/eq: A toxicity test to determine the effects on seedling emergence and growth of six species of terrestrial plants.

 Test species  % germ  Family  source of seeds
 Monocots:      
 Allium cepa (onio)/Yellow Granex Hybrid 33  98  Liliaceae  Park Seed Co., Greenwood, SC USA
 Lolium perenne (ryegrass) / Gator 3 Perennial 90 Poaceae   Meyer Seed Co., Baltimore, MD USA
 Dicots:    
 Brassica rapa (turnip)/Purple Top White Globe  85  Brassicaceae    Meyer Seed Co., Baltimore, MD USA
 Cucumis sativa (cucumber)/Tendergreen Burpless  80  Cucurbitaceae    Meyer Seed Co., Baltimore, MD USA
 Lactuca sativa (lettuce)/ Summertime  98  Asteraceae  Sustainable seed Co, Covelo, CA USA
 Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato)/ Rutgers  90  Solanaceae    Meyer Seed Co., Baltimore, MD USA

Nominal test levels: 0 (negative control), 12.3, 37.0, 111, 333, 1000mg/kg (milligrams of test substance per kilogram of dry soil)

Results: seeds of the species planted in soils with nominal test substance concentrations of up to 1000mg/kg dry soil resulted in the following EC50 and NOEC for the most sensitive endpoint of the six species tested:

 Species Family   EC50 (mg/kg)   Most sensitive endpoint  NOEC (mg/kg)  Most sensitive endpoint
 Brassica rapa  Brassiceae  >1000  a  1000  b
 Cucumis sativa  Cucurbitaceae   >1000  a  1000  b
Lollium perenne   Poaceae   >1000  a  1000
 Lactuca sativa  Asteraceae   >1000  a  1000
Lycopersicon esculentum   Solanaceae   >1000  a  1000  b
 Allium cepa  Liliaceae   >1000  a  333  Emergence

a-Not applicable since there was no effect greater than 50%

b-Not applicable since there was no effect observed

Description of key information

Seeds of the test species (Allium cepa, Lollium perenne, Brassica rapa, Cucumis sativa,

Lycopersicon esculentum, Lactuca sativa) planted in soils with nominal test substance concentrations of up to 1000 mg/kg dry soil resulted in the following EC50 and NOEC for the most sensitive endpoint of the six species tested: EC50 > 1000 mg/kg dry soil for the six species, NOEC = 1000 mg/kg dry soil for five species, except NOEC = 333 mg/kg dry soil for Allium cepa.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Short-term EC50 or LC50 for terrestrial plants:
1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Long-term EC10, LC10 or NOEC for terrestrial plants:
333 mg/kg soil dw

Additional information