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Ecotoxicological information

Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Description of key information

NOECreproduction (21d) = 6.8 ng/L (measured) for the waterflea Daphnia magna (OECD 211)
Adverse effects on reproduction occur at concentrations within the substances water solubility.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC10, LC10 or NOEC for freshwater invertebrates:
6.8 ng/L

Additional information

A GLP-conform 21-day reproduction study is available for 4,4’-(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)bis(2-chloroaniline) (Tobor-Kaplon, 2014). Due to the low water solubility of the test item, a Water Soluble Fraction was prepared at a loading rate of 5.0 mg/L and used as the highest concentration. Lower test concentrations were prepared by diluting the highest concentration in test medium. The final test solutions were all clear and colourless. Daphnids were exposed to solutions containing 0.16, 0.80, 4.0, 20 and 100% of the WSF prepared at 5.0 mg 4,4’-(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)bis(2-chloroaniline) per litre. During the study samples for analyses were taken at the beginning and the end of four intervals of 48 hours. Calculated average exposure concentrations corresponded to 6.2, 6.8, 14, 83 and 550 ng/L in solutions containing 0.16, 0.80, 4.0, 20 and 100% of the WSF prepared at 5.0 mg/L, respectively. The average cumulative number of young per female in the control after 21 days was 84. Significant reduction of reproduction was found at average exposure concentrations of 14 ng/L and higher. The onset of reproduction was clearly delayed in the highest group when compared to the control. 4,4’-(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)bis(2-chloroaniline) did not affect reproduction of Daphnia magna at 6.8 ng/L after 21 days of exposure (NOEC).