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Environmental fate & pathways

Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment

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Description of key information

No bioaccumulation is expected

Key value for chemical safety assessment

BCF (aquatic species):
0.5 dimensionless

Additional information

According to the REACH Regulation, Annex IX, Column II, the substance does not need to be tested due to the low potential for bioaccumulation (log

Kow < 3) and a low potential to cross biological membranes (high molecular weight, high polarity); furthermore direct and indirect exposure of the aquatic compartment is unsuitable.

Several bioaccumulation studies are available on the analogous substance CAS 13863-31-5 demonstrating no bioaccumulation in fish:

Bluegills (Lepomis machrochirus) have been exposed in dynamic flowthrough tankwater systems to test item to determine to what degree this product accumulate in portions of the fish which may be consumed by humans. Test concentration was 0.1 mg/l. The exposure period was 35 days and the elimination phase was 7 days. During the tests, fish and water were periodically sampled and analysed. Furthermore an accumulation study using 14C-labeled substance was performed at concentrations of 0.01 and 0.001 mg/l; exposure phase was of 30 days, while elimination phase of 14 days. Only sporadic trace concentrations (less than 0.05 mg/kg) of the test item were present in the fish at exposure levels of 1 mg/l. In most instances, no detectable substance was found. The data indicates that there is no tendency for the substance to be taken up and stored in the fish. In the case of the 14C-substance, at both of the concentrations tested the levels of radioactivity found in the fish were approximately equal to those in the tankwater throughout the study. Furthermore the absence of accumulated radioactivity demonstrated that neither parent compound nor possible metabolites of the substance are accumulated infish. (Ganz, 1975)

The test substance was tested to determine its potential for significant accumulation in the flesh of the Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). The accumulation test was conducted testing the following concentrations: 50 µg/l, 5 µg/l, and 0.5 µg/l total test substances (the study was conducted with five agents administrated in the same solutions). Since the test substance in small samples of fish could not be measured at less than 10 µg/kg, those points at which substance was merely detected have been identified as "t" (trace). The results of the analyses of bluegill exposed to a nominal concentration of 50 µg/l total agents (12.5 µg/l of each one) indicate that no accumulation of the substance of the interest was observed at measurable levels (i.e., greater than 10 µg/kg). At the concentration of 5 and 0.5 µg/l(1.25 and 0.125 µg/l, respectively) no measurable accumulation was detected. (Sturm, 1974)

Sixty (60) Bluegill, minimum size 50 gram, will be continuously exposed to the chemical in water for a period of at least 28 days. After this period, the fish will be transferred to uncontaminated water for a period of 7 days. Five (5) fish will be sampled after 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of exposure with enough fish available for further sampling if necessary. After transfer to uncontaminated water, fish will be sampled on days 1, 3 and 7. Each fish will be rinsed with water and acetone, eviscerated, the carcass and viscera individually wrapped in aluminum foil and identified. The samples will be frozen and shipped to the Sponsor for analysis. At each sample interval, (both exposure and withdrawal) duplicate 1 quart samples will be taken, placed in ambler bottles, preserved by addition of 1 ml of ammonium hydroxide (concentrated) for analysis. Generally the tissue concentrations were not determinable or were too low to be quantified. In one case, a value of 0.03 mg/kg close to the sensitivity limit (0.01 mg/kg) had been measured. Therefore the bioaccumulation potential of the test substance was considered negligible.

The analogous substance is the methyl/hydroxyethylamino derivative, disulphonated sodium salt, member of the Stilbene Fluorescent Whitening Agents category. It has an analogous metabolisation pathway, with the monohydroxyethylamino metabolite in common. It is the less soluble of the group, therefore the most potentially bioaccumulable and the conservative preferred representative


The Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) value has been calculated using BCFBAF v3.01 tool, an application contained in the EpiSuite 4.1, the suite of physical/chemical property and environmental fate estimation programs developed by the EPA’s Office of Pollution Prevention Toxics and Syracuse Research Corporation (SRC). The following smile was set: OCCN(CCO)c2nc(Nc1ccccc1)nc(n2)Nc6ccc(/C=C/c3ccc(cc3S(=O)(=O)O)Nc4nc(nc(n4)N(CCO)CCO)Nc5ccccc5)c(c6)S(=O)(=O)O .

The BCF estimated value from regression-based method is 0.500 (BCF = 3.162 L/kg wet-wt), in agreement with the common value of non bioaccumulable substances