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Ecotoxicological information

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Data have been obtained from secondary sources (EPA databank, pubblications).  

2,4-dinitrophenol seems to be toxic for soil macroorganisms as worms (LC50 for worms is 0.6 (0.5-0.7) ug/cm2 based on mortality endpoint).

A complete study on Dinoseb is available (Carine Staempfli, Joseph Tarradellas, Kristin Becker-van Slooten, , 2006). Dinoseb is an herbicide and insecticide belonging to the dinitrophenol family and the structural formulas of 2,4-dinitrophenol and Dinoseb are similar. They have the same mode of action, uncoupling the ATP synthesis by canceling the cell membrane potential.

Dinitrophenols may also originate as impurities in certain pesticides such as Dinoseb (Wegman RCC, Wammes JI. 1983). The endpoint measured revealed toxicity to Collemboan arthropods at low doses after 21-28 days of exposure. (20 µg/kg soil dw of NOEC, EC50 reproduction of 14.4 µg dinoseb/kg soil dw).

Once in soil, it can be uptake from plants and seeds and be toxic for the germination. The EC50 for terrestrial plants Raphanus sativus is 7.07 (unit 1e-5 M). High concentrations of dinitrophenols are toxic to the growth and development of plants, especially at lower pH, because it can be uptake not ionized (Overcash et al., 1982).

Furthermore, modifications of the soil microbial activity were observed. An IC50 (mg/l) nitrate reductase activity: 45.62 and a concentration IC50 (mg/l) nitrate reductase activity: > 200 were defined for 2,4-dinitrophenol (Okolo et al., 2007). Other observations during biodegradation in soil and sediment tests with observation of the toxicity lever for microorganisms defined that above the level of c.a 100 mg/L, 2,4 -dinitrophenol may be toxic to the degrader microorganisms (Bartha et al. 1967; Namkoong et al. 1988; Schmidt and Gier 1989).

Terrestrial data don't contribute to environmental classification, but due to the specific cellular endpoint (ATP synthesis) with a wide range of effects on organs, all terrestrial organisms could be affected.