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EC number: 208-933-7
CAS number: 547-67-1
The approach for determining the relevant
environmental fate and ecotoxicity effects data for Ni metal and Ni
compounds is based on the observation that adverse effects to aquatic,
soil- and sediment-dwelling organisms are a consequence of exposure to
the bioavailable Ni-ion, as opposed to the parent substances. Hence,
Ecotoxicity Reference Values (ERVs) for metals are derived using data
from several soluble metal substances, and in most cases, are based on
the dissolved metal concentration, not the parent substance. The basis
for this approach is that the parent substances (e.g., NiCl2, NiSO4, and
Ni(NO3)2) all release the same toxicologically relevant metal ion (i.e.,
Ni2+). Therefore, the toxicities of the parent substance will be the
same when normalized to the concentration of the free metal ion. The
relative ecotoxicity of a substance can be estimated by assessing the
nickel ion release from nickel oxalate under environmentally relevant
conditions (from transformation/dissolution testing of nickel oxalate).
The relative toxicity can be assessed by comparing the amount of nickel
ion released in the transformation/dissolution testing to the acute and
chronic reference toxicity values derived from water soluble nickel
substances. This is a reasonable assumption for the majority of
inorganic compounds and some organic compounds (e.g., metal salts of
some organic acids) (ICCM, 2007; OECD, 2007; and ECHA, 2008), provided
no significant effect of the other constituents is expected. The oxalate
ion is not of concern since the toxicity of the oxalate ion is much
lower than that of nickel, as evidenced by aquatic toxicity values for
oxalate to algae and invertebrates being 80 mg/L (NOEC) and 90 mg/L
(EC50) (Bringmann and Kuehn, 1980; Anderson, 1978), respectively,
compared to soluble nickel values of 0.125 mg/L (EC50) and 0.068 mg/L
(LC50) for algae and invertebrates (Deleebeeck et al., 2004 in IUCLID
section 6.1.5; Schubauer-Berigan et al., 1993
and Parametrix, 2005a and b in IUCLID section 6.1.3),
respectively. Therefore, the basis for ecotoxicity of nickel oxalate is
the bioavailable Ni ion, which can be quantified using the
transformation/dissolution testing and comparing it with the toxicity of
the nickel ion toxicity.
Anderson, B.G. 1944. The toxicity thresholds
of various substances found in industrial wastes as determined by the
use of Daphnia magna, Sewage Works J. 16(6): 1156-1165.
Bringmann, G. and Kuehn, R. 1978. Limiting
values for the Noxious Effects of Water Pollutant Material to Blue Algae
(Microcystis aeruginosa) and Green Algae (Scenedesmus quadricauda) in
Cell Propagation Inhibition Tests (Grenzwerte der Schadwirkung Wasse,
Vom Wasser 50: 45-60.
ECHA. 2008. Guidance on Information
Requirements and Chemical Safety Assessment, Chapter R.6: QSARs and
Grouping of Chemicals (Available from ECHA website:
ICMM [International Council on Mining and
Metals]. 2007. Health Risk Assessment Guidance for Metals (HERAG)
(available from ICMM website:
Kirby Memorial Health Center. 2010.
Bioaccessibility of nickel oxalate (soluble nickel analyses in simulated
gastric, interstitial, and lysosomal fluids). Study Sponsor:
Metallo-Chimique. Report Date: 2010-06-30.
OECD [Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and Development]. 2007. Guidance on Grouping of Chemicals. Series on
Testing and Assessment Number 80 (Available from the OECD website:
Skeaff, J., Beaudoin, R. and Gareau-Nantel,
C. 2010. Nickel Oxalate 24 hr T/D test. CANMET-MMSL. CANMET Report No.:
10-015(CR). Study Sponsor: Metallo-Chimique. Report Date: 2010-03-01.
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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