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Key value for chemical safety assessment

Effects on fertility

Description of key information

The reproductive/developmental toxicity of the test substance was screened in a experimental study according to OECD test guideline 422 under GLP-conditions. The substance, solved in distilled water, was administered to Wistar rats of both sexes by oral gavage in doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw daily for 55 to 67 days, starting two weeks before mating. The substance did not adversely affect the reproductive performance in parental males. The substance increased the percentage of post-implantation loss in dams at 1000 mg/kg bw.

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
screening for reproductive / developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 422 (Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test)
Version / remarks:
29 July 2016
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
minor, without any effect on study results and validity
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Limit test:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
SOURCE OF TEST MATERIAL
- Source and lot/batch No. of test material: Product no. B4429, Lot no. SLBK5235V
- Expiration date of the lot/batch: 30 April 2018
- Purity test date: na

STABILITY AND STORAGE CONDITIONS OF TEST MATERIAL
- Storage condition of test material: room temperature

TREATMENT OF TEST MATERIAL PRIOR TO TESTING
- Treatment of test material prior to testing: no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Details on species / strain selection:
Strain: Hsd.Han (of Wistar origin)
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source:
Toxi-Coop Zrt., 1103 Budapest, Cserkesz u. 90
- Females (if applicable) nulliparous and non-pregnant: yes
- Age at study initiation:
13 weeks (both sexes)
- Weight at study initiation:
males: 359-434g
females: 209-250g
- Fasting period before study: no
- Housing: before mating: 2 animals of the same sex/cage; mating: 1 male and 1 female/cage; pregnat females: individually; males after mating: 2/cage
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 27 days

DETAILS OF FOOD AND WATER QUALITY:
food: ssniff SM R/M-Z+H complete diet, changed weekly; tap water, fresh every day

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 22+/- 3°c
- Humidity (%): 30-70%
- Air changes (per hr): 10/hour
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
water
Remarks:
distilled
Details on exposure:
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS:
- the substance was solved in distilled water in concentrations of 20, 60 and 200 mg/L

VEHICLE
- Justification for use and choice of vehicle (if other than water): not applicable
- Concentration in vehicle: 20, 60 and 200 mg/L
- Amount of vehicle (if gavage): 5 mL/kg body weight
- Batch no. (if required): 1610-5527; 1701-5524; 1702-5502 (supplied by Parma Produkt Kft., Budapest, Hungary)
Details on mating procedure:
- M/F ratio per cage: 1/1
- Length of cohabitation: until copulation or 14 days
- Proof of pregnancy: vaginal plug / sperm in vaginal smear referred to as day 0 of pregnancy
- After 14 days of unsuccessful pairing replacement of first male by another male with proven fertility.
- Further matings after two unsuccessful attempts: no
- After successful mating each pregnant female was caged (how): individually
- Any other deviations from standard protocol: none
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Stability and homogeneity in distilled water over the range of relevant concentration has been demonstrated at room temperature for at least five days (approx. 100%), i.e. the maximum age of solutions administered.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
55-67 days (depending on mating effectiveness)
Frequency of treatment:
daily
Dose / conc.:
100 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
300 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
12 male and 12 female per dose and control
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: based on findings from a 14-day dose-range finding experiment that used the same concentrations
- Rationale for animal assignment (if not random): random
- Rationale for selecting satellite groups: not applicable
- Post-exposure recovery period in satellite groups: not applicable
- Section schedule rationale (if not random): random
Positive control:
none
Parental animals: Observations and examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: daily
- Cage side observations: not further specified

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: weekly

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: weekly (starting on Day 0)

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if feeding study): not applicable

FOOD EFFICIENCY:
- Body weight gain in kg/food consumption in kg per unit time X 100 calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: Yes (body weight gain only)

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if drinking water study): not applicable

OTHER: none

Oestrous cyclicity (parental animals):
The estrous cycle was monitored by examining vaginal smears each day before treatment start for each rat being considered for the study for two weeks. The estruos cycle was evaluated and considered for randomisation. However, some animal hot showing typical 4-5 day cycles were included in the study due to the large amount of rats with irregular cycles.
Vaginal smears were prepared and estruos cycle was monitored daily from the beginning of the treatment period (2 weeks pre-mating period) and during the mating period until evidence of mating.
Vaginal smears were also prepared on the day of necropsy.
Smears were stained (1% aqueous methylene blue solution) and examined microscopically.
Sperm parameters (parental animals):
Parameters examined in P male parental generations:
- testis weight
- epididymis weight
Litter observations:
STANDARDISATION OF LITTERS
- Performed on day 4 postpartum: no

PARAMETERS EXAMINED
The following parameters were examined in F1 offspring:
- number and sex of pups, stillbirths, live births, postnatal mortality, presence of gross anomalies, weight gain, anogenital distance (AGD), presence of nipples/areolae in male pups

GROSS EXAMINATION OF DEAD PUPS:
yes, for external and internal abnormalities

ASSESSMENT OF DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY: no

ASSESSMENT OF DEVELOPMENTAL IMMUNOTOXICITY: no
Postmortem examinations (parental animals):
SACRIFICE
- Male animals: All surviving animals on day 55
- Maternal animals: All surviving animals 14 days post-partum

GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes
- adrenal glands
- bone with bone marrow and joint (femur)
- brain (representative regions: cerebrum, cerebellum, pons and medulla oblongata)
- eyes (lachrymal gland with Harderian glands)
- female mammary gland
- gonads (testis with epididymides, ovaries, uterus with fallopian tube and vagina)
- gross lesions
- heart
- large intestines (caecum, colon, rectum, incl. Peyer's patches)
- liver
- lungs (with main stem bronchi)
- muscle (quadriceps)
- esophagus
- pancreas
- pituitary
- prostate
- salivary glands (submandibular)
- sciatic nerve
- seminal vesicle with coagulating gland
- skin
- small intestines (representative regions: duodenum, ileum, jejunum)
- spinal cord (at three levels: cervical, mid-thoracic and lumber
- spleen
- sternum
- stomach
- thymus
- thyroid + parathyroid
- trachea
- urinary bladder

HISTOPATHOLOGY : Yes (control and high dose group)
- ovaries
- uterus
- vagina
- testes
- epididymides
- prostate
- seminal vesicle with coagulating gland
- thymus (one male in low dose group due to hemorrhage)
The tissues indicated above were prepared for microscopic examination and weighed, respectively.
In particular, stages of spermatogenesis in the male gonads and histopathology of interstitial testicular cell structure were examined.
Postmortem examinations (offspring):
SACRIFICE
- The F1 offspring were sacrificed latest at 13 days of age.
- These animals were subjected to postmortem examinations (macroscopic and/or microscopic examination) as follows:

GROSS NECROPSY: Yes, but no detailed information available.

HISTOPATHOLOGY / ORGAN WEIGTHS: none
Statistics:
Depending on variance homogeneity between groups (Bartlett's test), parametric or non-parametric (Kruskal-Wallis test) ANOVA was performed, with subsequent inter-group comparisons (Duncan multiple range test or Mann-Whitney U-Test) in case of significant ANOVA results. If applicable, the Chi-square test was performed.
Reproductive indices:
Male reproduction data:
- Male mating index
- Male fertility index

Female reproduction and delivery data:
- Female mating index
- Female fertility index
- Gestation index
Offspring viability indices:
- Post implantation mortality
- post-natal mortality
- survival index
- sex ratio
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
In the 300 mg/kg bw dose group, brownish fur around the right eye of one male rat and alopecia on the chest of one female rat were observed. These findings occur sporadically in experimental rats and were not related to the treatment.
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
no effects observed
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Some sporadic statistically differences in some parameters (lower mean percentage of monocytes and basophil granulocytes, and a higher mean percentage of reticulocytes at 100 mg/kg bw/day; higher mean percentage of reticulocytes at 300 mg/kg bw/day; lower mean percentage of neutrophil granulocytes and a higher mean percentage of lymphocytes at 1000 mg/kg bw/day) were not related to dose and considered of no toxicological relevance.
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Some sporadic statistically differences in some parameters (higher mean sodium concentration at 100 mg/kg bw/day; elevated urea concentrations at 300 mg/kg bw/day (females) and elevated glucose concentrations at all doses (female)) were not related to dose and considered of no toxicological relevance.
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Histopathological examinations did not reveal any test item related alterations in the organs or tissues of male and female rat at 1000 mg/kg bw/day (ovaries, uterus, vagina, testes, epididymides, prostate and seminal vesicles with coagulation gland in all animals; full histopathology in selected animals).
In one control male a decreased amount of secretum in the seminal vesicle (one side) was observed, which was considered as an individual disorder without toxicological significance.
In the other male rats, the investigated organs of the reproductive system were histologically normal. The various spermatogenic cells were the same in quantity and morphologically in the testes of controls and treated groups. Histology of the epididymides, seminal vesicles and coagulating glands was normal in all animals.
In the female rat the investigated organs of the reproductive system were histologically normal. The cortical region of the ovaries contained primary, secondary and tertiary follicles and corpora lutea, indicating active maturation of oocytes, and ovulation Also the epithelial capsule and ovarian stroma was normal in all cases.
Some lesions were noted (dilatation of uterine horns of one female at 1000 mg/kg bw/day; pulmonary alveolar emphysema in two males and 2 females of the control and two males at 1000 mg/kg bw/day; alveolar histicytosis in one control male; hyperplasia of bronchus associated lymphoid tissue in one control female and two females at 1000 mg/kg bw/day; acute hemorrhage in the thymus in one male at 100 mg/kg bw/day and one female at 1000 mg/kg bw/day) .
Pulmonary emphysema and acute hemorrhage were considered as a consequence of hypoxia, dyspnea and circulatory disturbance developed during exsanguination procedure. Alveolar histicytosis is a common incidental findings in elder rat. Hyperplasia of bronchus associated lymphoid tissue is a physiological immune-morphological phenomenon without toxicological significance. Dilatation of the uterine horns is indicative of a slight neuro-hormonal phenomenon and is in connection with the normal sexual cycle (pro-estrous phase) of uterus without pathological significance.
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Other effects:
no effects observed
Reproductive function: oestrous cycle:
no effects observed
Reproductive function: sperm measures:
not examined
Reproductive performance:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The examined parameters were not affected by the test item in all treated groups. A statistical significant difference in copulatory indices was observed between the control males and the males at 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day. One pair of both of these treated groups failed to mate resulting in a lower copulatory index, which was, however, within the historical controls, so that it was considered to be not related to the test item.
There was no difference between control and treated females in the pre-coital interval and conceiving days. The gestation indices of the treated group exceeded that of the control, as one control females did not deliver.

The percentage of post-implantation loss of 16% (23/145) was statistically significantly higher in the 1000 mg/kg bw group compared to control (4% = 5/136). Also the mean number of post-implantation loss (1.9/dam; SD=2.6) exceeded the control (0.5/dam; SD=0.9) and the historical control mean (1.3/dam; SD=1.5; N = 143 dams) without statistical significance. The mean number of total birth and live pups/litter correlated with these findings with respect to their control. However, the mean number of liveborns or viable pups were comparable to the histrorical control mean. These slight differences were assumed to be test item related.
The number of pregnant females and dams delivered, the mean number of implantations, duration of pregnancy, and pups birth and live birth index were comparable in all groups.
Post-implantation loss:
Control: 5 (of 136) in three dams
100 mg/kg bw/day: 12 (of 144) in five dams
300 mg/kg bw/day: 6 (of 131) in four dams
1000 mg/kg bw/day: 23 (of 145) in seven dams
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male
Remarks on result:
not determinable due to absence of adverse toxic effects
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
300 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
female
Basis for effect level:
reproductive performance
Key result
Critical effects observed:
no
Reproductive function: oestrous cycle:
not examined
Clinical signs:
not examined
Mortality / viability:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Sexual maturation:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not examined
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Developmental immunotoxicity:
not examined
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Generation:
F1
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Remarks on result:
not determinable due to absence of adverse toxic effects
Remarks:
results refer to F1 offsprings
Key result
Critical effects observed:
no
Clinical signs:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Developmental immunotoxicity:
not examined
Key result
Reproductive effects observed:
yes
Lowest effective dose / conc.:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Treatment related:
yes
Relation to other toxic effects:
reproductive effects in the absence of other toxic effects
Dose response relationship:
yes

The reproductive/developmental toxicity of the test substance was screened in a experimental study according to OECD test guideline 422 under GLP-conditions. The substance, solved in distilled water, was administered to Wistar rats of both sexes by oral gavage in doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw daily for 55 to 67 days, starting two weeks before mating. The substance did not adversely affect the reproductive performance in parental males. In contrast, the substance increased the percentage of post-implantation loss in dams at 1000 mg/kg bw. The development of the F1 offsprings, which was observed until post-natal day 13, was not impaired. Based on these results, the NOAEL for the reproductive performance in males and for the development of F1 offsprings was 1000 mg/kg bw. The NOAEL for the reproductive performance in females was 300 mg/kg bw.

Tabulary summary or reproductive and developmental results:

 Observations  Control  100 mg/kg bw/day  300 mg/kg bw/day    1000 mg/kg bw/day
 Pairs started (n) 12 12  12  12 
 Estrous cycle - mean length in days  4.1 4.2  4.0  4.4 
  - irregular cycle  1/12 2/12  1/12  1/12 
 Females showing copulation evidence  12  12  12  12
 Females achieving pregnancy  12  12  12  12
 Conceiving days 0 -5 (n)  12 12  12  11 
 Conceiving days 6 -11 (n)  0  0  0  1
 Pregnancy <= 21 days (n)  0  0  0

 0

 Pregnancy = 22 days (n)  11  12  11

 11

 Pregnancy >= 21 days (n)  0  0  1  1
 Dams with live young born (n)  11  12  12  12
 Dams with live young at day 4 (n)  11  12  12  12
 Implants/dam (mean) 12.4   12.0 10.9  12.1 
 Live pups/dam at birth (mean) 11.9  11.0  10.4  10.2 
 Live pups/dam at day 4 (mean)  11.8 11.0  10.3  10.2 
 Sex ratio (m/f) at birth 5.6/6.2   4.6/6.4 4.7/5.8 4.8/5.4 
 Sex ratio (m/f) at day 4 5.6/6.2  4.6/6.4 4.7/5.7  4.8/5.4 
 Litter weight at birth (mean; g)  73.7 68.9  66.5  63.3 
 Litter weight at day 4 (mean; g)  131.4 122.3   116.4  112.7
 Pup weight at birth (mean; g)  6.3 6.3  6.5  6.3 
 Pup weight at day 4 (mean; g)  11.2 11.3  11.5  11.4 
 Normalised anogenital distance
at day 4 (mean in mm; m/f)
2.8/1.9  2.8/1.9 2.9/1.8 3.0/1.8
 Pup weight at day 13 (mean; g)  32.6 31.2  32.2  32.4 
Number of nipples -male pups at day 13
 ABNORMAL PUPS            
 Dams with 0/1/>=2  0/0/0   0/0/0 0/0/0 0/0/0
 LOSS of OFFSPRINGS            
 Pre-natal/post implantation (implantations minus live birth)             
 Females with 0  8
 Females with 1  2
 Females with 2  1
 Females with >= 3  1
 Post-natal (live birth minus alive at post-natal day 13)            
 Females with 0/1/>=2  10/1/0 12/0/0  11/1/0  12/0/0 
Executive summary:

The reproductive/developmental toxicity of the test substance was screened in a experimental study according to OECD test guideline 422 under GLP-conditions. The substance, solved in distilled water, was administered to Wistar rats of both sexes by oral gavage in doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw daily for 55 to 67 days, starting two weeks before mating. The substance did not adversely affect the reproductive performance in parental males. In contrast, the substance increased the percentage of post-implantation loss in dams at 1000 mg/kg bw. The development of the F1 offsprings, which was observed until post-natal day 13, was not impaired. Based on these results, the NOAEL for the reproductive performance in males and for the development of F1 offsprings was 1000 mg/kg bw. The NOAEL for the reproductive performance in females was 300 mg/kg bw.

Effect on fertility: via oral route
Endpoint conclusion:
adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
300 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
subacute
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
The only available study is of high quality.

Effects on developmental toxicity

Description of key information

The reproductive/developmental toxicity of the test substance was screened in a experimental study according to OECD test guideline 422 under GLP-conditions. The substance, solved in distilled water, was administered to Wistar rats of both sexes by oral gavage in doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw daily for 55 to 67 days, starting two weeks before mating. The development of the F1offsprings, which was observed until post-natal day 13, was not impaired.

Effect on developmental toxicity: via oral route
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
1 000 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
subacute
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
The only available study is of high quality.

Justification for classification or non-classification