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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2018-05-07 to 2018-05-09
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2018
Report date:
2018

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
1-ethyl-2-[1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2,2,4-trimethyl-6-quinolyl]benz[cd]indolium chloride
EC Number:
264-497-8
EC Name:
1-ethyl-2-[1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2,2,4-trimethyl-6-quinolyl]benz[cd]indolium chloride
Cas Number:
63817-45-8
Molecular formula:
C27H31N2O.Cl
IUPAC Name:
2-ethyl-3-[1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-6-yl]-2-azatricyclo[6.3.1.0^{4,12}]dodeca-1(11),2,4(12),5,7,9-hexaen-2-ium chloride
Test material form:
solid: particulate/powder

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Determination of the test item
All concentration levels and the control were analytically verified via HPLC-DAD in the fresh media at the start of exposure (0 hours) and in the old media at the end of the exposure (48 hours).
The method was validated prior to this study according to SANCO 3029/99 rev.4 (2000).

Sampling for the analytical monitoring
At the start of the exposure (0 hours), samples of the fresh media (control and limit concentration) were taken after preparation of the limit concentration and analyzed.
At the end of the exposure (48 hours), samples of the old media (control and limit concentration) were taken directly from the test vessels.

Criteria for the analytical monitoring (target)
Recoveries of the test item should be within ± 20% of the nominal or initially measured concentrations.

Test solutions

Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Preparation of the test item solution
A stock solution with a nominal test item concentration of 15.0 mg/L was freshly prepared prior to test start with dilution water and treated with ultrasound for 10 minutes at room temperature. The test item solution was checked via laser beam (Tyndall effect) for undissolved test item. Since no Tyndall effect was observed, no undissolved test item was present in the stock solution. All tested concentration levels were visually clear throughout the exposure period.

Test concentrations
5 test item concentrations in a geometric series with a separation factor of 2.2, prepared by dilution of the stock solution 15.0 mg/L with dilution water, were tested as follows:
0.640 - 1.41 - 3.10 - 6.82 - 15.0 mg/L
The test item concentrations were based on the results of a non-GLP preliminary range finding test.

Control
Dilution water without test item incubated under the same conditions as the test group.

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
Test system
Daphnia magna STRAUS (Clone 5).

Reason for the selection of the test system
Daphnia magna is the preferred species in accordance with the test guideline and is bred at the test facility.

Origin
Institut für Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene (WaBoLu), 14195 Berlin, Germany


Breeder
Noack Laboratorien GmbH, Käthe-Paulus-Str. 1, 31157 Sarstedt, Germany

Culture
In glass vessels (2 - 3 L capacity) with approximately 1.8 L culture medium, at 20 +/- 2 °C, in an incubator, 16 hours illumination, light intensity of max. 1500 lx

Culture medium
Elendt M4, according to OECD 202, Annex 3 (2004) is used.

Composition of the Culture Medium Elendt M4 according to OECD 202, Annex 3 (2004)
Component Concentration [mg/L]
CaCl2 x 2 H2O 294
MgSO4 x 7 H2O 123
KCl 5.80
NaHCO3 64.8
Na2SiO3 x 5 H2O 7.47
NaNO3 0.274
KH2PO4 0.143
K2HPO4 0.184
Na2EDTA x 2 H2O 2.50
FeSO4 x 7 H2O 0.996
H3BO3 2.86
MnCl2 x 4 H2O 0.361
LiCl 0.306
SrCl2 x 6 H2O 0.152
RbCl 0.0710
NaBr 0.0160
Na2MoO4 x 2 H2O 0.0615
CuCl x 2 H2O 0.0168
ZnCl2 0.0130
CoCl2 x 6 H2O 0.0100
KI 0.00325
Na2SeO3 0.00219
NH4VO3 0.000575
Thiaminhydrochloride 0.075
Cyanocobalamin 0.0010
Biotin 0.00075
pH 8.2 +/- 0.8

Feeding of the culture stocks
The daphnids were fed at least 5 times per week ad libitum with a mix of unicellular green algae, e.g. Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Desmodesmus subspicatus. The algae were cultured at the test facility.

Study design

Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h

Test conditions

Hardness:
see any other informations on matrerial and methods incl. tables
Test temperature:
see any other informations on matrerial and methods incl. tables
pH:
see any other informations on matrerial and methods incl. tables
Dissolved oxygen:
see any other informations on matrerial and methods incl. tables
Conductivity:
see any other informations on matrerial and methods incl. tables
Details on test conditions:
Test vessels
Glass beakers (4 (ID) x 7 (H) cm), 50 mL capacity, loosely covered with watch glasses

Test volume
20 mL

Dilution water
Same composition as the culture medium

Number of daphnids and replicates
20 daphnids, divided into 4 replicates, each with 5 daphnids, were used for the limit concentration and control.

Age of the daphnids at the start of the exposure
Less than 24 hours old daphnids from a healthy stock were used
for the study. Juvenile daphnids were removed from the culture vessels at the latest 24 hours before the start of the exposure and discarded. The juveniles born within the following period of max. 24 hours preceding the exposure were used for the test. No first brood progeny was used for the test.

Acclimatization
Acclimatization of the daphnids was not necessary, because the composition of the dilution water was equivalent to the culture medium.

Application
20 g test solution per replicate was weighed out into each test vessel. This corresponds to 20 mL per test vessel. The daphnids were inserted with a small amount of dilution water by a pipette.

Test temperature (target)
18 - 22 °C, constant within ± 1 °C

Illumination (target)
Diffuse light, light intensity of max. 1500 lx

Photoperiod (target)
16/8 hours light/dark cycle

Feeding
The daphnids were not fed during the study.
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
Potassium dichromate

Results and discussion

Effect concentrationsopen allclose all
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
0.749 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: CI: <0.640 - 1.12
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
1.25 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: CI: 0.672 - 2.66
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
2.15 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: CI: 1.37 - 3.19
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
1.41 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: CI: 0.727 - 2.75
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC100
Effect conc.:
15 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC100
Effect conc.:
3.1 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Test of the Reference Item

The percentage of immobility for the reference item potassium dichromate (SIGMA-ALDRICH, batch number MKBV0900V, purity 99.0%, CAS RN 7778-50-9) was determined after 24 hours from 2018 05-03 to 2018-05-04.

EC50-Value (with 95% Confidence Limits) of the Reference Item Potassium dichromate
based on nominal concentrations mg/L, (0 - 24 hours)
Current Study Valid Range
EC50 2.07 mg/L
0.6 - 2.4 mg/L, acc. to AQS P 9/2 (02/2000); clone 5
0.6 - 2.1 mg/L, acc. to OECD 202 (2004); clone A
95% confidence limits 1.00 - 4.00 mg/L






Reported statistics and error estimates:
Methods of evaluation
The EC100-values after 24 and 48 hours were empirically derived from the observation data. The effect levels (EC10 / 50 / 100) are given based on the nominal concentrations, since the measured test item concentrations were within ± 20% of the nominal concentrations.

EC-values and statistical analyses
The EC10- and EC50-values (after 24 and 48 hours of exposure) were calculated by sigmoidal dose-response regression with the software GraphPad Prism. The respective 95% confidence limits were calculated from the standard error and the t distribution. In case that the confidence limits could not be calculated by the software, the respective confidence limits were empirically derived from the observation data. The concentration-effect relationships are shown graphically.
An EC50 value for the reference item was calculated accordingly. The respective 95% confidence limits were empirically derived from the observation data as follows: The highest concentration level without any effect (EC0) and the lowest concentration level causing 100% immobilization (EC100) were used as 95% confidence limits, since the calculated values were classified as ambiguous by the software.
All calculations were carried out from the best-fit values with the software GraphPad Prism.

Software
All data were computer-processed and rounded for presentation. Consequently, minor variations may occur from the original figures if manual calculations based on the original figures are made subsequently. Calculations were made using the following software:
- GraphPad Prism, GRAPHPAD SOFTWARE, INC.
- Excel, MICROSOFT CORPORATION

Any other information on results incl. tables

 Measured Exposure Concentrations during the Definitive Test

 

The concentrations of the test item Basic Blue 147 Chloride were analytically verified via HPLC-DAD in the fresh media at the start of the exposure (0 hours) and in the old media at the end of the exposure (48 hours) in all tested concentration levels and in the control.

The measured concentrations of the test item at the start of the exposure (0 hours) were in the range of 97 to 105% of the nominal values. At the end of the exposure period (48 hours), the measured concentrations were within the range of 92 to 103% of the nominal values.

The measured concentrations of the test item were within ± 20% of the nominal concentrations. This indicates that the test item concentrations were successfully maintained for the duration of the test.

 

 Measured Concentrations and Percent of the Nominal Concentration of the Test Item Basic Blue 147 Chloride during the Definitive Test

Sampling date

Start of the exposure,
fresh media, 0 hours

End of the Exposure,
old media, 48 hours

Nominal

test item

concentration

[mg/L]

Basic Blue147Chloride

Meas. conc.

[mg/L]

%

Meas. conc.

[mg/L]

%

15.0

14.8

99

15.4

103

 6.82

 6.64

97

 6.66

98

 3.10

 3.01

97

 2.99

96

 1.41

 1.48

105

 1.38

98

 0.640

 0.675

105

 0.590

92

Control

< LOQ

< LOQ

Meas. conc.    = measured concentration of the test item, mean value of two injections, dilution factors taken into account

%                     = percentage of the nominal concentration of the test item

LOQ                = limit of quantification (0.1 mg test item/L)

 

 Preliminary Range Finding Test (non-GLP)

 

A non-GLP preliminary range finding test was conducted at the test facility under static conditions over a period of 48 hours with three nominal test item concentrations of 1, 10 and 100 mg/L prepared with dilution water. The preliminary range finding test was conducted under diffuse light conditions (light intensity of max. 1500 lx, 16/8 hours light/dark cycle).

The test item solutions were visually clear and concentration related purple coloured.

In the range finding test, two replicates per concentration level and control, each with five daphnids, were tested.

 

Immobilization Rates in the non-GLP Preliminary Range Finding Test

(n = 10, divided into 2 replicates with 5 daphnids each)

Nominal

test item

concentration

[mg/L]

IMMOBILIZATION [%]

24 hours

48 hours

Replicates

Replicates

1

2

MV

1

2

MV

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

 10

100

100

100

100

100

100

   1

0

0

0

0

0

0

Control

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

MeasuredConcentrations ofBasicBlue 147 Chlorideduring the non-GLPPreliminary Range Finding TesT

Analytical system: HPLC-DAD

Sampling

Start of the exposure, 0 hours

End of the Exposure, 48 hours

Nominal test item

concentration

[mg/L]

BasicBlue 147 Chloride

Measured concentration

[mg/L]

%

Measured concentration

 [mg/L]

%

100

118

118

114

114

 10

 11.1

111

 10.9

109

   1

 1.08

108

 1.04

104

Control

< LCL

< LCL

%                     = percent of the nominal concentration of the test item

LCL                  = lowest calibration level (0.05 mg/L of the test item)

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Based on the nominal concentrations of the test item Basic Blue 147 Chloride, the 48-hours EC50 for Daphnia magna was 1.41 mg/L (95% confidence limits: 0.727 – 2.75 mg/L).
Executive summary:

In the acute immobilization test with Daphnia magna(STRAUS), the effects of the test item Basic Blue 147 Chloride were determined at the test facility according to OECD 202 (2004) from 2018-05-07 to 2018-05-09.

The study was conducted under static conditions over a period of 48 hours with five nominal test item concentrations in a geometric series with a separation factor of 2.2. All tested concentration levels were visually clear and concentration-depended blue coloured throughout the exposure period.

Twenty daphnids (divided into 4 replicates with 5 daphnids each) were exposed to each concentration leveland the control.

The concentrations of the test item Basic Blue 147 Chloride were analytically verified via HPLC-DAD in the fresh media at the start of the exposure (0 hours) and in the old media at the end of the exposure (48 hours) in all tested concentration levels and in the control.

The measured concentrations of the test item at the start of the exposure (0 hours) were in the range of 97 to 105% of the nominal values. At the end of the exposure period (48 hours), the measured concentrations were within the range of 92 to 103% of the nominal values.

The measured concentrations of the test item were within ± 20% of the nominal concentrations. This indicates that the test item concentrations were successfully maintained for the duration of the test. Therefore, all effect concentrations are based on the nominal concentrations of the test item Basic Blue 147 Chloride.

The validity criteria of the test guideline were fulfilled.

 

EC10-, EC50- (with 95% Confidence Limits) and EC100-Values

(based on the nominal concentrations of the test item)

Effect concentrations

 

Test duration

[hours]

BasicBlue 147Chloride

Nominal test item concentration

[mg/L]

EC10

(with 95% confidence limits)

24

 0.749

(95% Cl:0.640 – 1.12)

48

 1.25

(95% Cl: 0.672 – 2.66)

EC50

(with 95% confidence limits)

24

 2.15

(95% Cl: 1.37 – 3.19)

48

 1.41

(95% Cl: 0.727 – 2.75)

EC100

24

15.0

 

48

 3.10