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Toxicity to terrestrial plants

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Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1994-02-17 to 1994-03-07
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: OECD guideline 208 "Terrestrial Plants, Growth Test", adopted 4 April 1984
GLP compliance:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): WITAMOL 118
- Substance type: product
- Physical state: liquid
- Other: none
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
- Method of mixing into soil: 0.16 g of test substance were mixed with 20 g silica sand and 1580 g soil
- Controls: yes, negative control
Species:
Triticum aestivum
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: wheat
- Plant family: Poaceae
- Variety: not mentioned
- Source of seed: Hüls Gartenbaubetrieb, Marl, Germany
- Prior seed treatment/sterilization: not mentioned
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): not tested
- Seed storage: not mentioned
Species:
Brassica alba
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: mustard
- Plant family: Brassicaceae
- Variety: not mentioned
- Source of seed: Hüls Gartenbetriebe, Marl, Germany
- Prior seed treatment/sterilization: not mentioned
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): ot tested
- Seed storage: not mentioned
Species:
Lepidum sativum
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: garden cress
- Plant family: Brassicaceae
- Variety: not mentioned
- Source of seed: Hüls Gartenbetriebe, Marl, Germany
- Prior seed treatment/sterilization: not mentioned
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): ot tested
- Seed storage: not mentioned
Test type:
seedling emergence toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
artificial soil
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
18 d
Post exposure observation period:
none
Test temperature:
20 - 25 °C
pH:
6.6
Moisture:
approx. 60 % (maximum holding water capacity) at the beginning of the test, no further details mentioned
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Testing facility: partly air-conditioned room, no further details mentioned
- Test container (type, material, size): flowerpots of black plastics (diameter top/bottom approx. 8/6 cm; height approx. 6 cm)
- Amount of soil: 100 g test substrate per planting pot
- Method of seeding: not mentioned
- No. of seeds per container: 5
- No. of plants (retained after thinning): no thinning performed
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 20 (for each plant species 4 replicates with 5 seeds each)
- No. of replicates per control: 20 (4 replicates with 5 seeds each)



SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Composition (if artificial substrate): corresponded to the requirements of the guideline, no further details mentioned
- Organic carbon (%): < 1.5 %
- Maximum water holding capacity (in % dry weigth): approx. 60 %
- CEC: not mentioned
- Pretreatment of soil: sieved with 0.5 cm mesh, no further details mentioned
- Storage (condition, duration): not mentioned


NUTRIENT MEDIUM: not used


GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 h light, 8 h darkness
- Light source: not mentioned
- Light intensity and quality: approx. 1500 Lux (day), approx. 50 Lux (night)
- Day/night temperatures: 20 - 25 °C, not differentiated between day and night
- Relative humidity (%): approx. 98 %
- Wind velocity: not applicable
- Air exchange rate: not mentioned
- Watering regime and schedules:
- Water source/type: not mentioned
- Volume applied: not mentioned
- Interval of applications: once to twice per week
- Method of application: not mentioned
- Any pest control method/fertilization (if used): not used

ACCLIMATION PERIOD: not mentioned


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : emergence of seeds, weight of overground part of plant at the end of the test


- Phytotoxicity rating system (if used): not used
Nominal and measured concentrations:
100 mg /kg soil (nominal)
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Species:
Triticum aestivum
Duration:
19 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Key result
Species:
Triticum aestivum
Duration:
19 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth
Key result
Species:
Brassica alba
Duration:
19 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Key result
Species:
Brassica alba
Duration:
19 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth
Key result
Species:
Lepidum sativum
Duration:
19 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Key result
Species:
Lepidum sativum
Duration:
19 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth
Details on results:
SEEDLING EMERGENCE
- Percent seedling emergence: see below
- Percent survival: see below
- Plant height: not measured
- Dry weight: not measured, fresh weight was measured: see below
- Abnormal seed development or appearance: not determined
- Other effects: none
Results with reference substance (positive control):
no reference substance tested
Reported statistics and error estimates:
not significantly different (t-test, alpha = 0.05)

- Nominal concentrations: 100 mg/kg dry soil

- Effect data: Wheat

- Emergence: 90% (18/20)

- mean fresh weight: 339 ± 90 mg

Control:

- Emergence: 90% (18/20)

- mean fresh weight: 345 ± 91 mg

- Effect data: Cress

- Emergence: 95% (19/20)

- mean fresh weight: 100 ± 27 mg

Control:

- Emergence: 100% (20/20)

- mean fresh weight: 80 ± 24 mg

- Effect data: Mustard

- Emergence: 95% (19/20)

- mean fresh weight: 228 ± 47 mg

Control:

- Emergence: 95% (19/20)

- mean fresh weight: 238 ± 70 mg

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Executive summary:

For all 3 tested terrestrial plants (triticum aestivum, Brassica alba, Lepidum sativum) no negative effects for seedling emergence and growth up to the highest concentration of 100 mg/kg soil dw 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, di-C8-10-alkyl esters could be observed.

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 208 (Terrestrial Plants, Growth Test)
Version / remarks:
Study conducted with three terrestrial plant species
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Specific details on test material used for the study:
STABILITY AND STORAGE CONDITIONS OF TEST MATERIAL
- Storage condition of test material: Tightly closed, at a dry and good ventilated place.
- Solubility and stability of the test substance in the solvent/vehicle: Not applicable

TREATMENT OF TEST MATERIAL PRIOR TO TESTING
- Treatment of test material prior to testing: None.
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
- Method of mixing into soil (if used):The respective test item amount was weighed out for each concentration and blended thoroughly with quartz sand (1 % of the entire soil amount per concentration). Afterwards the test item - quartz sand mixture and an appropriate amount of demineralised water (adjusting the soil to a moisture of 50 % of the maximum water holding capacity (WHC)) were added to the soil.
- Controls: Untreated soil.

Species:
Allium cepa
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Onion
- Plant family: Amaryllidaceae
- Source of seed: Hild Samen GmbH, Marbach, Germany
- Seed storage: The seeds were stored in the dark at the test facility at room temperature (22 ± 10 °C) and protected from moisture until use.
Species:
Beta vulgaris
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Sugar beet
- Plant family: Amaranthaceae
- Source of seed: KWS Saat SE, Einbeck, Germany
- Seed storage: The seeds were stored in the dark at the test facility at room temperature (22 ± 10 °C) and protected from moisture until use.
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Soybean
- Plant family: Fabaceae
- Source of seed: Farmsaat AG, Everswinkel, Germany
- Seed storage: The seeds were stored in the dark at the test facility at room temperature (22 ± 10 °C) and protected from moisture until use.
Test type:
seedling emergence and seedling growth test
Study type:
extended laboratory study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
21 d
Remarks:
28 d exposure for onion
Test temperature:
16.1 - 25.8°C
pH:
6.14 ± 0.03
Moisture:
50% of max. WHC
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Testing facility: NOACK Laboratorien GmbH, Saarstedt, Germany
- Test container (type, material, size): Non-porous plastic containers (standard flower pots) with a diameter of ca. 12 cm.
- Amount of soil: 0.7 kg
- Method of seeding: Seeding holes were made with a seedling pistil, one seed was given into each hole and covered with soil.
- No. of seeds per container: 5 (3 for soybeans)
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 8
- No. of replicates per control: 8
- No. of replicates per vehicle control: Not applicable

SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Source: Landwirtschaftliche Untersuchungs- und Forschungsanstalt Speyer (LUFA), Obere Langgasse 40, 67346 Speyer, Germany; Dörentrup Quarz GmbH Co. KG, An der Sandgrube 1,
31089 Duingen, Germany
- Composition (if artificial substrate): A 2:1 mixture of natural soil LUFA 2.2 (batch number: Sp2.23916) and quartz sand was used.
- Grain size: =< 2 mm
- Carbon content: 0.943 %
- pH-value: 6.14 ± 0.03
- Maximum water holding capacity: 43.51 g/100 g soil DW

NUTRIENT MEDIUM
- Description: Bottom watering of the test containerswith 0.05 ‰ fertilizer solution (HAKAPHOS® SOFT SPEZIAL 16+8+22(+3); Origin:Grünes Landhaus, St. Godehard-Str. 23, 31139 Hildesheim, Germany)

GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16h
- Light source: Cool white fluorescent tubes
- Light intensity: 5235 ± 692 lux
- Day/night temperatures: 16.1 - 25.8
- Relative humidity (%): 27.9 - 78.8
- Watering regime and schedules: Bottom watering
- Interval of applications: Once at study initiation.
- Method of application: Test item amount was weighed out for each concentration and blended thoroughly with quartz sand .

ACCLIMATION PERIOD:

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) :
- Number of emerged seedlings, number of dead plants and visual phytotoxic effects on day 7, 14 and 21, onion additionally on day 28.
- At the end of the study the shoot heights (in cm) and the shoot fresh weights of the shoots (in g) were measured additionally, directly after cutting the plants at the soil surface.

VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: not applicable

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2
- Justification for using less concentrations than requested by guideline: not applicable
- Range finding study
- Test concentrations: 10 - 100 - 1000 mg/kg dw
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: No significant effects at 10 mg/kg dw and effects at 100 and 1000 mg/kg dw not conclusive/significant. Therefore concentration range of <100 - 1000 mg/kg dw chosen for definitive test.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: 1000 - 500 - 250 - 125 - 62.5 mg/kg DW
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Remarks:
No reference item is recommended for this test according to the test guideline (OECD 208).
Key result
Species:
Allium cepa
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks:
(shoot height and shoot fresh weight)
Key result
Species:
Allium cepa
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Key result
Species:
Beta vulgaris
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
(hoot height and shoot fresh weight)
Key result
Species:
Beta vulgaris
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Key result
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
(shoot weight and shoot fresh weight)
Key result
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Details on results:
No significant effects observed for any parameter.
  Test concentration [mg/kg DW] Mean Emergence rate Day 7 [%] Mean Emergence rate Day 14 [%] Mean Emergence rate at test end - Day 21 (Day 28 for onion) [%] Shoot Height at Test End, Mean ± SD [cm] Shoot Fresh Weight at Test End, Mean ± SD [mg]
Onion control 0 80 80 16.1 ± 1.6 204 ± 45
    62.5 0 83 83 16.2 ± 2.3 201 ± 41
  125 0 88 88 15.7 ± 2.3 202 ± 45
  250 0 73 73 16.3 ± 2.2 200 ± 41
  500 0 80 83 15.1 ± 2.4 194 ± 44
1000 0 80 85 16.6 ± 1.2 204 ± 40
Sugar beet control 88 90 90 8.6 ± 0.7 794 ± 186
    62.5 88 95 95 9.0 ± 1.4 825 ± 270
  125 98 98 98 9.7 ± 0.6 922 ± 78
  250 90 93 93 9.2 ± 0.9 872 ± 177
  500 93 93 93 9.2 ± 0.4 907 ± 142
1000 95 95 95 9.1 ± 0.8 867 ± 178
Soybean control 75 92 96 18.7 ± 2.5 2145 ± 436
    62.5 67 79 79 20.3 ± 1.4 2345 ± 361
  125 71 71 71 20.7 ± 1.9 2561 ± 452
  250 58 67 71 18.7 ± 2.2 2056 ± 367
  500 75 83 88 19.4 ± 2.8 2106 ± 481
1000 63 71 71 19.9 ± 3.3 2152 ± 659
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
No test item related phytotoxic effects and mortality occurred during the test period for all plant species. The statistically determined NOEC value is ≥ 1000 mg/kg DW.
The results of the control for all plant species met the required validity criteria. Therefore, the test is considered to be valid.
Executive summary:

The phytotoxicity of 1,2 -Benzenedicaboxylic acid, di-C8 -10 -alkyl esters to three terrestrial plant species was determined in a seedling emergence and seedling growth test over a period of 21 days (onion: 28 days), from 2017-01-11 to 2017-02-08, according to OECD 208 (July 2006).

Test systems comprised one monocotyledon (onion, Amaryllidaceae), and two dicotyledons (sugar beet, Amaranthaceae; soybean, Fabaceae) and the test was conducted with test concentrations of 1000 - 500 - 250 - 125 - 62.5 mg/kg DW. The test item was incorporated into the soil in which the seeds were sown afterwards. The test containers were bottom watered with nutrient solution as needed.

Potential toxic effects of the test item were assessed on day 7, 14 and 21 (onion additionally on day 28) by visual observations (number of emerged seedlings and phytotoxic effects) and at test end by shoot height and shoot fresh weight determination.

No test item related phytotoxic effects and mortality occurred during the test period for all plant species. The statistically determined NOEC value is ≥ 1000 mg/kg DW.

The results of the control for all plant species met the required validity criteria. Therefore, the test is considered to be valid.

Description of key information

(Short-term) LC10: > 100 mg/kg dw

(Long-term) NOEC ≥ 1000 mg/kg dw

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

For all 3 tested terrestrial plants (Triticum aestivum, Brassica alba, Lepidum sativum) no negative effects for seedling emergence and growth up to the highest concentration of 100 mg/kg soil dw 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, di-C8-10-alkyl esters could be observed.

In an another long-term terrestrial plant toxicity study with 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, di-C8-10-alkyl esters three additional species (Allium cepa, Beta vulgaris, Glycine max) were tested. No effects on seedling emergence or growth (shoot height, shoot fresh weight) were found in the highest test concentration and therefore the NOEC was determined as ≥1000 mg/kg dw.

These studies are supported by the result with the structurally related substance 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, di-C6-10-alkyl esters with a LC10 in excess of 100 mg/kg dry soil.