Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Description of key information

Oral (OECD 408, rat): NOAEL ≥ 1000 mg/kg bw/day

Read-across from structural analogue source substance Pentaerythritol ester of pentanoic acids, mixed esters with pentaerythritol, isopentanoic and isononanoic acid (CAS No. 146289-36-3)

Inhalation (similar to OECD 413, rat): NOAEC = 0.5 mg/L air

Read-across from structural analogue source substance Fatty acids, C5-9 tetraesters with pentaerythritol (CAS No. 67762-53-2)

Dermal (similar to OECD 411, rat): NOAEL ≥ 2000 mg/kg bw/day

Read-across from structural analogue source substance Fatty acids, C5-9 tetraesters with pentaerythritol (CAS No. 67762-53-2)

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Repeated dose toxicity: via oral route - systemic effects

Link to relevant study records

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: oral
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
17 Nov 1997 - 16 Mar 1998
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 408 (Repeated Dose 90-Day Oral Toxicity in Rodents)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Remarks:
ToxLabs Prüflabor GmbH, Greppin, Germany
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River Wiga GmbH
- Age at study initiation: 32-38 d
- Weight at study initiation: 148.5 g (mean value males), 136.7 g (mean value females)
- Housing: one or two animals in cages (Makrolon Type 3)
- Diet: Altromin 1326, ad libitum
- Water: tap water, ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 6-8 days


ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 20-23
- Humidity (%): 30-60
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
other: distilled water containing 1% Tween 80
Details on oral exposure:
VEHICLE
- Concentration in vehicle: 1%
- Lot/batch no. (if required): S23350 739
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Duplicate 2 mL samples of each formulation were taken and stored in the frozen state until measurement
Duration of treatment / exposure:
90 d
Frequency of treatment:
once daily, 7 days/week
Dose / conc.:
100 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
300 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10 (control, test and satellite groups)
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Rationale for selecting satellite groups: 10 animals each from the high dose and the vehicle group were used to investigate reversibility of possible effects
- Post-exposure recovery period in satellite groups: 28 d
Positive control:
No
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes, autonomic activity, presence of clonic or tonic movements, stereotypies, bizarre behavior
- Time schedule: Daily

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes, changes in skin, fur, eyes, mucous membranes, gait, posture: response to handling; occurrence of secretions and excretions
- Time schedule: Daily

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: Weekly from the start to the end of the study

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if feeding study):
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg body weight/day: Yes

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: prior to the administration and at the end of the study
- Dose groups that were examined: All (surviving) animals

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: Just prior to killing at the end of the study
- Anesthetic used for blood collection: Yes (Ether)
- Animals fasted: Yes, over night
- How many animals: All animals
- Parameters examined: erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, platelet count, total leukocyte count, leukocyte differential count, prothrombine time, fibrinogen concentration

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: Just prior to killing at the end of the study (including the satellite groups)
- Animals fasted: Yes
- How many animals: all animals
- Parameters examined: alkaline aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, creatinine, fasting glucose, phosphorus, total cholesterol, total protein, albumin, chloride, potassium, sodium

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: Prior to administration, at monthly intervals and in the last week of dosing and in the last week of the recovery period.
- Dose groups that were examined: all
- Battery of functions tested: sensory activity (auditory, visual and proprioceptive stimuli) / grip strength / motor activity
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: cranial, thoracic and abdominal cavities were opened and examined macroscopically
HISTOPATHOLOGY: adrenals, aorta, brain (3 sections), epididymides, eye, femur, heart, kidney, liver, lungs (incl. mainstem bronchi), mesenteric lymph node, muscle incl. sciatic nerve, oesophagus, ovaries, pancreas, pituitary, prostate, seminal vesicle, skin incl. mammary glands, small and large intestine (including peyer´s patches), spinal chord (3 levels), spleen, sternum with bone marrow, stomach, submandibular lymph node, testes, thymus, thyroid (incl. parathyroids), trachea, urinary bladder, uterus
Other examinations:
Organ weights of adrenals, brain, epididymides, testes, heart, kidneys, liver, ovaries, spleen, testes and thymus
Statistics:
Body weights, food consumption: Welch t-test

Haematology, coagulation, clinical biochemistry and absolute and relative organ weights: Dunnett´s test

Differential leukocyte count: Mean, range and standard deviation
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Food efficiency:
no effects observed
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
no effects observed
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
high dose group (female): fibrinogen concentration of plasma and creatinine content increased, high dose group (male/female): alkaline phosphatase increased, middle and high dose groups (male/female): sreum urea nitrogen increased, all non-adverse
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
no effects observed
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
increased kidney weights for high dose males and females, non-adverse
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
intracellular fat and low-grade fatty degenerations of hepatocytes in all male animals, female control, middle dose and high dose groups, non-adverse
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Details on results:
CLINICAL SIGNS AND MORTALITY
Two animals died shortly after administration due to incorrect gavage shown by lungs filled with blood. None of the animals showed any alterations of their general state of well-being and behaviour at any observation period (few observations were made substance independent and for a short period of time).

BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT GAIN
Not affected by the test compound.

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if feeding study)
Not dose-dependently influenced.

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION
No alterations.

HAEMATOLOGY
Not influenced.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
The fibrinogen concentration of the plasma was increased in the female animals of the high dose group, this was no longer apparent at the end of the treatment-free period.
The activity of alkaline phosphatase of the serum significantly increased in the high dose group, males and femals. This indicates damage to liver cells and/or an increased function rate. This finding was no longer apparent at the end of the treatment-free period.
The serum urea nitrogen was significantly increased in the middle and high dose group of the males and in the high dose group of female animals. The creatinine content was significantly increased in all male and in the high dose group of the female animals. The phosphorus content was significantly increased dose-dependently in all female animals and the sodium content was dose-dependently decreased in the male animals, significantly in the animals of the middle and high dose groups. These effects were no longer apparent at the end of the treatment-free period.

NEUROBEHAVIOUR
No changes in grip strength, motor activity and sensory response.

ORGAN WEIGHTS
Absolute and relative kidney weights were increased in all male animals in the high dose group which was still present after the recovery period. Absolute and relative liver weights were increased in both sexes but this was no longer apparent after the recovery period in females. Other significant differences seem to be incidental.

GROSS PATHOLOGY
No substance-dependent changes.

HISTOPATHOLOGY: NON-NEOPLASTIC
Intracellular lipid droplets in hepatocytes of the female animals in the high and mid dose group (5-90% of the observed area) with cell lesions were clearly caused dose-dependently by the test article. There was no special localization of the changes of hepatocytes in the liver lobules. In most cases only low grade intracellular lipopexia occurred in the male animals.
Stomach: Oesophagal part and cardia with multilayered squamous epithelium, leukocyte infiltration in the submucosa and fibrous repair, fibrotic regions in the submucosa of the glandular stomach
Lungs: Atelectactic and emphysemic areas
Thymus: Partial substitution of the parenchyma by fibrinogenesis
Skin: Benign fibrous proliferation
Sciatic nerve: Thickening of the perineurium and thickening of the adventitia of the vessels


Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
>= 1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: Basis: no adverse effects observed
Critical effects observed:
no
Endpoint:
short-term repeated dose toxicity: oral
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
Guideline study with acceptable restrictions (Lack of data on test substance. Not all required organs were weighed and examined during necropsy (only liver, kidneys, adrenals, brain and testes/ovaries) and histopathology (only liver, kidneys, adrenals, heart, spleen, lung, testes/ovaries and gross lesions))
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 407 (Repeated Dose 28-Day Oral Toxicity in Rodents)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
(not all required organs were examined during necropsy and histopathology, positive control was included)
GLP compliance:
yes
Species:
rat
Strain:
other: Crl:CD BR
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River Laboratories, Stone Ridge, NY, USA
- Age at study initiation: approximately 7 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: 216.6 - 251.2 g (males); 161.9 - 187.8 g (females)
- Assigned to test groups randomly: yes, by a computer-generated body weight sorting program
- Housing: the animals were housed individually in suspended stainless steel and wire mesh cages with absorbent paper below the cages.
- Diet: certified Rodent Diet # 5002 (pellets) (PMI Feeds Inc.), ad libitum
- Water: tap water, ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 13 d

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 20 - 24
- Humidity (%): 40 - 70
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12

IN-LIFE DATES:
From: 28 Sep 1994
To: 27 Oct 1994
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
other: polyethylene glycol (PEG 400)
Details on oral exposure:
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS: The test substance was diluted in the vehicle to a concentration of 2% (w/v).

VEHICLE
- Justification for use and choice of vehicle (if other than water): the test substance was soluble in PEG 400 at the concentrations required for this study.
- Concentration in vehicle: 2% (w/v)
- Amount of vehicle (if gavage): 5 mL/kg bw
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
The stability, uniformity and concentration of the test substance and the positive control substance in their vehicles were analysed. The analysis for the stability and uniformity were initiated prior to or concomitant with the initiation of dosing. Concentration analysis were performed for the mixtures of weeks 1 and 4.
A solution of 2% (w/v) test substance in PEG 400 was stable for at least 8 d at room temperature. The relative standard deviation of a solution of 2% of the test substance in PEG 400 was 0.732. The analysis of the concentration indicated that all solutions were within 9% of the nominal concentrations for weeks 1 and 4.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
28 d
Frequency of treatment:
once daily, 7 d/week
Dose / conc.:
100 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
500 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
5
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Positive control:
acrylamide
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: twice daily monday through friday, once daily on weekends and holidays

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: daily

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: on the day of initiation of dosing (Day 0), on Days 7, 14, 21, 27 and on the day of sacrifice (Day 28)

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE:
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg body weight/day: Yes
- Time schedule: weekly

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: Day 28
- Anaesthetic used for blood collection: es, methoxyflurane
- Animals fasted: Yes
- How many animals: all surviving animals
- Parameters observed: hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocyte count, leukocyte count (total and differential), platelet count, reticulocyte count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration; to estimate the clotting potential prothrombin time and thromboplastin time were observed

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: Day 28
- Animals fasted: Yes
- How many animals: all surviving animals
- Parameters observed: albumin, urea nitrogen, calcium, creatinine, electrolytes (Na+, CI-, K+), glucose, phosphorus, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, serum alanine aminotransferase, serum aspartate aminotransferase, serum alkaline phosphatase, total protein, total bilirubin, cholesterol and triglycerides

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: prior to initiation of dosing, on Day 8 and on the last day of dosing (both at least 1 h after dosing)
- Dose groups that were examined: all surviving animals
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes, including organ weights of liver, kidneys, adrenals, brain and testes/ovaries
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes, histopathological examination of liver, kidneys, adrenals, spleen, heart, lungs, testes/ovaries and gross lesions from the animals of the vehicle and positive control groups and the high dose group; histopathological examination of liver, kidneys, lungs and gross lesions from the animals of the low and mid dose groups.
Statistics:
The statistical evaluation of equality of means was done by an appropriate one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a test for ordered response in the dose groups. To determine if the dose groups have equal variance, Bartlett's Test was performed. If the variances were equal, the testing was done using parametric methods, otherwise nonparametric techniques were used.
For the parametric procedures, a standard one way ANOVA using the F distribution to assess significance was used. If significant differences among the means were indicated, Dunnett's Test was used to determine which treatment groups differed significantly from control. In addition to the ANOVA, a standard regression analysis for linear response in the dose groups was performed. The regression also tested for linear lack of fit in the model.
For the nonparametric procedures the test of equality of means was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis Test. If significant differences among the means were indicated, Dunn's Summed Rank Test was used to determine which treatment groups differed significantly from the control. In addition to the Kruskal-Wallis Test, Jonckheere's Test for monotonic trend in the dose response was performed.
Bartlett's Test for equal variance was conducted at the 1% level of significance. All other tests were conducted at the 5% and 1% level of significance.
Clinical signs:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
but no treatment-related effects
Mortality:
mortality observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence):
but no treatment-related effects
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
but no dose-response pattern
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
but no dose-response pattern
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
but no dose-response pattern
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
but no dose-response pattern
Gross pathological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
but no treatment-related effects
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
but no treatment-related effects
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Details on results:
CLINICAL SIGNS AND MORTALITY
One male animal of the 500 mg/kg bw group died after the first application due to a gavage error. This animal was replaced on Day 1 with another animal, that received one less dose than the other animals. All animals survived the study period to the scheduled termination.
No clinical signs occurred that were judged to be related to the treatment with the test substance. In one or more groups including the controls, there were single or very low incidences of scabs (1/5 males in the control and in the mid dose group), sores (1/5 males in the control and in the mid dose group), dental abnormalities (1/5 males in the mid and high dose group), red material penis (1/5 males in the mid dose group), dry rales (1/5 females in the low and high dose group) and alopecia (1/5 males in the control group) observed. Soft stool was observed in 1/5 males and 2/5 females of the control group, 3/5 females of the low dose group, 3/5 males and 1/5 females of the mid dose group and 4/5 females of the high dose group.

BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT GAIN
No effects on the body weight were observed after treatment of the animals with the test substance.

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE
No effects on the food consumption of the test substance treated animals were observed.

HAEMATOLOGY
There were no significant differences in the hematology parameters between the negative control and the animals received the test substance. The hemoglobin of the females of the low dose group was slightly decreased compared to the negative control. This effect was not considered to be clinically significant due to the absence of similar findings in other red blood cell parameters and a dose-response pattern.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
There were no significant differences in the clinical chemistry parameters between test substance treated and negative control animals which were judged to be test substance related. In male animals, statistically significant decreases in mean calcium, total protein and albumin in the mid dose group and an increase in alanine aminotransferase in the low dose group were observed. These effects were not considered to be clinically significant due to the absence of a clear dose-response pattern.

NEUROBEHAVIOUR
The neurobehavioural observations made on Day 8 and Day 27 were unremarkable for the animals treated with the test substance.
On Day 8, the following anomalities in neurobehaviour were observed: increased respiration in 1/5 males at 100 mg/kg bw/d and 1/5 females at 500 mg/kg bw/d, decreased toe pinch response in 1/5 females at 100 mg/kg bw/d and 2/5 males at 1000 mg/kg bw/d, increased toe pinch response in 1/5 females of the negative control and abnormal air righting in 1/5 males at 1000 mg/kg bw/d.
On Day 27, there was an increased incidence of decreased arousal in 3/5 males and 4/5 females of the negative control group, 5/5 males and 3/5 females at 100 mg/kg bw/d, 2/5 males and 1/5 females at 500 mg/kg bw/d and 4/5 males and 1/5 females at 1000 mg/kg bw/d. Irregular breathing was observed in 4/5 males and 2/5 females of the negative control group, 3/5 males and 1/5 females at 100 mg/kg bw/d, 2/5 males and 1/5 females at 500 mg/kg bw/d and 1/5 males and 1/5 females at 1000 mg/kg bw/d. Additionally, there occurred increased muscle tone in one male of the negative control group, slightly impaired gait in 1/5 males of the negative control group, decreased startle response in 1/5 males of the negative control group, increased arousal in 1/5 males at 1000 mg/kg bw/d and decreased toe pinch response in 1/5 males of the negative control group and 1/5 females at 1000 mg/kg bw/d.
Due to the absence of a dose-response pattern, these effects were judged to be incidental and not related to treatment.

ORGAN WEIGHTS
There were no significant differences in mean absolute organ weight between the test substance treated and negative control animals. In the mid dose group, there was a statistically significant increase in the mean relative testes weight. Due to the absence of a dose-response pattern, this effect was judged to be incidental.

GROSS PATHOLOGY
The necropsy revealed no treatment-related findings. Single incidences of dilated renal pelvis (1/5 males at 100 mg/kg bw/d), scabs (1/5 males at 500 mg/kg bw/d), thickened/roughened stomach (1/5 females at 500 mg/kg bw/d) and distended uterus (1/5 females at 500 mg/kg bw/d) were observed. These findings were considered to be incidental and not treatment-related.

HISTOPATHOLOGY: NON-NEOPLASTIC
No treatment-related histopathologic changes were observed in any of the organs or tissues examined. The most common spontaneously occurring incidental findings were focal mononuclear or mixed inflammatory cell infiltrations in the liver (5/5 males and 5/5 females of the negative control, 5/5 males and 1/5 females at 100 mg/kg bw/d, 3/5 males and 5/5 females at 500 mg/kg bw/d, 2/5 males and 4/5 females at 1000 mg/kg bw/d) and the heart (2/5 males and 0/5 females of the negative control and 2/5 males and 0/5 females at 1000 mg/kg bw/d). Furthermore, focal tubular degeneration in the kidneys of male rats of all groups (4/5 of the negative control, 5/5 at 100 mg/kg bw/d, 2/5 at 500 mg/kg bw/d, 4/5 males at 1000 mg/kg bw/d) was observed. This effect was not observed in any dose group in the kidneys of the female rats.
The changes observed were considered to have been spontaneous in origin and were typical of incidental findings commonly encountered in laboratory rats of this age and strain. Because these changes occurred at similar incidence and intensity among all groups, they were not considered to be related to treatment.

Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
>= 1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: NOAEL corresponds to the highest dose tested
Critical effects observed:
no
Endpoint:
short-term repeated dose toxicity: oral
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
Nov - Dec 1992
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 407 (Repeated Dose 28-Day Oral Toxicity in Rodents)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
other: Alpk:APfSD
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, Alderly Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
- Age at study initiation: 28 d
- Weight at study initiation: 148.45 g (males); 122.6 g (females)
- Housing: sexes separately, five per cage, cages had measurements of 26.5 x 50.0 x 20.0 cm and were constructed of stainless steel mesh with one solid side.
- Diet: CT1 diet; Special Diets Services Limited, Witham, Essex, UK
- Water: tap water, ad libitum
- Acclimation period: approx. 1 week

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 19-23
- Humidity (%): 45-65 (71 at one occasion)
- Air changes (per hr): 25-30
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12 / 12

IN-LIFE DATES: From: November 1992 To: December 1992
Route of administration:
oral: feed
Vehicle:
other: in diet
Details on oral exposure:
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS: All diet preparations were based on CT1 diet (Special Diets Services Limited, Witham, Essex, UK). They were prepared by grinding the appropriate amount of test substance with 1 kg of milled CT1 diet. This premix was then added to 14 kg of diet and mixed thoroughly with a Pharma Blender Model PMA 100S (T K Filder).

DIET PREPARATION
- Rate of preparation of diet (frequency): 15 kg batches
- Mixing appropriate amounts with (Type of food): CT1 diet (Special Diets Services Limited, Witham, Essex, UK)
- Storage temperature of food: - 20°C, stored at room temperature for usage up to 14 days
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Chemical stability was determined for diet preparations over a period of 5 weeks following storage at room temperatureT or at -20°C.
Samples were extracted by chemical shaking with ethyl acetate. The supernatant was diluted with ethyl acetate to give solutions containing appropriate concentrations of the test substance. Extracts were analysed by gas chromatography using flame ionisation detection. The extract concentration was calculated by reference to data from a standard containing a known concentration.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
daily
Frequency of treatment:
28 d
Dose / conc.:
1 000 other: ppm nominal in diet
Dose / conc.:
5 000 other: ppm nominal in diet
Dose / conc.:
12 500 other: ppm nominal in diet
Dose / conc.:
112 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Remarks:
for males
Dose / conc.:
562 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Remarks:
for males
Dose / conc.:
1 450 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Remarks:
for males
Dose / conc.:
119 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Remarks:
for females
Dose / conc.:
586 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Remarks:
for females
Dose / conc.:
1 613 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Remarks:
for females
No. of animals per sex per dose:
5
Control animals:
yes
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: Based on results of preliminary feeding studies

Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: Daily
- Cage side observations checked: changes in clinical condition and behaviour and significant changes were recorded.

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: on Days 8, 15, 22, 29
- observations included, but were not limited to the assessment of autonomic function (e.g. lacrimation, salivation, piloerection, exophthalmus, urination, defecation, pupillary function, ptosis); description, incidence and severity of any convulsions, tremors, abnormal motor function, alteration in respiration, reactivity to stimuli, changes in the level of arousal, sensorimotor responses

BODY WEIGHT: Yes, measurement in replicate order immediately before feeding and at the same day once a week until termination.

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE:
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as mg food/kg body weight: Yes, on a weekly basis
- Compound intake calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: Yes

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
At termination, all rats were bled by cardiac puncture and samples were collected. Parameters determined: Hemoglobin, red cell count, haematocrit, mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, platelet count, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, monocyte count, eosinophil count, prothrombin time and kaolin-cephalin time

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
At termination, all rats were bled by cardiac puncture and samples were collected. Parameters determined: Albumin, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, glucose, total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase, plasma gamma-glutamyl transferase, plasma alanine aminotransferase, plasma aspartate aminotransferase, plasma creatine kinase, plasma sodium, plasma potassium, plasma chloride, plasma calcium and plasma phosphorus

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: on Days 8, 15, 22, 29
- Dose groups that were examined: All
- Battery of functions tested: sensory activity / grip strength
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes

HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes (adrenals, aorta, bladder, bone and bone marrow (femur), brain, caecum, colon, cervical lymph node, cervix, colon, duodenum, epididymis, eye and harderian gland, heart, ileum, jejunum, kidney, liver, lungs, mammary gland, mesenteric lymph node, nasal passages, oesophagus, oral cavity, ovaries, pancreas, parathyroid glad, pituary gland, prostate gland, rectum, salivary glands, sciatic nerve, seminal vesicles, skin, spinal chord, spleen, sternum, stomach, testes, thymus, thyroid gland, trachea, uterus, voluntary muscle)
Statistics:
Bodyweights were considered by analysis of covariance on initial body weight, separately for males and females.
Time to tail flick and fore and hindlimb grip strength at weeks 2, 3, 4 and 5 were considered by analysis of variance, separately for both sexes.
Haematological and clinical blood parameters were considered by analysis of variance.
Organ weights were considered by analysis of variance and covariance on final body weight separately for both sexes.
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Haematological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
reduction in haemoglobin and haematocrit (males), reductions in haemoglobin, haematocrit and in white blood cell count (females).
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
minor reductions in plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein levels and plasma alanine transferase activities in males
Behaviour (functional findings):
no effects observed
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
increased kidney weights (males), slightly increased kidney weights (females), increased liver weights (males/females) in 5000 and 12500 ppm groups
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
kidney: increased tubular hyaline droplet formation, tubular basophilia, granular cast formation (males). liver: minimal hepatocyte hypertrophy in 4/5 male rats
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Details on results:
DIET ANALYSIS:
All diets prepared were found to be within 4% of the target concentration. The homogeneity of the test material in the diet, determined at 1000 and 12500 ppm inclusion levels was within 2 % of the overall mean concentration for both levels. Chemical stability of the test material, assessed at the 1000 and 12500 ppm inclusion levels stored at room temperature or at -20 °C was satisfactory over the period of use.
Dose rates (based on nominal dietary levels) were highest at the start of the study and declined rapidly during the period of rapid growth to week 4.

MORTALITY
There were no mortalities.

FUNCTIONAL OBSERVATION BATTERY
A slightly reduced splay reflex was observed in one female of the 1000 ppm group (on days 29 and 30), in one male of the 5000 ppm group (on day 29) and in one male of the 12.500 ppm group (on day 29). As isolated observations, these were considered to be incidental.
There were no differences in time to tail flick in either sex which could be attributed to treatment. The statistically significant increase in time to response observed on day 22 for males (5000 ppm) and day 8 for females (1000 ppm) were considered to be incidental to treatment in the absence of similar changes at higher dose levels.
There was no evidence of any treatment related effects on forelimb or hindlimb grip strength.
Any other statistically significant changes were considered spurious and unrelated to treatment with the test material.

BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT GAIN
There were no statistically significant effects on body weight and all final bodyweights were within 3% of the respective controls, after adjusting for initial weight differences.

FOOD CONSUMPTION
Food consumption in all treated groups remained similar to, or exceeded that, of the respective control group throughout the study.

HAEMATOLOGY
There were statistically significant reductions in haemoglobin and haematocrit at 12.500 ppm in male rats. Statistically significant reductions in haemoglobin and haematocrit were seen in females at 1000 and 5000 ppm and in white blood cell count at 1000 ppm. In the absence of a coherent dose-response relationship, these differences were considered incidental to treatment.
Any other statistically significant changes were considered spurious and unrelated to treatment with the test material.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
There were minor reductions in plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and total protein levels and plasma alanine transferase activities in males at 12500 ppm compared to controls. Any other statistically significant changes were considered spurious and unrelated to treatment with the test material.
ORGAN WEIGHTS
Kidney weights adjusted for body weight were statistically significant increased in males at 5000 and 12500 ppm. All the females in the treatment groups had slightly raised kidney weights compared to control, but none achieved statistical significance, and there was no evidence of a coherent dose response relationship.
Liver weights adjusted for body weight were statistically significant increased in both sexes at 12500 ppm and in males at 5000 ppm.
Any other statistically significant changes were considered spurious and unrelated to treatment with the test material.

PATHOLOGY:
Macroscopic findings:
No treatment-related macroscopic findings were apparent at the end of the study.
HISTOPATHOLOGY:
Microscopic findings:
Treatment related findings were present in the kidney of male rats from all dose groups. In the 5000 and 12500 ppm dose group these comprised increased tubular hyaline droplet formation and tubular basophilia in all animals, and granular cast formation in four of the 5000 ppm animals and all of the 12500 ppm animals; the latter occurring at the cortico-medullary injection. In the 1000 ppm group, increased renal hyaline droplet formation and/or tubular basophilia were seen, but not granular cast formation.
In the liver, there was minimal hepatocyte hypertrophy in 4/5 male rats in the 12500 ppm group.

The increased kidney weights and microscopic findings of renal tubular basophilia, granular cast formation and increased hyaline droplet formation present in male rats at 5000 and 12.500 ppm are clearly treatment related. These findings are consistent with the well characterized light hydrocarbon nephropathy described for male rats, following to a variety of chemicals including light hydrocarbons such as unleaded gasoline and trimethyl pentane. The characteristics include an increased accumulation of hyaline droplets in male rat kidneys, the main constituent of which is alpha 2µ-globulin (Alden et al. Adv. Modern Environ Toxicol 7: 107-120 (1984); Stonard et al. Renal Heterogeneity and Target Cell Toxicity. Bach PH and Lock EA Eds, John Wiley and Sons (1985)). It is widely accepted that this phenomenon is specific to male rat and as such appears to have no relevance for man (Swenberg et al. Toxicol and App. Pharmacol. 97: 35-46 (1989)).

Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 613 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
female
Basis for effect level:
other: No effects observed in female rats
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 450 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male
Basis for effect level:
other: corresponding to 12500 ppm
Critical effects observed:
no
Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
1 000 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
subchronic
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
The available information comprise adequate and reliable (Klimisch score 1 and 2) studies from various source substances with similar structures and intrinsic properties. Read-across is justified based on common precursors and hydrolysis products and consistent trends in environmental fate, ecotoxicological and toxicological profile. The selected studies are thus sufficient to fulfil the standard information requirements set out in Annexes VIII - X, 8.6, in accordance with Annex XI, 1.5, of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006.

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation - systemic effects

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions (limited parameters examined, no daily observation, no data on test substance purity)
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 413 (Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity: 90-Day Study)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
(limited parameters examined, no daily observation)
GLP compliance:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Taconic, Germantown, NY, USA
- Weight at study initiation: males: 379-388 g ; females: 234-239 g
- Housing: animals were housed in the exposure chambers (feed and water was removed during exposure)
Route of administration:
inhalation: aerosol
Type of inhalation exposure:
whole body
Vehicle:
air
Remarks on MMAD:
MMAD / GSD: 1.0 µm/ approx. 1.8
Details on inhalation exposure:
GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION
- Exposure apparatus: 1000 L stainless steel and glass exposure chambers; chambers contained catch pans between each of three leveles of cages.
- System of generating particulates/aerosols: The test material was aerosolized directly from the liquid by a modified Lakin nebulizer on each chamber. The test material was in a straight-walled glass flask and the barrels of the nebulizer were immersed under the level of the liquid in order to maximize the amount of material generated. The distance from the nebulizer to the walls of the flask was approx. 3 cm. After exiting the flask, the aerosol passed through a glass impactor to remove most of the larger particles. The remaining aerosol was mixed with the main air stream for each chamber before entering the chamber.
- Temperature and humidity in air chamber (by a Taylor wet/dry bulb hydrometer approx. every 30 min during each exposure): approx. 23 °C, 56 - 64%
- Air flow rate: approx. 300 L/min (mean chamber flow per group: 297, 308, 342, and 243 L/min, respectively)

TEST ATMOSPHERE
- Brief description of analytical method used: gravimetric sampling on glass fiber filters (3 times during each exposure); some filters were additionally analyzed by GC/MS
- Samples taken from breathing zone: yes
Nominal concentrations were determined as the loss of weight of fluid from the generator divided by total air flow through the chamber.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Duration of treatment / exposure:
13 weeks
Frequency of treatment:
6 hours/day
5 days/week
Dose / conc.:
0.05 mg/L air (analytical)
Dose / conc.:
0.17 mg/L air (analytical)
Dose / conc.:
0.56 mg/L air (analytical)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
15
(Additional 10 male rats per group were included for examination of pulmonary function tests and analysis of pulmonary hydroxyproline following exposure.)
Control animals:
yes, concurrent no treatment
yes, sham-exposed
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: The highest dose was expected to result in abnormal accumulation of test material in the lung and possible impairment of normal clearance mechanisms. The low dose is a factor of 10 above the TLV (treshold limit value) for mineral oil mistes, no untoward effects were expected at this level.
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: daily (except weekends)

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: No

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: weekly

FOOD CONSUMPTION:
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg body weight/day: No

FOOD EFFICIENCY:
- Body weight gain in kg/food consumption in kg per unit time X 100 calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data:No

WATER CONSUMPTION: No

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: No

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: at study termination
- Animals fasted: Yes
- How many animals: all core animals
- Parameters examined: complete blood count (CBC) (white blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and platelets) and differential count.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: at study termination
- Animals fasted: Yes
- How many animals: all core animals
- Parameters examined: glucose, urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin (A), globulin (G), A/G, sorbitol dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, creatinine colesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, Cl, Ca, Na, K, and P

URINALYSIS: No

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: No

OTHER:
Lung function: The animals were anaesthetized and pulmonray function tests were performed (deflation quasistatic pressure-volume cureved, functional residual capactiy, and maximal forced exhalation maneuver). After the pulmonray function tests, the lungs were removed and all lobes were weighed. Lobes were frozen for analysis of hydroxyproline content and analysis of test material remaining in the lung.
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes; organ weights (adrenals, kidney, spleen, brain, liver, testes, epididymides, ovaries, thymus, heart, prostate, uterus, right middle lung lobe
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes (untreated and high-dose): adrenals, ovaries, sternum, pancreas, brain, salivary gland, eye, spleen heart, stomach, colon, testes, duodenum, thymus, kidneys, thyroid, liver, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, lung, nasal turbinates, thigh muscle, urinary bladder, sciatic nerve, and any gross lesions. Only the lungs and tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the untreated controls were processed. 10 males of group 1, 2 and 5 (untreated, sham-exposed, and high-dose) were evaluated for morphology, number of sperm and number of testicular spermatids.
Statistics:
ANOVA and Tukey´s multiple range test: body weighs, male reproductive endpoints, haematology, and serum chemistry
ANOVA and Duncan´s multiple range test: organ weights, pulmonary function, and pulmonary hydroxyproline
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
increased total weight of the lung lobes (high-dose)
Gross pathological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
mild macrophage accumulation in the lung (high-dose). Non adverse.
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
mild macrophage accumulation in the lung (high-dose): Non adverse.
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Details on results:
CLINICAL SIGNS AND MORTALITY
No treatment-related clinical signs were and no mortalities observed.

BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT GAIN
Increased body weights were observed in treated males. The difference compared to control was statistically significant, but as no clear dose-response was seen and the difference was lower than 7%, it was not considered to be of toxicological relevance.

HAEMATOLOGY
No treatment-related changes were observed.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
No treatment-related changes were observed.

ORGAN WEIGHTS
The lungs had a minimal increase in weight after exposure to 0.50 mg/L. Other organ weights were not affected by exposure to the test substance.

GROSS PATHOLOGY
The number of macrophages in the pulmonary alveoli increased slightly. This increase was small considering the high (500 mg/nr) aerosol concentration.

HISTOPATHOLOGY: NON-NEOPLASTIC
Microscopic examination of the lungs of animals in the high-dose group revealed one to two plump macrophages with sparse cytoplasmic vacuoles in less than 1.0% of the aveoli (in controls less than 0.1% would be expected).

OTHER FINDINGS
- Sperm morphology: No treatment-related effects were noted in sperm morophology or in sperm and spermatid counts.
- Lung function: There were no significant differences between any groups for any of the pulmonary function parameters. The only parameter affected by exposure was the total weight of the five lung lobes. Weight for the high-dose group was significantly greater than the other groups.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEC
Effect level:
0.5 mg/L air (analytical)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: no adverse effects
Critical effects observed:
no
Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEC
500 mg/m³
Study duration:
subchronic
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
The available information comprises an adequate and reliable (Klimisch score 2) study from a source substance with similar structures and intrinsic properties. Read-across is justified based on common precursors and hydrolysis products and consistent trends in environmental fate, ecotoxicological and toxicological profile. The selected study is thus sufficient to fulfil the standard information requirements set out in Annexes VIII - X, 8.6, in accordance with Annex XI, 1.5, of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006.

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation - local effects

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions (limited parameters examined, no daily observation, no data on test substance purity)
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 413 (Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity: 90-Day Study)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
(limited parameters examined, no daily observation)
GLP compliance:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Taconic, Germantown, NY, USA
- Weight at study initiation: males: 379-388 g ; females: 234-239 g
- Housing: animals were housed in the exposure chambers (feed and water was removed during exposure)
Route of administration:
inhalation: aerosol
Type of inhalation exposure:
whole body
Vehicle:
air
Remarks on MMAD:
MMAD / GSD: 1.0 µm/ approx. 1.8
Details on inhalation exposure:
GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION
- Exposure apparatus: 1000 L stainless steel and glass exposure chambers; chambers contained catch pans between each of three leveles of cages.
- System of generating particulates/aerosols: The test material was aerosolized directly from the liquid by a modified Lakin nebulizer on each chamber. The test material was in a straight-walled glass flask and the barrels of the nebulizer were immersed under the level of the liquid in order to maximize the amount of material generated. The distance from the nebulizer to the walls of the flask was approx. 3 cm. After exiting the flask, the aerosol passed through a glass impactor to remove most of the larger particles. The remaining aerosol was mixed with the main air stream for each chamber before entering the chamber.
- Temperature and humidity in air chamber (by a Taylor wet/dry bulb hydrometer approx. every 30 min during each exposure): approx. 23 °C, 56 - 64%
- Air flow rate: approx. 300 L/min (mean chamber flow per group: 297, 308, 342, and 243 L/min, respectively)

TEST ATMOSPHERE
- Brief description of analytical method used: gravimetric sampling on glass fiber filters (3 times during each exposure); some filters were additionally analyzed by GC/MS
- Samples taken from breathing zone: yes
Nominal concentrations were determined as the loss of weight of fluid from the generator divided by total air flow through the chamber.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Duration of treatment / exposure:
13 weeks
Frequency of treatment:
6 hours/day
5 days/week
Dose / conc.:
0.05 mg/L air (analytical)
Dose / conc.:
0.17 mg/L air (analytical)
Dose / conc.:
0.56 mg/L air (analytical)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
15
(Additional 10 male rats per group were included for examination of pulmonary function tests and analysis of pulmonary hydroxyproline following exposure.)
Control animals:
yes, concurrent no treatment
yes, sham-exposed
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: The highest dose was expected to result in abnormal accumulation of test material in the lung and possible impairment of normal clearance mechanisms. The low dose is a factor of 10 above the TLV (treshold limit value) for mineral oil mistes, no untoward effects were expected at this level.
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: daily (except weekends)

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: No

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: weekly

FOOD CONSUMPTION:
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg body weight/day: No

FOOD EFFICIENCY:
- Body weight gain in kg/food consumption in kg per unit time X 100 calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data:No

WATER CONSUMPTION: No

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: No

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: at study termination
- Animals fasted: Yes
- How many animals: all core animals
- Parameters examined: complete blood count (CBC) (white blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and platelets) and differential count.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: at study termination
- Animals fasted: Yes
- How many animals: all core animals
- Parameters examined: glucose, urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin (A), globulin (G), A/G, sorbitol dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, creatinine colesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, Cl, Ca, Na, K, and P

URINALYSIS: No

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: No

OTHER:
Lung function: The animals were anaesthetized and pulmonray function tests were performed (deflation quasistatic pressure-volume cureved, functional residual capactiy, and maximal forced exhalation maneuver). After the pulmonray function tests, the lungs were removed and all lobes were weighed. Lobes were frozen for analysis of hydroxyproline content and analysis of test material remaining in the lung.
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes; organ weights (adrenals, kidney, spleen, brain, liver, testes, epididymides, ovaries, thymus, heart, prostate, uterus, right middle lung lobe
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes (untreated and high-dose): adrenals, ovaries, sternum, pancreas, brain, salivary gland, eye, spleen heart, stomach, colon, testes, duodenum, thymus, kidneys, thyroid, liver, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, lung, nasal turbinates, thigh muscle, urinary bladder, sciatic nerve, and any gross lesions. Only the lungs and tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the untreated controls were processed. 10 males of group 1, 2 and 5 (untreated, sham-exposed, and high-dose) were evaluated for morphology, number of sperm and number of testicular spermatids.
Statistics:
ANOVA and Tukey´s multiple range test: body weighs, male reproductive endpoints, haematology, and serum chemistry
ANOVA and Duncan´s multiple range test: organ weights, pulmonary function, and pulmonary hydroxyproline
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
increased total weight of the lung lobes (high-dose)
Gross pathological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
mild macrophage accumulation in the lung (high-dose). Non adverse.
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
mild macrophage accumulation in the lung (high-dose): Non adverse.
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Details on results:
CLINICAL SIGNS AND MORTALITY
No treatment-related clinical signs were and no mortalities observed.

BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT GAIN
Increased body weights were observed in treated males. The difference compared to control was statistically significant, but as no clear dose-response was seen and the difference was lower than 7%, it was not considered to be of toxicological relevance.

HAEMATOLOGY
No treatment-related changes were observed.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
No treatment-related changes were observed.

ORGAN WEIGHTS
The lungs had a minimal increase in weight after exposure to 0.50 mg/L. Other organ weights were not affected by exposure to the test substance.

GROSS PATHOLOGY
The number of macrophages in the pulmonary alveoli increased slightly. This increase was small considering the high (500 mg/nr) aerosol concentration.

HISTOPATHOLOGY: NON-NEOPLASTIC
Microscopic examination of the lungs of animals in the high-dose group revealed one to two plump macrophages with sparse cytoplasmic vacuoles in less than 1.0% of the aveoli (in controls less than 0.1% would be expected).

OTHER FINDINGS
- Sperm morphology: No treatment-related effects were noted in sperm morophology or in sperm and spermatid counts.
- Lung function: There were no significant differences between any groups for any of the pulmonary function parameters. The only parameter affected by exposure was the total weight of the five lung lobes. Weight for the high-dose group was significantly greater than the other groups.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEC
Effect level:
0.5 mg/L air (analytical)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: no adverse effects
Critical effects observed:
no
Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEC
500 mg/m³
Study duration:
subchronic
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
The available information comprises an adequate and reliable (Klimisch score 2) study from a source substance with similar structures and intrinsic properties. Read-across is justified based on common precursors and hydrolysis products and consistent trends in environmental fate, ecotoxicological and toxicological profile. The selected study is thus sufficient to fulfil the standard information requirements set out in Annexes VIII - X, 8.6, in accordance with Annex XI, 1.5, of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006.

Repeated dose toxicity: dermal - systemic effects

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: dermal
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
09 Jul - 10 Oct 1986
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions (no data on test substance purity; only 2 dose groups, open application, limited parameters examined)
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 411 (Subchronic Dermal Toxicity: 90-Day Study)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
(no data on test substance purity, only 2 dose groups, open application, limited parameters examined)
GLP compliance:
no
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River, Lakeview, NJ, USA
- Age at study initiation: approx. 7 weeks
- Housing: individually in hanging, stainless steel cages with wire bottoms and fronts
- Diet: Purina Certified Lab Chow ' 5002 in pellet form; ad libitum
- Water: tap water; ad libitum
- Acclimation period: at least 14 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 20-22
- Humidity (%): 40-60
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12
Type of coverage:
open
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on exposure:
TEST SITE
- Area of exposure: no data
- Type of wrap if used: no wrap used, open
- Time intervals for shavings or clipplings: 24 h before the first treatment; at least weekly afterwards
- Application site: back (shaved)

REMOVAL OF TEST SUBSTANCE
- Washing (if done): no washing; wiping off with a gauze pads every saturday (applications on working days)

TEST MATERIAL
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): no data
- Concentration (if solution): undiluted
- Constant volume or concentration used: no

USE OF RESTRAINERS FOR PREVENTING INGESTION: yes (collars), removal during the weekend
Duration of treatment / exposure:
13 weeks
Frequency of treatment:
5 days per week (65 exposures), 24 hours/day, removal of substance on saturdays (once a week)
Dose / conc.:
800 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
2 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10
(5 additional animals of the control and the high dose group were included for dermal bioavailability experiments only.)
Control animals:
yes, concurrent no treatment
Details on study design:
The test substance was dispensed by volume from a syringe and left uncovered on the shaved skin. The rats were fitted with cardboard Elizabethan collars to minimze ingestion of the test material.
The controls were treated in the same manner except that no material was applied to their skin.
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: daily
- Cage side observations included: appearance, behaviour, secretory function and discharges

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: No

DERMAL IRRITATION (if dermal study): Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: weekly
- Parameters evaluated: erythema and edema according to Draize, chronic deterioration: flaking, thickening, stiffening, cracking and slouthing

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: weekly

FOOD CONSUMPTION:
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg body weight/day: No

FOOD EFFICIENCY:
- Body weight gain in kg/food consumption in kg per unit time X 100 calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: No

WATER CONSUMPTION: No

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: No

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: at study termination
- Animals fasted: No data
- How many animals: all animals
- Parameters examined: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: at study termination
- Animals fasted: No data
- How many animals: all animals
- Parameters examined: glucose, urea nitrogen, alanine aminotransferase, albumin, phosphorus; only females: lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase

URINALYSIS: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of urine: weeks 5 and 13
- Metabolism cages used for collection of urine: No
- Parameters examined: pH, bilirubin, specific gravity, urobilinogen, blood, protein, glucose, ketones

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: No

OTHER: sperm morphology: at termination
- Parameters: percentage normal sperm, abnormal heads, headless, tailless, and curled tail
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes; organ weights: kidneys, liver; only males: brain, spleen; only females: thyroids
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes (no further information available)
Statistics:
The level of statistical significance was P < 0.05.
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Dermal irritation:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
slight erythemal and flaking; slight epidermal hyperplasia and chronic inflammation (both treatment groups)
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
reduced body weight gain in males (800 mg/kg: 7% and 2000 mg/kg: 10%)
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Urinalysis findings:
no effects observed
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Details on results:
CLINICAL SIGNS AND MORTALITY
No treatment-related effects were observed.

BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT GAIN
Treated males gained slightly less weight than the controls (800 mg/kg bw: 7%, 2000 mg/kg bw: 10%). As the difference is low, the decrease in body weight was not interpreted as a sign for systemic toxicity.

HAEMATOLOGY
No adverse effects on any haematologic parameters measured were observed.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
A few of the serum paramters of the high-dose animals were statistically different from the controls, but the differences were small, not consistent between males and females, and did not present any pattern suggestive of effects on any specific organ (no corresponding histological findings). Thus, the effects were considered not to be of toxicological relevance.
- high-dose males (compared to controls): glucose: -14%, albumin: -3%, and phoshorus: +16%
- high-dose females (compared to controls): lactate dehydrogenase: +45% (low-dose: +22%), and aspartate aminotransferase: +22%

URINALYSIS
No additional data given on Urinalysis in study report.

ORGAN WEIGHTS
Increased thyroid weight in the low-dose (+ 25%) females and decreased spleen weight (- 10%) in the low-dose males were not considered to be toxicologically relevant, as these effects were not observed in the high-dose groups.

GROSS PATHOLOGY
No abnormalities were detected.

HISTOPATHOLOGY:
No abnormalities were detected.

OTHER FINDINGS
- Sperm morphology: No effects on sperm morphology were detected.
- Local effects: Slight erythema and flaking of the skin were observed in the treated groups during the dosing phase. Microscopic examination of the skin indicated trace to slight epidermal hyperplasia and chronic inflammation of the superficial dermis.

SKIN PENETRATION
Skin penetration values of 2 - 6% were obtained.
The results of the in vivo skin penetration study indicate that the 13-week treatment with the test substance does not increase the skin penetration of the test substance (only the value for females was statistically different from the penetration in untreated animals). The skin penetration of untreated rats was less than 2% and the mean value for treated rats was approx. 6%. The recovery of radioactivity was measuered in the urine and faeces as well as the remaining radioactivity in tissue samples.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
>= 2 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: highest dose tested
Critical effects observed:
no
Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
2 000 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
subchronic
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
The available information comprises an adequate and reliable (Klimisch score 2) study from a source substance with similar structures and intrinsic properties. Read-across is justified based on common precursors and hydrolysis products and consistent trends in environmental fate, ecotoxicological and toxicological profile. The selected study is thus sufficient to fulfil the standard information requirements set out in Annexes VIII - X, 8.6, in accordance with Annex XI, 1.5, of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006.

Repeated dose toxicity: dermal - local effects

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: dermal
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
09 Jul - 10 Oct 1986
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions (no data on test substance purity; only 2 dose groups, open application, limited parameters examined)
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 411 (Subchronic Dermal Toxicity: 90-Day Study)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
(no data on test substance purity, only 2 dose groups, open application, limited parameters examined)
GLP compliance:
no
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River, Lakeview, NJ, USA
- Age at study initiation: approx. 7 weeks
- Housing: individually in hanging, stainless steel cages with wire bottoms and fronts
- Diet: Purina Certified Lab Chow ' 5002 in pellet form; ad libitum
- Water: tap water; ad libitum
- Acclimation period: at least 14 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 20-22
- Humidity (%): 40-60
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12
Type of coverage:
open
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on exposure:
TEST SITE
- Area of exposure: no data
- Type of wrap if used: no wrap used, open
- Time intervals for shavings or clipplings: 24 h before the first treatment; at least weekly afterwards
- Application site: back (shaved)

REMOVAL OF TEST SUBSTANCE
- Washing (if done): no washing; wiping off with a gauze pads every saturday (applications on working days)

TEST MATERIAL
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): no data
- Concentration (if solution): undiluted
- Constant volume or concentration used: no

USE OF RESTRAINERS FOR PREVENTING INGESTION: yes (collars), removal during the weekend
Duration of treatment / exposure:
13 weeks
Frequency of treatment:
5 days per week (65 exposures), 24 hours/day, removal of substance on saturdays (once a week)
Dose / conc.:
800 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
2 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10
(5 additional animals of the control and the high dose group were included for dermal bioavailability experiments only.)
Control animals:
yes, concurrent no treatment
Details on study design:
The test substance was dispensed by volume from a syringe and left uncovered on the shaved skin. The rats were fitted with cardboard Elizabethan collars to minimze ingestion of the test material.
The controls were treated in the same manner except that no material was applied to their skin.
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: daily
- Cage side observations included: appearance, behaviour, secretory function and discharges

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: No

DERMAL IRRITATION (if dermal study): Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: weekly
- Parameters evaluated: erythema and edema according to Draize, chronic deterioration: flaking, thickening, stiffening, cracking and slouthing

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: weekly

FOOD CONSUMPTION:
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg body weight/day: No

FOOD EFFICIENCY:
- Body weight gain in kg/food consumption in kg per unit time X 100 calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: No

WATER CONSUMPTION: No

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: No

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: at study termination
- Animals fasted: No data
- How many animals: all animals
- Parameters examined: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: at study termination
- Animals fasted: No data
- How many animals: all animals
- Parameters examined: glucose, urea nitrogen, alanine aminotransferase, albumin, phosphorus; only females: lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase

URINALYSIS: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of urine: weeks 5 and 13
- Metabolism cages used for collection of urine: No
- Parameters examined: pH, bilirubin, specific gravity, urobilinogen, blood, protein, glucose, ketones

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: No

OTHER: sperm morphology: at termination
- Parameters: percentage normal sperm, abnormal heads, headless, tailless, and curled tail
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes; organ weights: kidneys, liver; only males: brain, spleen; only females: thyroids
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes (no further information available)
Statistics:
The level of statistical significance was P < 0.05.
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Dermal irritation:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
slight erythemal and flaking; slight epidermal hyperplasia and chronic inflammation (both treatment groups)
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
reduced body weight gain in males (800 mg/kg: 7% and 2000 mg/kg: 10%)
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Urinalysis findings:
no effects observed
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Details on results:
CLINICAL SIGNS AND MORTALITY
No treatment-related effects were observed.

BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT GAIN
Treated males gained slightly less weight than the controls (800 mg/kg bw: 7%, 2000 mg/kg bw: 10%). As the difference is low, the decrease in body weight was not interpreted as a sign for systemic toxicity.

HAEMATOLOGY
No adverse effects on any haematologic parameters measured were observed.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
A few of the serum paramters of the high-dose animals were statistically different from the controls, but the differences were small, not consistent between males and females, and did not present any pattern suggestive of effects on any specific organ (no corresponding histological findings). Thus, the effects were considered not to be of toxicological relevance.
- high-dose males (compared to controls): glucose: -14%, albumin: -3%, and phoshorus: +16%
- high-dose females (compared to controls): lactate dehydrogenase: +45% (low-dose: +22%), and aspartate aminotransferase: +22%

URINALYSIS
No additional data given on Urinalysis in study report.

ORGAN WEIGHTS
Increased thyroid weight in the low-dose (+ 25%) females and decreased spleen weight (- 10%) in the low-dose males were not considered to be toxicologically relevant, as these effects were not observed in the high-dose groups.

GROSS PATHOLOGY
No abnormalities were detected.

HISTOPATHOLOGY:
No abnormalities were detected.

OTHER FINDINGS
- Sperm morphology: No effects on sperm morphology were detected.
- Local effects: Slight erythema and flaking of the skin were observed in the treated groups during the dosing phase. Microscopic examination of the skin indicated trace to slight epidermal hyperplasia and chronic inflammation of the superficial dermis.

SKIN PENETRATION
Skin penetration values of 2 - 6% were obtained.
The results of the in vivo skin penetration study indicate that the 13-week treatment with the test substance does not increase the skin penetration of the test substance (only the value for females was statistically different from the penetration in untreated animals). The skin penetration of untreated rats was less than 2% and the mean value for treated rats was approx. 6%. The recovery of radioactivity was measuered in the urine and faeces as well as the remaining radioactivity in tissue samples.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
>= 2 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: highest dose tested
Critical effects observed:
no
Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
800 mg/cm²
Study duration:
subchronic
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
The available information comprises an adequate and reliable (Klimisch score 2) study from a source substance with similar structures and intrinsic properties. Read-across is justified based on common precursors and hydrolysis products and consistent trends in environmental fate, ecotoxicological and toxicological profile. The selected study is thus sufficient to fulfil the standard information requirements set out in Annexes VIII - X, 8.6, in accordance with Annex XI, 1.5, of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006.

Additional information

Justification for grouping of substances and read-across

The analogue approach comprises aliphatic esters of poly-functional alcohols containing four to six reactive hydroxyl groups and one to six fatty acid chains. The read-across analogue approach contains mono constituent, multi-constituent and UVCB substances with fatty acid carbon chain lengths ranging from C5 - C20, which are mainly saturated but also mono unsaturated C16 and C18, polyunsaturated C18 and branched C5, C7 and C9, building mono-, di-, tri-, and tetra esters with the polyol. The available data allow for an accurate hazard and risk assessment of the target substance and the source substances and the read-across concept is applied for the assessment of environmental fate and environmental and human health hazards. Thus, where applicable, environmental and human health effects are predicted from adequate and reliable data for source substances within the read-across analogue approach by interpolation to the target substances in accordance with Annex XI, Item 1.5, of Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH). In particular, for each specific endpoint the source substance or substances structurally closest to the target substance is/are chosen for read-across, with due regard to the requirements of adequacy and reliability of the available data. Structural similarities and similarities in properties and/or activities of the source substance and target substances are the basis of read-across.

A detailed justification for the read-across applied is provided in the technical dossier (see IUCLID Section 7.1 and 13) and within Chapter 5.1 of the CSR.

Oral repeated dose toxicity

There is a reliable sub-chronic key study available for a structural analogue source substance investigating the toxicity after oral exposure. The result of the key study is further supported by additional short-term repeated dose toxicity studies.

A sub-chronic (90-day) oral toxicity study with Pentaerythritol ester of pentanoic acids and isononanoic acid (CAS No. 146289-36-3) was performed according to OECD Guideline 408 and under GLP conditions (Emery, 1998). Groups of 10 male and 10 female Wistar rats were exposed to the substance at 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day by gavage daily, 7 days/week for 90 days. Satellite control and high dose groups containing 10 male and female animals each were observed for additional 28 days. Control animals (10 per sex and dose) received the concurrent vehicle, distilled water containing 1% Tween 80. Observations and examinations of the animals included clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, haematology, clinical chemistry, organ weights, neurobehaviour, gross necropsy and histopathology. The daily oral administration of the test substance was tolerated without any adverse effects up to 1000 mg/kg bw/day. No mortality was observed except for two animals that died shortly after administration due to incorrect gavage. Absolute and relative kidney weights were increased in all male animals in the high dose group which was still present after the recovery period. However, histopathology revealed no adverse effects in the kidney. Absolute and relative liver weights were increased in both sexes but this was no longer apparent after the recovery period in females. Other significant differences seem to be incidental. The activity of alkaline phosphatase of the serum significantly increased in the high dose group, males and females. This indicates damage to liver cells and/or an increased function rate. This finding was no longer apparent at the end of the treatment-free period. Except for the increased kidney weights and liver weight in the males, all changes (e.g. clinical chemical changes) were no longer apparent at the end of the treatment-free period. The increase in kidney weights in all male animals could be correlated to the formation of hyaline droplets a phenomenon widely accepted to be specific to the male rat and as such considered to have no relevance to man. Therefore, a 90-day oral NOAEL of ≥ 1000 mg/kg bw/day was found for the test substance in male and female rats.

Furthermore, a 28 day study with Fatty acids, C5-10, esters with pentaerythritol (CAS No. 68424-31-7) was conducted according to OECD Guideline 407 and under GLP conditions (Supporting, RA-A, 68424-31-7, 1993). The test substance was administered in concentrations of 1000 ppm, 5000 ppm and 12500 ppm (corresponding to 112, 562 and 1450 mg/kg bw/day for male and 119, 586 and 1613 mg/kg bw/day for female rats) to 5 Alpk:APfSD rats per sex and dose for 28 consecutive days. Control animals (5 per sex and dose) received the plain diet. There were no toxicologically significant effects on body weight, food consumption and clinical condition and mortality up to and including the highest dose level. Changes in clinical chemistry and red cell-related parameters were observed in male rats at 12500 ppm, but these were minor and considered not to be of toxicological significance. A minimal hepatocyte hypertrophy present in males of the 12500 ppm group was observed and considered to be evidence of an adaptive response. Microscopic examination of the kidneys from male animals from all dose groups revealed an increase in hyaline droplet formation (the main constituent of which is alpha-2µ-globulin) and tubular basophilia. This phenomenon is widely accepted to be specific to the male rat and as such is considered to have no relevance to man. A NOAEL of 1450 and 1613 mg/kg/d could be identified for male and female rats, respectively.

In another 28-day short-term repeated dose toxicity study performed with Fatty acids, C8-10 mixed esters with dipenaterythritol, isooctanoic acid, pentaerythritol and tripentaerythritol (CAS No. 189200-42-8) equivalent or similar to OECD Guideline 407 under GLP conditions, male and female Crl:CD BR rats were dosed with 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day by oral gavage once daily, 7 day/week for a total of 28 days (Exxon, 1995d). 5 animals per dose and sex were used. A control group receiving the vehicle polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) only was also included in the study design. One male animal of the 500 mg/kg bw group died after the first application due to a gavage error. This animal was replaced on day 1 with another animal that received one dose less than the other animals. All animals survived the study period until scheduled termination. No clinical signs occurred that were judged to be treatment-related, no effects on body weights and on food consumption of the test substance treated animals were observed. Moreover, there were no significant differences in the hematology parameters between the negative control and the animals treated. There were also no significant differences in the clinical chemistry parameters which were judged to be test substance related. Neuro-behavioural observations made on day 8 and day 27 were unremarkable. The necropsy revealed no treatment-related findings. Single effects were observed but were considered to be incidental and not treatment-related. No significant differences in mean absolute organ weight and no histopathologic changes were observed in any of the organs or tissues examined between the test substance treated and negative control animals. In the mid dose group, there was a statistically significant increase in the mean relative testes weight. Due to the absence of a dose-response pattern, this effect was judged to be incidental. The oral NOAEL was therefore determined to be ≥ 1000 mg/kg bw/day.

Inhalation repeated dose toxicity

A relevant key study investigating the effects of repeated inhalation exposure to a structural analogue substance is available.

A 90-day subchronic inhalation toxicity study was performed with Sprague-Dawley rats with Fatty acids, C5-9, tetraesters with pentaerythritol (CAS No. 67762-53-2) comparable to OECD guideline 413 (Exxon, 1992). 15 males and 15 females per group were whole body exposed to the test substance aerosol for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week at concentrations of 0.05, 0.15 and 0.5 mg/L air. The respective controls (15 animals per sex and dose) inhaled clean air under the same conditions. Animals were observed for clinical sings, body weight, haematology, clinical chemistry, organ weights, gross necropsy and histopathological examinations. 10 additional male animals were included in every group for examination of pulmonary function tests and pulmonary hydroxyproline following exposure. No substance-related adverse effects were observed for body weight, body weight gain, mortality, clinical biochemistry and hematological parameters. The lungs of the high dose animals had a minimal increase in weight which correlated with slightly increased numbers of macrophages in the pulmonary alveoli. Thus, the NOAEC were found to be 0.5 mg/L air.

Dermal repeated dose toxicity

Regarding repeated dose toxicity after dermal exposure, one relevant key study of a structural analogue source substance is available.

A 90-day dermal toxicity study with Fatty acids, C5-9, tetraesters with pentaerythritol (CAS No. 67762-53-2) was performed comparable to OECD Guideline 411 (Exxon, 1988a). Groups of 10 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were once daily (5 days/week, 24 hours/day) exposed to the substance at 800 and 2000 mg/kg bw for 90 days (65 applications in total). Application to the skin was done open without coverage. Animals were observed for clinical signs, body weight, dermal irritation, haematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, organ weights, gross necropsy and histopathological examinations. Overall there were no adverse effects found after dermal application of the test substance for 90 days on the parameters investigated. Treated males gained less body weight than control animals. Since the effect was low and no dose-relation was observed, it was not considered to be due to systemic toxicity. Some serum parameters of the high dose group animals were significant different to the control, but since the differences were small and they did not present any pattern suggestive of effects on a specific organ, they were considered not to be of toxicological relevance. Both treated groups exhibited minimal erythema and flaking of the skin during the dosing phase. At microscopic examination it was identified as very minor epidermal hyperplasia and chronic inflammation of the superficial dermis. Since no effects of systemic toxicity were identified up to the highest dose tested, the 90 day dermal NOAEL was found to be 2000 mg/kg bw/day.

Conclusion on repeated dose toxicity

Several reliable studies performed with analogue source substances are available investigating the repeated dose toxicity after oral, inhalation and dermal exposure. The available data indicate a very low level of repeated dose toxicity for the analogue source substances and thus, no hazard for oral, inhalation and dermal repeated dose toxicity is identified for the target substance Fatty acids lanolin, di-, tri- and tetraesters with pentaerythritol and rape fatty acid.

Justification for classification or non-classification

According to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH) information on intrinsic properties of substances may be generated by means other than tests, e.g. using information from structurally related substances (grouping or read-across), provided that conditions set out in Annex XI are met. Annex XI states that “substances whose physico-chemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological properties are likely to be similar or follow a regular pattern as a result of structural similarity may be considered as a group, or ‘category’ of substances. This avoids the need to test every substance for every endpoint". Since the read-across concept is applied to the target substance Fatty acids lanolin, di-, tri- and tetraesters with pentaerythritol and rape fatty acid, data gaps can be filled by interpolation from representative structural analogue source substances to avoid unnecessary animal testing.

The read-across concept is also used to derive the classification of the target substance taking the properties of the source substances into account. Based on the read-across concept, all available data on repeated dose toxicity via the oral, inhalation and dermal exposure route do not meet the classification criteria according to Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 (CLP) and are therefore conclusive but not sufficient for classification.