Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Link to relevant study record(s)

Reference
Endpoint:
explosive properties of explosives
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
UN Manual of Tests and Criteria: Part I: Classification procedures, test methods and criteria relating to explosives of Class 1
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Koenen test specifies for testing to be started using orifice plate of 20mm and if no explosion occurs, the diameter of the orifice to be reduced in a series of single trials to minimum diameter of 1mm. Limited amount of test item, modified procedure.
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Parameter:
sensitiveness to impact: impact energy (J)
Remarks on result:
negative (not further specified)
Remarks:
No explosions were observed up to the maximum impact energy applied of 50 J and the result is considered negative for the BAM fall hammer test for shock
Parameter:
sensitiveness to friction: friction load (N)
Remarks on result:
negative (not further specified)
Remarks:
No explosions were observed using the maximum friction load of 360 N and the result is considered negative for the BAM friction test
Parameter:
thermal sensitivity - Koenen test: diameter of the orifice plate
Remarks on result:
positive (not further specified)
Remarks:
An explosion was observed with a limiting orifice diameter of 2mm

BAM fall hammer test
Weight (Kg) Height (m) Impact Energy (J) Observations
5 0.2 10 No sign of ignition or explosion. On dismantling the assembly, there were no signs of decomposition
5 0.3 15 No sign of ignition or explosion. On dismantling the assembly, there were no signs of decomposition
5 0.4 20 No sign of ignition or explosion. On dismantling the assembly, there were no signs of decomposition
5 0.5 25 No sign of ignition or explosion. On dismantling the assembly, there were no signs of decomposition
10 0.35 35 No sign of ignition or explosion. On dismantling the assembly, there were no signs of decomposition
10 0.4 40 No sign of ignition or explosion. On dismantling the assembly, there were no signs of decomposition
10 0.5 50 No sign of ignition or explosion. On dismantling the assembly, there were no signs of decomposition
10 0.5 50 No sign of ignition or explosion. On dismantling the assembly, there were no signs of decomposition
10 0.5 50 No sign of ignition or explosion. On dismantling the assembly, there were no signs of decomposition
10 0.5 50 No sign of ignition or explosion. On dismantling the assembly, there were no signs of decomposition
10 0.5 50 No sign of ignition or explosion. On dismantling the assembly, there were no signs of decomposition
10 0.5 50 No sign of ignition or explosion. On dismantling the assembly, there were no signs of decomposition
Result : Negative
BAM Friction Test
Test Observations
1 No sign of ignition or explosion. No sign of decomposition on the plate or peg
2 No sign of ignition or explosion. A grey mark on the plate indicated decomposition
3 No sign of ignition or explosion. A grey mark on the plate indicated decomposition
4 No sign of ignition or explosion. A grey mark on the plate indicated decomposition
5 No sign of ignition or explosion. A grey mark on the plate indicated decomposition
6 No sign of ignition or explosion. A grey mark on the plate indicated decomposition
Result: Negative
Koenen steel tube test
Test Time(s) Observations
1 (1mm orifice)28 28 Orange flame from orifice
103 Large sound of an explosion, flame out, burner flames out. Tube recoved in four pieces and therefore result evaluated as an explosion.
2 (2mm orifice)49 49 Orange flame from orifice
113 Explosion sound, flame extinguished, burners extinguished. Tube recovered in three pieces and therefore result evaluated as an explosion
3 (5mm orifice) 49 Orange flaem from orifice
300 Test stopped, flame self-extinguished. Tube recovered intact
4 (3mm orifice) 51 Orange flame from orifice
93 Orange flame increasing in size
300 Test stopped, flame self-extinguished. Tube recovered intact
5 (3mm orifice) 37 Orange flame from orifice
300 Test stopped, flame self-extinguished. Tube recovered intact
6 (3mm orifice) 58 Orange flame from orifice
112 Loud noise emitted from burners
300 Test stopped, flame self-extinguished. Tube recovered intact
Result: Limiting diameter = 2mm

The Koenen test specifies for the testing to be started using an orifice plate of 20mm and if no explosion occurs the diameter of the orifice to be reduced in a series of single trials (to a minimum diameter of 1mm) until an explosion occurs. However, it was decided to start testing using a 1mm orifice plate because a limited amount of test item was available. For the same reason, the test item that was used to determine the amount of test item required to fill the tube to 15mm from the top, using three equal increments was re-used for packing the steel tube for test 1. As all tubes were filled to 15mm from the top using the same amount of test item and the specified amount of pressure for packing, this deviation is considered not to have any significance with regard to the result.

Conclusions:
No explosions were observed up to the maximum impact energy applied of 50 J, and the result is considered negative for the BAM fall hammer test for shock; no explosions were observed using the maximum friction load of 360 N and the result is considered negative for the BAM friction test; an explosion was observed with a limiting orifice diameter of 2mm and the result is considered positive (diammonium sodium hexakis(nitrito-N)rhodate showed a violent effect on heating under confinement) for the Koenen test for thermal sensitivity.
Executive summary:

Atwal and Tremain (2011) is a GLP compliant study following standard test guidelines which is considered suitable for use as a key study for this endpoint.

No explosions were observed up to the maximum impact energy applied of 50 J, and the result is considered negative for the BAM fall hammer test for shock;  no explosions were observed using the maximum friction load of 360 N and the result is considered negative for the BAM friction test; an explosion was observed with a limiting orifice diameter of 2mm and the result is considered positive (diammonium sodium hexakis(nitrito-N)rhodate showed a violent effect on heating under confinement) for the Koenen test for thermal sensitivity.

Description of key information

No explosions were observed up to the maximum impact energy applied of 50 J, and the result is considered negative for the BAM fall hammer test for shock;  no explosions were observed using the maximum friction load of 360 N and the result is considered negative for the BAM friction test; an explosion was observed with a limiting orifice diameter of 2mm and the result is considered positive (diammonium sodium hexakis(nitrito-N)rhodate showed a violent effect on heating under confinement) for the Koenen test for thermal sensitivity.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

Atwal and Tremain (2011) is a GLP compliant study following standard test guidelines which is considered suitable for use as a key study for this endpoint.

No explosions were observed up to the maximum impact energy applied of 50 J, and the result is considered negative for the BAM fall hammer test for shock;  no explosions were observed using the maximum friction load of 360 N and the result is considered negative for the BAM friction test; an explosion was observed with a limiting orifice diameter of 2mm and the result is considered positive (diammonium sodium hexakis(nitrito-N)rhodate showed a violent effect on heating under confinement) for the Koenen test for thermal sensitivity.

Justification for classification or non-classification