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Description of key information

LD50 was estimated to be 833 mg/kg bw when rats were orally exposed with 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-(3-chloropropyl)piperazine.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Acute toxicity: via oral route

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
acute toxicity: oral
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with limited documentation / justification
Justification for type of information:
Data is predicted using OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 and the supporting QMRF report has been attached
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 401 (Acute Oral Toxicity)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Prediction is done using QSAR Toolbox version 3.3
GLP compliance:
not specified
Test type:
standard acute method
Limit test:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material: 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-(3-chloropropyl)piperazine
- Molecular formula: C13H18Cl2N2
- Molecular weight: 273.205 g/mole
- Smiles notation: N1(c2cc(Cl)ccc2)CCN(CC1)CCCCl
- InChl: 1S/C13H18Cl2N2/c14-5-2-6-16-7-9-17(10-8-16)13-4-1-3-12(15)11-13/h1,3-4,11H,2,5-10H2
- Substance type: Organic
- Physical state: Solid
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male/female
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
water
Details on oral exposure:
No data available
Doses:
833 mg/kg bw
No. of animals per sex per dose:
5
Control animals:
yes
Details on study design:
No data available
Statistics:
No data available
Preliminary study:
No data available
Sex:
male/female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
833 mg/kg bw
Based on:
test mat.
Remarks on result:
other: 50 % mortality observed
Mortality:
No data available
Clinical signs:
No data available
Body weight:
No data available
Gross pathology:
No data available
Other findings:
No data available

The prediction was based on dataset comprised from the following descriptors: LD50
Estimation method: Takes average value from the 6 nearest neighbours
Domain  logical expression:Result: In Domain

(((((((((("a" or "b" or "c" or "d" )  and ("e" and ( not "f") )  )  and "g" )  and ("h" and ( not "i") )  )  and ("j" and ( not "k") )  )  and "l" )  and "m" )  and ("n" and ( not "o") )  )  and ("p" and ( not "q") )  )  and ("r" and "s" )  )

Domain logical expression index: "a"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aliphatic Amines by US-EPA New Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "b"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as SN1 OR SN1 >> Iminium Ion Formation OR SN1 >> Iminium Ion Formation >> Aliphatic tertiary amines OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Tertiary aromatic amine OR SN2 OR SN2 >> SN2 at an sp3 Carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at an sp3 Carbon atom >> Aliphatic halides by DNA binding by OECD ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "c"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as SN2 OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom >> Alkyl halides  by Protein binding by OASIS v1.3 ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "d"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as SN2 OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom >> Alkyl halides by Protein binding by OECD ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "e"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.3

Domain logical expression index: "f"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as AN2 OR AN2 >> Carbamoylation after isocyanate formation OR AN2 >> Carbamoylation after isocyanate formation >> N-Hydroxylamines OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation >> Polarized Haloalkene Derivatives OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation by aldehyde formed after metabolic activation OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation by aldehyde formed after metabolic activation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation after aldehyde release OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation after aldehyde release >> Specific Acetate Esters OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation for aldehydes OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation for aldehydes >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation for aldehydes >> Haloalkane Derivatives with Labile Halogen OR AN2 >> Thioacylation via nucleophilic addition after cysteine-mediated thioketene formation OR AN2 >> Thioacylation via nucleophilic addition after cysteine-mediated thioketene formation >> Polarized Haloalkene Derivatives OR Non-covalent interaction OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> DNA Intercalators with Carboxamide Side Chain OR Radical OR Radical >> Generation of reactive oxygen species OR Radical >> Generation of reactive oxygen species >> N,N-Dialkyldithiocarbamate Derivatives OR Radical >> Generation of reactive oxygen species >> Thiols OR Radical >> Generation of ROS by glutathione depletion (indirect) OR Radical >> Generation of ROS by glutathione depletion (indirect) >> Haloalkanes Containing Heteroatom OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Haloalcohols OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> N-Hydroxylamines OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitrophenols, Nitrophenyl Ethers and Nitrobenzoic Acids OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Single-Ring Substituted Primary Aromatic Amines OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Alkylation after metabolically formed carbenium ion species OR SN1 >> Alkylation after metabolically formed carbenium ion species >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Derivatives OR SN1 >> Carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Carbenium ion formation >> Alpha-Haloethers OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> N-Hydroxylamines OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> Single-Ring Substituted Primary Aromatic Amines OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitrophenols, Nitrophenyl Ethers and Nitrobenzoic Acids OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Acylation OR SN2 >> Acylation >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group  OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group  >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group  >> Haloalkane Derivatives with Labile Halogen OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group after metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group after metabolic activation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> Alkylation by epoxide metabolically formed after E2 reaction OR SN2 >> Alkylation by epoxide metabolically formed after E2 reaction >> Haloalcohols OR SN2 >> Alkylation by epoxide metabolically formed after E2 reaction >> Monohaloalkanes OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related >> Epoxides and Aziridines OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after cyclization OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after cyclization >> Nitrogen Mustards OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Derivatives OR SN2 >> Alkylation, nucleophilic substitution at sp3-carbon atom OR SN2 >> Alkylation, nucleophilic substitution at sp3-carbon atom >> Haloalkane Derivatives with Labile Halogen OR SN2 >> Alkylation, nucleophilic substitution at sp3-carbon atom >> Monohaloalkanes OR SN2 >> Alkylation, nucleophilic substitution at sp3-carbon atom >> Sulfonates and Sulfates OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation >> Quinoline Derivatives OR SN2 >> DNA alkylation OR SN2 >> DNA alkylation >> Alkylphosphates, Alkylthiophosphates and Alkylphosphonates OR SN2 >> DNA alkylation >> Vicinal Dihaloalkanes OR SN2 >> Internal SN2 reaction with aziridinium and/or cyclic sulfonium ion formation (enzymatic) OR SN2 >> Internal SN2 reaction with aziridinium and/or cyclic sulfonium ion formation (enzymatic) >> Vicinal Dihaloalkanes OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution after carbenium ion formation OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution after carbenium ion formation >> Monohaloalkanes OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom >> Haloalkanes Containing Heteroatom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom after thiol (glutathione) conjugation OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom after thiol (glutathione) conjugation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom >> Quinoline Derivatives OR SN2 >> SN2 at sp3 and activated sp2 carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at sp3 and activated sp2 carbon atom >> Polarized Haloalkene Derivatives OR SN2 >> SN2 at sp3-carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at sp3-carbon atom >> Alpha-Haloethers by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.3

Domain logical expression index: "g"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as SN1 AND SN1 >> Iminium Ion Formation AND SN1 >> Iminium Ion Formation >> Aliphatic tertiary amines AND SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation AND SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Tertiary aromatic amine AND SN2 AND SN2 >> SN2 at an sp3 Carbon atom AND SN2 >> SN2 at an sp3 Carbon atom >> Aliphatic halides by DNA binding by OECD ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "h"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Not possible to classify according to these rules by DPRA Cysteine peptide depletion

Domain logical expression index: "i"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as High reactive OR High reactive >> Benzyl halides OR Low reactive OR Low reactive >> N-substituted aromatic amides OR Low reactive >> Primary haloalkanes OR Moderate reactive OR Moderate reactive >> Five-membered heterocyclic urea by DPRA Cysteine peptide depletion

Domain logical expression index: "j"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Non binder, without OH or NH2 group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "k"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Non binder, impaired OH or NH2 group OR Non binder, MW>500 OR Non binder, non cyclic structure OR Strong binder, OH group OR Weak binder, OH group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "l"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Bioavailable by Lipinski Rule Oasis ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "m"

Similarity boundary:Target: ClCCCN1CCN(c2cccc(Cl)c2)CC1
Threshold=20%,
Dice(Atom centered fragments)
Atom type; Count H attached; Hybridization

Domain logical expression index: "n"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Not categorized by Repeated dose (HESS)

Domain logical expression index: "o"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aliphatic amines (Mucous membrane irritation) Rank C OR Aliphatic nitriles (Hepatotoxicity) Rank B OR Allyl esters (Hepatotoxicity) Rank A OR Anilines (Hemolytic anemia with methemoglobinemia) Rank A OR Anilines (Hepatotoxicity) Rank C OR Chlorphentermine (Hepatotoxicity) Alert by Repeated dose (HESS)

Domain logical expression index: "p"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Inclusion rules not met by Skin irritation/corrosion Inclusion rules by BfR

Domain logical expression index: "q"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Esters of organic sulfonic or sulfuric esters OR Ketones by Skin irritation/corrosion Inclusion rules by BfR

Domain logical expression index: "r"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is >= 1.94

Domain logical expression index: "s"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is <= 4.43

Interpretation of results:
Category 4 based on GHS criteria
Conclusions:
LD50 was estimated to be 833 mg/kg bw when rats were orally exposed with 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-(3-chloropropyl)piperazine.
Executive summary:

In a prediction done by SSS (2017) using the OECD QSAR toolbox with log kow as the primary descriptor, the acute oral toxicity was estimated for 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-(3-chloropropyl)piperazine. The LD50 was estimated to be 833 mg/kg bw when rats were orally exposed with 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-(3-chloropropyl)piperazine.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Value:
833 mg/kg bw
Quality of whole database:
Data is Klimisch 2 and from OECD QSAR toolbox

Acute toxicity: via inhalation route

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Acute toxicity: via dermal route

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

Acute oral toxicity:

In different studies, 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-(3-chloropropyl)piperazine has been investigated for acute oral toxicity to a greater or lesser extent. Often are the studies based on in vivo experiments and estimated data in rodents, i.e. most commonly in rats for 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-(3-chloropropyl)piperazinealong with the study available on structurally similar read across substance Trazodone (CAS no 19794-93-5). The predicted data using the OECD QSAR toolbox has also been compared with the experimental studies.

In a prediction done by SSS (2017) using the OECD QSAR toolbox with log kow as the primary descriptor, the acute oral toxicity was estimated for 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-(3-chloropropyl)piperazine. The LD50 was estimated to be 833 mg/kg bw when rats were orally exposed with 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-(3-chloropropyl)piperazine.

In another prediction done by SSS (2017) using the Danish QSAR with log kow as the primary descriptor, the acute oral toxicity was estimated for 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-(3-chloropropyl)piperazine. The LD50 was estimated to be 660 mg/kg bw when mice were orally exposed with 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-(3-chloropropyl)piperazine.

Also it is further supported by experimental study summarized by U.S. National Library of Medicine (ChemIDplusA TOXNET Database, 2017) on structurally similar read across substance Trazodone (CAS no 19794-93-5), mice and rat were treated with Trazodone orally. 50% mortality was observed in treated mice at 610 mg/kg bw and in rat at 690 mg/kg bw. Dyspnea of Lungs, Thorax or Respiration was observed. Convulsions or Effect on Seizure Threshold and Somnolence (General Depressed Activity) were observed in treated mice and rat. Therefore, LD50 was considered to 610 mg/kg bw and 690 mg/kg bw when mice and rat were treated with Trazodone orally.

Thus, based on the above studies and predictions on 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-(3-chloropropyl)piperazine and its read across substances and by applying weight of evidence, it can be concluded that LD50 value is less than 2000 mg/kg bw. Thus, comparing this value with the criteria of CLP regulation, 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-(3-chloropropyl)piperazine can be classified as Category IV of acute oral toxicity.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Based on the above studies and predictions on 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-(3-chloropropyl)piperazine and its read across substances and by applying weight of evidence, it can be concluded that LD50 value is less than 2000 mg/kg bw. Thus, comparing this value with the criteria of CLP regulation, 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-(3-chloropropyl)piperazine can be classified as Category IV of acute oral toxicity.

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