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Toxicological information

Genetic toxicity: in vivo

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
in vivo mammalian germ cell study: gene mutation
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: gene mutation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Evaluation of the toxic, cytotoxic, mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of natural and technical cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid on root meristems of Allium cepa using Artemia salina bioassay
Author:
Aracelli de S. Leite1,2, Alisson F. Dantas3, George L. da S. Oliveira4, Antonio L. Gomes Júnior1, Sidney G. de Lima5, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes Citó5, Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas4, Ana Amélia de C. Melo-Cavalcante1,2* and José Arimatéia D. Lopes4,2
Year:
2015
Bibliographic source:
Biomed research international 2015

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
Allium cepa test
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of assay:
other: Plant gene mutation

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) Nutshell Extract, Decarboxylated, Distilled
EC Number:
700-991-6
Cas Number:
8007-24-7
Molecular formula:
Cardanol (saturated side chain): Formula: C21 H36 O Cardanol (monoene): Formula: C21 H34 O Cardanol (diene): Formula: C21 H32 O Cardanol (triene): Formula: C21 H30 O
IUPAC Name:
Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) Nutshell Extract, Decarboxylated, Distilled
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report):cashew nut shell liquid
- Physical state:liquid

Test animals

Species:
other: Allium cepa
Strain:
not specified
Sex:
not specified
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
The roots were placed in Carnoy’s fixative solution (ethanol/glacial acetic acid - 3:1 v/v), refrigerated at 4º C for 24 hours, followed by 70% ethanol solution and refrigeration. The roots were subsequently hydrolysed in a hydrochloric acid solution (1 N) and placed in a staining solution (Schiff’s dye) for two hours

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
infusion
Duration of treatment / exposure:
72 hours of exposure
Doses / concentrations
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
( 1 7 .3 7 μ g .m L-1 3 4.7 5 μ g .m L-1, 6 9 .5 μ g .m L-1)
Basis:
no data
No. of animals per sex per dose:
no data
Control animals:
yes
Positive control(s):
1.2 μg.ml-1 copper sulphate

Examinations

Tissues and cell types examined:
A. cepa root meristems
Details of tissue and slide preparation:
Following 72 hours of exposure, the roots were measured in centimetres to assess toxicity. The roots were then placed in Carnoy’s fixative solution (ethanol/glacial acetic acid - 3:1 v/v), refrigerated at 4º C for 24 hours, followed by 70% ethanol solution and refrigeration. The roots were subsequently hydrolysed in a hydrochloric acid solution (1 N) and placed in a staining solution (Schiff’s dye) for two hours
Evaluation criteria:
The following parameters were observed: (a) mitotic index (MI), (b) the frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in anaphase and telophase and (c) the frequency of micronuclei
Statistics:
All results were expressed as the mean ± standard deviation (SD). The data were assessed by an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s test for multiple comparisons for genotixicity and mutagenicity tests The significance levels were *p <0.05, **p <0.01 and ***p <0.001

Results and discussion

Test results
Sex:
not specified
Genotoxicity:
negative
Toxicity:
no effects
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Additional information on results:
tCNSL had no toxic effect (p > 0.05).
-The tCNSL had no cytotoxic effects on mitotic indices (MIs) at any of the test concentrations.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Based on the study results it was observed that test substance shows negative results in A. cepa root meristems as measured by the number of micronuclei. Thus it can be concluded that CNSL is not gene toxic substance.




Executive summary:

Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of iCNSL and tCNSL as measured by the number of micronuclei (of 1.000 cells per slide, 5 slides per test group) in A. cepa root meristems at different concentrations and treatments with copper sulphate. all three concentrations of tCNSL failed to induce mutagenicity in A. cepa root meristems. The tCNSL did show preventive, antimutagenic and reparative activities, as indicated by the reduced frequency of micro nuclei.