Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Workers - Hazard via inhalation route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
8.22 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
150
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
DNEL value:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEC
DNEL value:
1 234 mg/m³
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:
According to ECHA Guidance – Chapter R8 : “in the absence of route-specific information on the starting route, to include a default factor of 2 (i.e. the absorption percentage for the starting route is half that the end route) in the case of oral-to inhalation extrapolation”. Therefore, as no data is available on oral or inhalation absorption, the oral absorption is estimated to 50% and the inhalation absorption to 100%. The correction factor is 0.5 (50/100).

Correction factor for differences in respiratory volume (rat/workers): 1/0.38

Correction factor for light activity at work : 6.7/10

Correction factor for difference between human and experimental exposure conditions : 7/5 (In the study, animals were exposed 7 days per week, and workers work 5 days per week).

NOAEC = NOAEL x (1/0.38) x (6.7/10) x 0.5 x 7/5= 1000 x (1/0.38) x (6.7/10) x 0.5 x 7/5 = 1234 mg/m3

 

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
This factor is applied because the dose-descriptor starting point is a NOAEC.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
DNEL is based on a subacute study (28-day).
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
1
Justification:
AF not used for inhalation.
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
A factor of 2.5 is applied for remaining difference.
AF for intraspecies differences:
5
Justification:
A factor of 5 is applied for worker DNELs.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
The key study is considered as a reliable study with a klimisch score of 1.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
2
Justification:
An additional factor of 2 is added to taken into account the read-across approach.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
Route of original study:
By inhalation
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
DNEL related information

Workers - Hazard via dermal route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
2.3 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
600
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
DNEL value:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
DNEL value:
1 400 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:
No difference of absorption by oral and dermal route is taken into account.

 

Correction factor for difference between human and experimental exposure conditions : 7/5 (In the study, animals were exposed 7 days per week, and workers work 5 days per week).

Dermal NOAEL = oral NOAEL x 100/100 x 7/5= 1000 x 100/10 x 7/5 = 1400 mg/kg bw/day

 

 

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
This factor is applied because the dose-descriptor starting point is a NOAEL.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
DNEL is based on a subacute study (28-day).
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
An allometric scaling factor of 4 must be applied because the key study was performed on rats.
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
A factor of 2.5 is applied for remaining difference.
AF for intraspecies differences:
5
Justification:
A factor of 5 is applied for worker DNELs.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
The key study is considered as a reliable study with a klimisch score of 1.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
2
Justification:
An additional factor of 2 is added to take into account the read-across approach.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
Route of original study:
Dermal
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
high hazard (no threshold derived)
Most sensitive endpoint:
sensitisation (skin)
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
skin irritation/corrosion

Workers - Hazard for the eyes

Local effects

Hazard assessment conclusion:
medium hazard (no threshold derived)

Additional information - workers

General Population - Hazard via inhalation route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
1.4 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
300
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
DNEL value:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEC
DNEL value:
434 mg/m³
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:
According to ECHA Guidance – Chapter R8 : “in the absence of route-specific information on the starting route, to include a default factor of 2 (i.e. the absorption percentage for the starting route is half that the end route) in the case of oral-to inhalation extrapolation”. Therefore, as no data is available on oral or inhalation absorption, the oral absorption is estimated to 50% and the inhalation absorption to 100%. The correction factor is 0.5 (50/100).

Correction factor for differences in respiratory volume (rat/general population): 1/1.15

NOAEC = NOAEL x (1/1.15) x 0.5 = 1000 x (1/1.15) x 0.5 = 434 mg/m3

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
This factor is applied because the dose-descriptor starting point is a NOAEC.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
DNEL is based on a subacute study (28-day).
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
1
Justification:
AF not used for inhalation.
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
A factor of 2.5 is applied for remaining difference.
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
A factor of 10 is applied for the general population DNELs.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
The key study is considered as a reliable study with a klimisch score of 1.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
2
Justification:
An additional factor of 2 is added to take into account the read-across approach.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
Route of original study:
By inhalation
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
DNEL related information

General Population - Hazard via dermal route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.83 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
1 200
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
DNEL value:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
DNEL value:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:
It is the worst case. No data is available on oral and dermal absorption. And, no difference in dermal and oral absorption is expected between rats and humans.
AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
This factor is applied because the dose-descriptor starting point is a NOAEL.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
DNEL is based on a subacute study (28-day).
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
An allometric scaling factor of 4 must be applied because the key study was performed on rats.
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
A factor of 2.5 is applied for remaining difference.
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
A factor of 10 is applied for the general population DNELs.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
The key study is considered as a reliable study with a klimisch score of 1.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
2
Justification:
An additional factor of 2 is added to take into account the read-across approach.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
Route of original study:
Dermal
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
high hazard (no threshold derived)
Most sensitive endpoint:
sensitisation (skin)
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
skin irritation/corrosion

General Population - Hazard via oral route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.83 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
1 200
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
DNEL value:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
DNEL value:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:
No difference in oral absorption is expected between rats and humans.
AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
This factor is applied because the dose-descriptor starting point is a NOAEL.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
DNEL is based on a subacute study (28-day).
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
An allometric scaling factor of 4 must be applied because the key study was performed on rats.
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
A factor of 2.5 is applied for remaining difference.
AF for intraspecies differences:
5
Justification:
A factor of 10 is applied for the general population DNELs.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
The key study is considered as a reliable study with a klimisch score of 1.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
2
Justification:
An additional factor of 2 is added to take into account the read-across approach.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information

General Population - Hazard for the eyes

Local effects

Hazard assessment conclusion:
medium hazard (no threshold derived)

Additional information - General Population