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Biodegradation in water

Biodegradability of 4-nitrobenzene-1,3-diamine (CAS no. 5131 -58 -8) is predicted using QSAR toolbox version 3.4 with logKow as the primary descriptor (2017). Test substance undergoes 0.85% degradation by BOD in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, the test chemical 4 -nitrobenzene-1,3 -diamine was estimated to be not readily biodegradable in water.

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI) Suite (2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound

4 -nitrobenzene-1,3 -diamine (CAS No. 5131 -58 -8). If released in to the environment, 21.1% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of 4-nitrobenzene-1,3-diamine in water is estimated to be 37.5 days (900 hrs). The half-life (37.5 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low whereas the half-life period of 4 -nitrobenzene-1,3 -diamine in sediment is estimated to be 337.5 days (8100 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical 4 -nitrobenzene-1,3 -diamine into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.0941%), indicates that 4-nitrobenzene-1,3-diamine is not persistent in sediment.

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of 4-nitrobenzene-1,3-diamine (CAS No. 5131 -58 -8) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 78.8% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of 4-nitrobenzene-1,3-diamine in soil is estimated to be 75 days (1800 hrs). Based on this half-life value of 4 -nitrobenzene-1,3 -diamine, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

Additional information

Biodegradation in water

Various predicted data for the target compound 4 -nitrobenzene-1,3 -diamine (CAS No. 5131 -58 -8) and various supporting weight of evidence studies for its closest read across substance were reviewed for the biodegradation end point which are summarized as below:

 

In a prediction done by SSS (2017) using OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.4 with logKow as the primary descriptor, percentage biodegradability of test chemical 4 -nitrobenzene-1,3 -diamine (CAS No. 5131 -58 -8) was estimated.Test substance undergoes 0.85% degradation by BOD in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, the test chemical 4-nitrobenzene-1,3-diamine was estimated to be not readily biodegradable in water.

 

In another prediction using the Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI suite, 2017), the biodegradation potential of the test compound 4 -nitrobenzene-1,3 -diamine (CAS No. 5131 -58 -8) in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms was estimated.The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI LInear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that 4-nitrobenzene-1,3 -diamine is expected to be not readily biodegradable.

 

In a supporting weight of evidence study from authoritative database (J-CHECK, 2017), biodegradation screening test was conducted for 14 days (2 weeks) for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of the read across substance 4-nitroaniline (CAS no. 100 -01 -6). Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l, respectively. The percentage degradation of read across substance was determined to be 0% by BOD and 2.9% by TOC removal parameter in 14 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, substance 4-nitroaniline is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

For the same read across chemical 4-nitroaniline (CAS no. 100 -01 -6), biodegradation test was conducted for 20 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of the read across substance 4-nitroaniline (P. PITTER, 1976). Activated sludge was used as a test inoculum. Activated sludge taken from a sewage plant is cultivated in a 1000ml volumetric cylinder. The mixture is aerated with pressure air. Every day 200 ml of the mixture is driven off so that the sludge age is 5 days. After driving off the 200ml of the mixture aeration is interrupted, and after sedimentation ca. 600mlof the liquid phase is driven off. The residue (200 ml of the thickened activated sludge) is diluted with tap water to the volume ofca.800 ml and 600 mg/l of starch or glucose, 600 mg/l of peptone, 25 ml of a phosphate buffer pH 7.2, and the solution of the tested compound are added. Then the mixture in the cylinder is made up to 1000ml with tap water and aerated for 23 h (the recirculation ratio is 0-25). After this period the procedure is repeated. The tested substance is dissolved in a beaker in a biological medium in a concentration corresponding to 200mg 1 -I COD. To the biological medium such amount of thickened adapted activated sludge is added to make dry matter of the inoculum 100mgl . The beaker is placed in a dark room with a roughly 3 constant temperature of 20 ± 3 °C on an electromagnetic stirrer. The initial value of COD or organic carbon of the liquid phase are determined. Samples filtered or centrifuged before analysis, are taken at suitable intervals. The decrease of the tested substance in the liquid phase is evaluated by determining COD or organic carbon. With the degree of degradation also the average specific rate of degradation is determined, expressed in terms of mg COD (or organic carbon) removed by a gramme of dry matter of the activated sludge per hour. The experiment is carried out till there is no decrease of COD. After that time the total percentage of COD removed and the rate of degradation are evaluated. Conc of test substance used for the study was 200mg/l, respectively. The percentage degradation of read across substance was determined to be 0% by COD parameter in 20 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, substance 4-nitroaniline is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

Another weight of evidence study of biodegradation from authoritative database (J-CHECK, 2017) of the read across substance 2,4-dinitroaniline (CAS no. 97 -02 -9) was conducted for 28 days. Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l, respectively. The percentage degradation of read across substance was determined to be 4 and 3% degradation by BOD and HPLC parameter in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, substance 2,4-dinitroaniline is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

On the basis of above results for target chemical 4 -nitrobenzene-1,3 -diamine (from OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.4 and EPI Suite, 2017) and for its read across substance (from authoritative database J-CHECK, 2017 and peer reviewed journal), it can be concluded that the test substance 4 -nitrobenzene-1,3 -diamine can be expected to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI) Suite (2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound

4 -nitrobenzene-1,3 -diamine (CAS No. 5131 -58 -8). If released in to the environment, 21.1% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of 4-nitrobenzene-1,3-diamine in water is estimated to be 37.5 days (900 hrs). The half-life (37.5 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low whereas the half-life period of 4 -nitrobenzene-1,3 -diamine in sediment is estimated to be 337.5 days (8100 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical 4 -nitrobenzene-1,3 -diamine into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.0941%), indicates that 4-nitrobenzene-1,3-diamine is not persistent in sediment.

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of 4-nitrobenzene-1,3-diamine (CAS No. 5131 -58 -8) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 78.8% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of 4-nitrobenzene-1,3-diamine in soil is estimated to be 75 days (1800 hrs). Based on this half-life value of 4 -nitrobenzene-1,3 -diamine, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

On the basis of available information, the test substance 4 -nitrobenzene-1,3 -diamine can be considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.