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EC number: 231-850-2
CAS number: 7759-02-6
In the aqueous
and terrestrial environment, strontium sulfate dissolves in (pore) water
releasing strontium cations and sulfate anions.
are of low environmental toxicity (OECD SIDS for Na2SO4)
as sulfate is essential to all living organisms and their intracellular
and extracellular concentrations are actively regulated.
No or few ecotoxicological data are available for strontium sulfate
itself. For the assessment of the environmental fate and behaviour of
strontium substances, a read-across approach is applied based on all
information available for inorganic strontium compounds. This is based
on the common assumption that after emission of metal compounds into the
environment, the moiety of toxicological concern is the potentially
bioavailable metal ion (i.e., Sr2+).This
assumption is considered valid as the ecotoxicity is only affected by
the strontium-ion and not by the counter (sulfate) ion.The
speciation and chemistry of strontium is rather simple.
electropositive metal, strontium is easily oxidized to the stable and
colourless Sr2+ion in most of its compounds, the chemical
behaviour resembling that of calcium and/or barium (Wennig and Kirsch,
1988). In the environment, the element only occurs in one valence state
(Sr2+), does not form strong organic or inorganic complexes
and is commonly present in solution as Sr2+(Lollar, 2005).
Consequently, the transport, fate, and toxicity of strontium in the
environment are largely controlled by solubility of different Sr-salts
(e. g., SrCO3, Sr(NO3)2, SrSO4,
are sufficient justification for the implementation of a read-across
strategy with ecotoxicity results obtained in tests that were conducted
with different strontium compounds that generate free Sr2+-ions
in solution, and this for all relevant environmental endpoints that were
In sum, the
environmental hazard assessment is based on strontium.
R.; Kirsch, N. (1988): Chapter 57 Strontium, In: Seiler, U. G. et al.(eds),
Handb. Tox. Inorg. Comp. NY, 631-638
PNECsedimentcan be derived from the PNECaquaticusing
the equilibrium partitioning method (EPM).
distribution/partition coefficient (KD) between the water and
sediment compartment for strontium has been determined (see chapter
1.3). This resulted in a typical KD, susp-waterof 1,291.8
L/kg (logKD: 3.11). In a first step the units have to be
converted from L/kg to m3/m3using the formula
susp-water(m3/m3) = 0.9 + [0.1 x (KD,
susp-water(L/kg) x 2,500) / 1,000]
results in a KD, susp-matter of 323.9 m3/m3.
This value can be entered in the equation below to calculate the PNECsediment:
(KD, susp-water/ RHOsusp) x PNECaquaticx
the PNECaquaticexpressed as mg/L, RHOsusprepresenting
the bulk density of wet suspended matter (freshly deposited sediment)
(1,150 kg/m3), and a KD, susp-waterof 323.9 m3/m3,
a PNECsedimentthat is expressed as mg/kg wet weight can be
derived. This value can be converted to a dry weight-based PNEC, using a
conversion factor of 4.6 (CONVsusp = RHOsusp/Fsolid-susp * RHOsolid) kg
wet weight/ kg dry weight.
results in aPNECsedimentof 2,720 mg Sr/kg dry sediment
corresponding to 5,700 mg SrSO4/kg dry sediment.
PNECsoilcan be derived from the PNECaquaticusing
the equilibrium partitioning method (EPM).
distribution/partition coefficient (KD) between the water and soil
compartment was derived for strontium of 157.03 L/kg (Log KD: 2.2). In a
first step the units have to be converted from L/kg to m3/m3using
the formula below.
= 0.2 +[0.6
x (KD,soil(L/kg) x 2,500) / 1,000]
results in a KD,soilof 235.75 m3/m3.
This value can be entered in the equation below to calculate the PNECsoil
(KD,soil/ RHOsoil) x PNECaquaticx 1,000
the PNECaquaticexpressed as mg/L, RHOsoilrepresenting
the bulk density of wet soil (1,700 kg/m3) and KD,soil is
157.03 m3/m3, a PNECsoilexpressed as
mg/kg wet weight is derived. This value can be converted to a dry
weight-based PNEC, using a conversion factor of 1.13 kg wet weight/ kg
results in a PNECsoilof 329 mg Sr/kg dry soil,
re-calculation to strontium sulfate resulted in 689.7 mg SrSO4/L.
toxicity EC/LC50values of strontium available for 3 trophic
levels are situated between >40.3 mg Sr/L and >125 mg Sr/L,
corresponding to > 84.5 mg/L and 262 mg/L strontium sulfate based on an
average strontium content of 47.7%. In accordance with Regulation (EC)
No 1272/2008, Table 4.1.0 (a), classification for acute aquatic hazard
is not required for strontium sulfate as all EC50/LC50values
are above the classification criteria of 1 mg/L.
toxicity data are available for 3 trophic levels and range from 21 mg
Sr/L to ≥ 43.3 mg Sr/L, corresponding to 44 mg/L and 90.8 mg/L strontium
sulfate based on an average strontium content of 47.7%. In accordance
with Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008, Table 4.1.0 (b) (i), classification
for chronic aquatic hazard is not required for strontium sulfate as all
chronic EC10/NOEC values are above the classification
criteria of 1 mg/L.
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