Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Effects on fertility

Description of key information

Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test 

NOAEL for general systemic toxicity:           1000 mg/kg bw/day

NOAEL for reproductive toxicity:                  1000 mg/kg bw/day

NOAEL for developmental toxicity:               1000 mg/kg bw/day

 

Link to relevant study records

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
one-generation reproductive toxicity
Remarks:
based on test type (migrated information)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
August 27, 1980 to December 29, 1980.
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Standard followed not detailed in the study report, however the report is robust.
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: Not specified in the study report.
Deviations:
not specified
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Phase I of this study was to assess the safety of TVCI R-8968 when administered to Sprague Dawley rats from weanling (F0) through sexual maturity, mating, gestation, lactation and weaning their offspring (F1).
GLP compliance:
no
Limit test:
yes
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
Animals and Housing:
One hundred and five male and one hundred and five female non-sibling Sprague Dawley rats, 21 days old arrived at WIL Research Laboratories, Inc. on August 19, 1980 from Harlan Industries, Indianapolis, Indiana. The animals were singly housed in stainless steel cages, elevated above the droppings in a laminar air-flow room. These animals were fed Certified Purina Rodent Meal #5002 and water -ad libitum and acclimated for one week.
Animal Assignment:
One hundred male and one hundred female rats were randomized into four groups. Randomization and assignment to dose groups were accomplished by a computer program based on stratified body weight and random number generation.
Route of administration:
oral: feed
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on exposure:
Certified Purina Rodent Meal and the test material were mixed together, in the appropriate concentrations, using a Twin Shell Blender. The route of administration was by oral admixture into food rations. Fresh diets were prepared weekly.
Details on mating procedure:
The test material was fed for a period of 72 days, at which time 25 males were paired with 25 females from the same dose level. The pairs were housed together until evidence of conception, the copulatory plug, was observed. The male was then returned to his cage and this was then considered "Day 0" of pregnancy. If mating failed to occur within 7 days, another proven male from the same dose level was placed with the female until evidence of conception occurred or seven days had elapsed.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Two sets of diet samples, each containing 25 grams from three layers were tested for a homogeneity analysis on weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 12 and 18 of the study.
On September 3, 1980 duplicate samples containing 25 grams from each dose level were placed in food jars, which were then placed in empty cages on the appropriate racks in the study room where they remained undisturbed for fourteen days. On September 17, 1980, these samples were removed from the jars, bagged and tested for stability analysis. A 100 gram sample of each food mix, from each dose level, was also taken and stored in the retention sample archives at WIL Research as a retention sample for each week.

A satisfactory spectrophotometer was not available to carry out analysis of diet as proposed in the protocol of the study. Thus, a modification of the proposed method was made and was used for all diet analysis. The extraction portion of the JR Lane procedure was not changed so there was no need to determine recoveries. The TVCI in the extracts was determined using a Tracor HPLC as the means of quantitative measurement. No effort was made to resolve the TVCI peak from other components because of the need to modify the procedure rapidly. Thus, the response from the diet extracts with no added TVCI at the same elution time was used as a control for correction of peak height. Some resolution of TVCI from diet extractives was obtained so the method is an improvement over the spectrophotometric assay.
The liquid chromatograph used was assembled from the following Tracor (Austin, Texas) modules: a Model 995 isochromatographic pump, a Model 970A variable wave length UV detector and a Model TS-10 recorder. The 25 cm column (4.6 mm, ID) was packed with 3.5 grams of Partisil-10 PAC (Whatman). The chromatography was isocratic, with a mobile phase of chloroform-methanol (100-1). The mobile phase was pumped at a flow rate of 1.00 ml/min. A 20 ul sample was introduced to the column through a Rheodyne Model 7120 injector. Peak height was measured from the detector signal sent to the recorder. Full scale deflection on the recorder is 100 units and was read to 0.5 of a unit. The recorder was set to move the chart paper at 2.5 cm/min. The Tracor variable wave length detector has the capability of scanning the spectrum of a sample which is in the flow cell. Using that technique it was found that TVCI had a maximum absorbance at 270 nm with that particular detector. Thus the absorbance detector was set at 270 nm routinely. Under the conditions of the chromatography TVCI was eluted as a sharp peak with a retention time of about 1.58 min which is about the t0 of the column. Samples of the diet without TVCI added were processed thru the proposed modified procedures. The chromatogram showed three peaks which were not well resolved with retention times of 1.45, 1.55 and 1.70 min. The chromatography did allow for reduction of more than 60% of the UV absorbing interference from the extracts. Analysis of diet samples containing the lowest concentration of TVCI (2.0 grams per kg) showed that TVCI eluted between the second and third interfering components. Thus the height of the valley between the second and third peak in the control chromatograms was used as a correction in the calculation of the concentration of TVCI.
The analyses of the diet samples thus followed a routine format. In addition to the standard TVCI, at least three sub-samples of control diet (0.0 grams TVCI/kg) were analyzed with each set of subsamples containing TVCI. For analysis of the standard, the control diet and the low level diet (2.0 grams per kg) the absorbance was set at 0.16 AUFS. The average peak height from the three control chromatograms was used as a correction of peak height for unknown sub-samples. For analysis of the medium test level (6.3 grams per kg) the absorbance was set at 0.32 AUFS. For analysis of the high test level (20.0 grams/kg) the absorbance was set at 1.28 AUFS.
Calculation
h = peak height of an unknown
hc = peak height of controls
hs = peak height of standard
h - hc
concentration in grams per kg = ---------- x factor
hs
The standard contained 100 ug/ml. For the low level of diet the factor was one since the controls and low level samples were both analyzed at 0.16 AUFS. For the higher levels of test diet the factor was 2 or 8 when the absorbance was set at 0.32 or 1.28 AUFS. The hc was reduced appropriately for the analyses at 0.32 and 1.28 AUFS. That is, the correction value at 0.32 was hc/2 and at 1.28 it was hc/8.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
72 days
Frequency of treatment:
Daily in feed
Details on study schedule:
The rats from the F0 generation were mated at 100 days of age and their offspring (F1) were randomly selected from their litters, within the same
dose level, for the 90 day dietary study.
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
2.0, 6.325, or 20.0 grams TVCI R-8968/kg
Basis:
nominal in diet
No. of animals per sex per dose:
25 males and 25 females per dose group
Control animals:
yes, plain diet
Details on study design:
See Any other information for Animal Assignment
Positive control:
Positive control not required for this study.
Parental animals: Observations and examinations:
All animals were observed at least once daily for pertinent abnormal behavior and toxic signs. Body weights and food consumption measurements
were performed on a weekly basis throughout the study. Number of food consumption and body weight measurements may vary weekly due to spillage of feed or death of the animal.
Oestrous cyclicity (parental animals):
Not examined in this study
Sperm parameters (parental animals):
Not examined in this study
Litter observations:
Within 24 hours of birth, the litters were weighed, sexed, examined for gross abnormalities and toe clipped for individual identification.
Body weights of the litters were recorded on the day of birth and days 4, 7, 14, 21 and weekly thereafter.
On days 4, 7, 14 and 21 the pups were examined for physical and behavioral abnormalities and counted for viability.
Postmortem examinations (parental animals):
A gross necropsy was performed on all animals. All males were sacrificed at the end of the breeding phase which was November 21, 1980. Of the females for Phase I, all the non-pregnant females were sacrificed on December 10, 1980 while the pregnant females were sacrificed as their pups were weaned which ranged from December 22, 1980 to December 29, 1980.
Postmortem examinations (offspring):
A table of random numbers was used to cull the pups on day 4 to eight pups per litter with equal number per sex when possible.
Postmortem examinations of F1 generation performed as part of the 90-day feeding study.
Statistics:
All body weight data and food uptake values were statistically analyzed using the Dunnett's test.
Reproductive indices:
Fertility index calculated
Offspring viability indices:
Litter size, viability and sex ratio calculated
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality:
mortality observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence):
Two animals died and 3 were sacrificed moribund, #175, female, group 4 was found dead and cause of death was difficulty in whelping. Number 177,
female, group 3 was found dead and cause of death was undetermined. Number 181, female, group 3 was sacrificed moribund and tentative diagnosis was lympho-proliferative disease. The other two sacrificed moribund were control female with idiopathic lesions. Pinworms were observed periodically in all groups & no anthelmintic was used to eradicate them.
There were no consistent test material related effects noted.
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Other effects:
not specified
Reproductive function: oestrous cycle:
not examined
Reproductive function: sperm measures:
not examined
Reproductive performance:
no effects observed
Fertility-Breeding Data:
The fertility index for each group:
Group 1 20/23 X 100 87%
Group 2 22/25 X 100 88%
Group 3 20124 X 100 83%
Group 4 22/25 X 100 88%

There were no consistent test material effects on clinical observations, fertility.

Clinical Observations:
Two animals died and 3 were sacrificed moribund, #175, female, group 4 was found dead and cause of death was difficulty in whelping. Number 177,
female, group 3 was found dead and cause of death was undetermined. Number 181, female, group 3 was sacrificed moribund and tentative diagnosis was lympho-proliferative disease. The other two sacrificed moribund were control female with idiopathic lesions. Pinworms were observed periodically in all groups & no anthelmintic was used to eradicate them.
There were no consistent test material related effects noted.

Body Weights:
Group 2, male average body weights were significantly decreased from the control group at p < .05 in weeks 2 and 3. Group 2 females mean body weights were significantly decreased from the control at p < .05 in weeks 3 and 4. No other significant differences were noted throughout Phase I of the study. There were no consistent test material related effects.

Food Consumption:
Statistics were not evaluated during weeks 10-12 because of the breeding schedule. There were sporadic differences noted, however, no consistent test material effects were noted.

Diet Analyses - Homogeneity and Stability:
All samples were within expected limits for homogeneity.
Test material stability samples were stable for at least 25 days.

Pathology:
There were no test material effects noted in the test animals when compared to the controls.
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
> 20 000 mg/kg diet
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: No consistent test material related effects noted.
Remarks on result:
other: Generation: P/F1 (migrated information)
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality / viability:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Sexual maturation:
no effects observed
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings:
no effects observed
Other effects:
not specified
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Developmental immunotoxicity:
not examined
Offspring Data:
The average litter size per group was as follows:
10.35/Litter Group 1 (1% pups stillborn)
9.44/Litter Group 2 (3% pups stillborn)
8.90/Litter Group 3 (6% pups stillborn)
9.45/Litter Group 4 (2% pups stillborn)

In the group 4, males and females, there was a statistically significant increase in pup weights at day 0, 4, 7, 14. However at weaning the group 4, males and females body weight were comparable to the controls. This increase in pup body weight in group 4, males and females in principle is due to the increase in numbers of pups per litter in the controls resulting in lower body weights initially in the controls. The total litter body weights in the control were comparable to the group 4 animals at day zero.
There were no consistent test material effects on clinical observations, fertility, viability, sex ratio or growth of F1 pups.
Reproductive effects observed:
not specified

Summary of Major Clinical Observations – F0

 

Frequency/Number of Animals

Dose Group

Observation

1

2

3

4

MALES

Emaciation

6/2

10/1

3/2

0/0

Dehydration

32/12

12/6

11/4

2/2

Scruffy Haircoat

188/16

39/9

22/5

6/5

Alopecia – Forepaws

27/2

162/24

172/25

172/23

Loose Faeces

3/3

2/2

6/4

4/3

FEMALES

Emaciation

597/24

903/25

600/24

641/25

Dehydration

43/12

61/13

11/5

14/4

Alopecia – Forepaws

4/1

32/2

16/4

137/4

Dried Red Nasal Discharge

237/24

225/25

251/25

259/24

Loose Faeces

70/20

91/20

61/17

83/22

Teats Appear Reddened

8/8

13/9

6/4

12/11

Teats Enlarged

4/4

6/6

2/2

3/3

 

Summary of Major Clinical Observations for F1 by Litter

 

Frequency/Number of Litter

Dose Group

Observation

1

2

3

4

Blue or Pale in Color, Cold to Touch, Inactive Pups

0/20

7/22

8/20

6/22

Faecal Stains

0/20

2/22

0/20

1/22

Brown Material Surrounding Nostrils

10/20

13/22

11/20

13/22

Bruised Areas on Body

4/20

7/22

7/20*

10/22

Laboured Respiration

0/20

2/22

2/20

0/22

Cannibalised by Mother

2/20

2/22

2/20

3/22

Urine Stains

0/20

0/22

1/20

3/22

Dried Red Material Around Nose

0/20

0/20

1/20

1/22

Dark Spot on Dorsal Neck

2/20

0/22

0/20

0/22

Fur Moist

0/20

1/22

1/20

0/22

*1 stillborn pup

 

Survivability and Weanling Index (F1)

 

Total No. of Pups

Total No.

Male

Female

Group 1

Day 0

207

107

101

Group 1

Day 4

208

107

101

Group 1

Day 7

154

84

70

Group 1

Day 14

154

84

70

Group 1

Day 21

154

84

70

 

Group 2

Day 0

207

94

113

Group 2

Day 4*

205

93

112

Group 2

Day 7

166

77

89

Group 2

Day 14

166

77

89

Group 2

Day 21

166

77

89

 

Group 3

Day 0

179

84

95

Group 3

Day 4

157

73

84

Group 3

Day 7

128

58

70

Group 3

Day 14

128

58

70

Group 3

Day 21

128

58

70

 

Group 4

Day 0

208

93

115

Group 4

Day 4

206

92

114

Group 4

Day 7

167

79

88

Group 4

Day 14

167

79

88

Group 4

Day 21

167

79

88

*Viability count was done before culling.

 

Body Weight (g) – Summary of Means (F0 Generation)

Sex:

MALE

FEMALE

Dose Grp.:

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

Week 0

96.9

94.8

97.1

94.7

82.0

81.0

80.6

83.1

Week 1

139.3

134.0

140.4

138.7

109.2

105.3

106.5

109.4

Week 2

183.2

170.1*

182.0

181.2

128.1

120.9

124.7

126.5

Week 3

221.0

204.5*

218.2

220.6

142.7

132.0*

136.5

137.5

Week 4

251.8

236.8

249.4

252.0

157.2

145.2*

150.8

151.6

Week 5

277.1

261.5

272.5

275.9

168.9

154.3*

162.7

163.5

Week 6

293.0

277.9

286.4

292.2

175.3

164.0

171.2

173.5

Week 7

308.3

292.5

301.3

307.0

182.5

169.4

177.2

180.0

Week 8

321.0

305.2

312.2

319.3

187.7

174.4

181.1

184.0

Week 9

339.1

320.8

331.0

336.7

194.0

182.7

188.9

191.2

Week 10

346.0

327.2

337.0

345.4

198.3

185.3

192.8

194.6

Week 11

354.1

335.3

345.7

353.0

179.1

194.5

0.0

0.0

Week 12

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Week 13

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Week 14

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Week 15

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

253.1

230.4

244.2

249.7

*=Significantly Different from Control Group at .05 Level using Dunnett’s Test

**=Significantly Different from Control Group at .01 Level using Dunnett’s Test

Males were sacrificed in week 12

Females places on gestational body weights weeks 12, 13 and 14.

 

Summary of Maternal Gestation Body Weight Means in Grams (F0 Generation)

Dose Grp.:

1

2

3

4

Day 3

210

198

206

206

Day 6

217

205

211

213

Day 7

219

208

212

214

Day 8

220

210

214

216

Day 9

223

212

215

218

Day 10

226

216

219

222

Day 11

229

220

224

226

Day 12

233

223

225

228

Day 13

235

226

227

231

Day 14

239

229

234

234

Day 15

244

230

240

240

Day 16

250

236

245

247

Day 17

260

245

254

257

Day 18

270

254

262

266

Day 19

281

265

273

276

Day 20

293

275

278

287

Day 21

301

281

284

295

Day 22

271

263

251

285

Day 23

225

215

223

230

Day 24

0

227

217

0

Day 25

0

215

0

0

None Significantly Different from Control Group at .05 Level

 

Body Weight (g) – Summary of Means – Litter Weights

Sex:

MALE

FEMALE

Dose Grp.:

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

Day 0

6.9

7.0

7.0

7.2**

6.5

6.6

6.7*

6.8**

Day 4

9.3

9.5

9.5

9.9*

8.9

9.0

9.2

9.6**

Day 7

13.8

13.9

14.4

15.1**

13.4

13.3

14.1

14.7**

Day 14

27.3

28.1

28.5

29.5**

26.6

26.6

27.4

28.7**

Day 21

43.0

44.6

44.1

44.8

41.7

41.9

43.1

43.7

*=Significantly Different from Control Group at .05 level using Dunnett’s Test

**=Significantly Different from Control Group at .01 level using Dunnett’s Test

 

Gross Necropsy Observations-Incidence Summary (F0 Generation)

Sex:

MALE

FEMALE

Dose Grp.:

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

ESOPHAGUS

-Increased in Size and/or Volume

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

Lymph Node, ME.

-Increased in Size and/or Volume

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

MAMMARY GLAND

-increased in Size and/or Volume

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

SPLEEN

-Increased in Size and/or Volume

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

THYMUS GLAND

-Increased in Size and/or Volume

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

0

UTERUS

-Retained Foetus

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

 

Conclusions:
TVCI R-8968 when fed continously to F0 for 72 days and F1 for 90 days at a dose level of 20.0 grams/kg diet or less did not produce toxicity.
Executive summary:

Introduction:

The test material TVCI R-8968 is a proposed indirect food additive. The test material was administered orally in the feed as this is consistent with the expected route of human exposure.

Objective:

Phase I of this study was to assess the safety of TVCI R-8968 when administered to Sprague Dawley rats from weanling (F0) through sexual maturity, mating, gestation, lactation and weaning their offspring (F1).

Phase II of the study was to assess the safety of TVCI when administered to weanlings F1 for 90 days.

 

Summary:

TVCI R-8968 when fed continuously to (F0) for 72 days and (F1) for 90 days at a dosage level of 20.0 gram per kg diet or less did not effect fertility in the F0 rats and did not produce toxicity in the (F0, F1) generation.

Sprague Dawley weanling rats (F0) were used to initiate the dietary one generation study followed by a 90 day (FI) feed study. The dosage levels of 2.0, 6.325, or 20.0 grams TVCI R-8968/kg of diet were administered in the feed throughout the study.

Samples from weekly prepared diets from all dosage level were taken periodically in Phase I and Phase II and analyzed for homogeneity and all samples were homogeneous for that specific dose level. The feed mixture was tested for TVCI R-8968 stability in the diet and found to be stable for at least 25 days.

The rats from the F0 generation were mated at 100 days of age and their offspring (F1) were randomly selected from their litters, within the same dose level, for the 90 day dietary study.

There were sporadic differences in the treatment group in body weights (F0, F1) food consumption (F0 and F1), body weight of offspring, haematology, and serum chemistries when compared to the controls. However, no consistent test material related effects were noted.

There were no significant changes noted in any of the treatment groups in gross necropsy of F0 litter size, percent stillborn, fertility index, gross and histomorphic examination of F1 high dose, and urinalysis when compared to the controls.

Endpoint:
screening for reproductive / developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
16 August 2017 to 24 October 2017
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 421 (Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test)
Version / remarks:
OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals No. 421, Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test, Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Paris, 29 July 2016
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
See "Any other information" for details
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Limit test:
no
Justification for study design:
The subject was the Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test in the Rat according to OECD guideline No. 421 and OECD guidance document No. 43. The guideline was designed for use with the rat, which is the preferred rodent species for reproduction toxicity testing.
The purpose of this study was to obtain information on the possible toxic effects of the test item NAUGARD® XL-1 when administered by oral gavage to Wistar rats at 3 dose levels.
The study was a reproductive/developmental toxicity screening test, intended to provide initial information on possible effects on male and female reproductive performance such as gonadal function, mating behaviour, conception, pregnancy, parturition and also on the development of the F1 offspring from conception to Day 13 post-partum.
Specific details on test material used for the study:
No further details specified in the study report.
Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Details on species / strain selection:
Species and strain: Crl:WI (Wistar) rats.
Justification of species/strain: The rat is regarded as a suitable species for toxicology and reproduction studies. Wistar rat was selected due to experience with this strain of rat in toxicity and reproduction toxicity studies and known fertility. Historical control data for the strain of rat used at the Test Facility demonstrated that sexual maturity is attained at 10 weeks of age.
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
Species and strain: Crl:WI (Wistar) rats
Source: Charles River Laboratories, Research Models and Services, Germany GmbH (Sandhofer Weg 7, D 97633, Sulzfeld, Germany) from SPF colony
Hygienic level: Standard laboratory conditions during the study
Number of animals: 48 male and 48 female rats, in 4 groups. Each group contained 12 animals/sex for treatment. Animals of the two sexes originated from different units, to avoid brother/sister mating. A sufficient number of spare animals were ordered for the study; those animals (including non-selected females) were allocated to the spare colony of the Test Facility after the final allocation to treatment had been finished.
Age of animals: Young adult rats, at least 10 weeks old at the start of the treatment and at least 12 weeks at the start of mating. The age range within the study was kept to the minimum practicable (within one week).
Body weight range: Males: 405 - 454 g, Females: 258 - 300 g at the start of the treatment; values did not exceed ± 20% of the mean weight for each sex.
Acclimatisation period: 6 days

Husbandry
Animal health: Only healthy animals were used for the test, as certified by the staff Veterinarian. Females were nulliparous and non-pregnant.
Cage type: Type II and/or III polycarbonate
Bedding: LIGNOCEL® ¾-S certified wooden chips (Batch number: 03018170329 / 03018170529, Expiry date: 29 March 2020 / 29 May 2020) produced by J. Rettenmaier & Söhne GmbH + Co. KG (Address: Holzmühle, D-73494 Rosenberg, Germany) were used in the study.
Nesting: ARBOCEL® crinklets natural (Batch number: 05072170228, Expiry date: 28 February 2020) produced by J. Rettenmaier & Söhne GmbH + Co. KG (Address: Holzmühle, D-73494 Rosenberg, Germany) were available to animals during the study.
Light: 12 hours daily, from 6.00 a.m. to 6.00 p.m.
Temperature: 19.5 – 23.9°C (target range: 22±3°C)
Relative humidity: 39 – 70% (target range: 30-70%)
Ventilation: 15-20 air exchanges/hour
Housing/Enrichment: Rodents were group-housed, up to 2 animals of the same sex and dose group/cage with the exception of the mating and gestation/delivery period when they were paired or individually housed (with pups), respectively. Males were caged individually after their mating had been finished (until the end of mating period). Group housing allowed social interaction, the deep wood sawdust bedding allowed digging and other normal rodent activities. Nest building material was also provided for the animals to allow normal nesting behaviour.
Environmental parameters (temperature and relative humidity) were continuously measured, minimum and maximum values were recorded twice a day during the study.

Food and water supply
Animals received ssniff® SM R/M+H “Autoclavable complete diet for rats and mice – breeding and maintenance” produced by ssniff Spezialdiäten GmbH (Address: Ferdinand-Gabriel-Weg 16, D-59494 Soest, Germany) ad libitum, and tap water from municipal supply, as for human consumption from 500 mL bottle ad libitum.
Food and water were considered not to contain any contaminants that could reasonably be expected to affect the purpose or integrity of the study.

Animal identification
Each parental/adult animal (P generation) was identified by a unique number within the study, written with indelible ink on the tail and cross-referenced to the Animal Master File at Citoxlab Hungary Ltd. During the pre-treatment period, animals got temporary identification number, the study animal numbers were allocated at randomisation (before the treatment started).
This number consisted of 4 digits, the first digit being the group number, the second digit was 0 for the males and 5 for the females, and the last 2 digits were the animal number within the group, as indicated in the Experimental design section.
The boxes were arranged in such a way that possible effects due to cage placement were minimized and were identified by cards showing the study code, sex, dose group, cage number and individual animal numbers, date of mating and delivery.

Randomization
All adult/parental (P) male and female animals were assigned to their respective dose groups by randomisation based on their body weights at the start of the treatment period. Animals were randomly allocated to the control and dose groups based on the most recent actual body weight (measured immediately before the first treatment); the software PROVANTIS v.9 was used in order to verify homogeneity/variation among/within groups. Males and females were randomized separately.
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
propylene glycol
Details on exposure:
Vehicle
Propylene glycol [CAS 57-55-6] was selected for vehicle of the study by the Sponsor based on the formulation and analytical trials. Identification data of the chemical used in the study are as follows:

Name (Abbreviation): Propylene glycol (PG)
Chemical name. 1,2-Propanediol
Manufacturer: ACROS / Merck
Batch number: 1692129 / K49089078
Expiry date: 30 April 2020 / 31 May 2022
Storage conditions: Room temperature

Formulation
The test item was formulated in the vehicle, as a visibly stable homogenous formulation at the appropriate concentrations according to the dose level and volume selected in the Pharmacy of Citoxlab Hungary Ltd.
Formulations were prepared daily (fresh prior to administration to animals) according to stability assessment results of the analytical method development and method validation studies of Test Site #1.
Details on mating procedure:
Mating began after the animals had attained full sexual maturity, 2 weeks after the initiation of the treatment, with one female and one male from the same dose group
(1:1 mating) in a single cage. Females remained with the same male until copulation occurred (for up to 5 days).
A vaginal smear was prepared daily during the mating period and stained with 1% aqueous methylene blue solution. The smears were examined with a light microscope. The presence of a vaginal plug or sperm in the vaginal smear was considered as evidence of copulation (Day 0 of pregnancy as defined by the relevant guidelines). Sperm positive females were housed individually.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Analysis of test item formulations for concentration and/or homogeneity was performed at the Test Site #1 for analytical work using a validated LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry) analytical method (FPBDOK-AN-366) [4]. Duplicate samples (0.5 mL/sample) were taken from the top, middle and bottom of the test item formulations three times during the study (during the first and last weeks and approximately midway during the treatment), one set to analyse and one set as back-up, if required for any confirmatory analyses. Similarly, duplicate samples (0.5 mL/sample) were taken from the middle of the vehicle control formulation for concentration measurement.
Formulation samples were kept at room temperature until shipment. Samples (both sets) were shipped on the same day as soon as possible after collection for concentration and/or homogeneity measurement to the Principal Investigator #1 (PI #1).
The number and date of shipments were agreed with the PI #1. After the receipt at Test Site #1, the samples were frozen and kept below -15°C until analysis.
The formulation analysis was conducted within the stability period determined during the validation (started from the time of formulation) under the control of the Principal Investigator #1 in compliance with the relevant SOPs of the Test Site #1 for analytical work. The results of the formulation analysis as well as documentation regarding stability of formulations was included in the study report as an appendix (in the form of a Phase Report).
Acceptance criteria of the concentration analysis were set according to the analytical method validation, expected to be at 100 ± 10% of the nominal concentration.
Acceptance criteria of the homogeneity was that the CV of replicates (top, middle and bottom of test item formulations) must be less than 10%.
Any sample not required for analysis were discarded following acceptance of the results of the formulation analysis by the Principal Investigator #1 and Study Director.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Males were treated for 28 days (14 days pre-mating and 14 days mating/post-mating period), then were euthanized and subjected to necropsy examination.
Females were treated for 14 days pre-mating, for up to 5 days of mating period, through gestation and up to the day before necropsy (a total of 13 days of post-partum dosing). The day of birth (when parturition was complete) was defined as post-partum day 0 (abbreviated as PPD 0). Non-pregnant female were sacrificed on Day 50 (34 days after the start of mating).
Frequency of treatment:
Test item treated or control animals were treated continuously on a 7 days/week basis, by oral gavage.
Details on study schedule:
Treatment of both sexes began after the acclimatisation (6 days) plus a pre-exposure period (14 days), then treatment was made for 2 weeks before mating, during the mating, and was continued up to the day of necropsy.
The first day of treatment of each animal was regarded as Day 0.
See "Any other information" for further details.
Dose / conc.:
100 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
300 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
24 animals per dose (12 males/12 females)
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
The dose levels were selected by the Sponsor in consultation with the Study Director, based on the available data and information from previous experimental work conducted at different Test Facility (data on file at the Sponsor). The aim of dose selection is to use a maximum of at least 1000 mg/kg bw/day or to induce toxic effects, but ideally no death or suffering at the highest dose and NOAEL (No-observed adverse-effect level) at the lowest dose.
Based on the results from the available information, doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day were selected for this study.
The oral route was selected as it is one of the possible routes of human exposure.
Positive control:
Not required.
Parental animals: Observations and examinations:
Clinical observations
Animals were inspected for signs of morbidity and mortality at least twice daily, at the beginning and the end of the working day. The principles and criteria summarized in the Humane Endpoints Guidance Document were taken into consideration when necessary. Consultation with the staff veterinarian was made at appropriate frequency, if needed.
General clinical observations were made once a day*, during the treatment period in the afternoon (pm) at approximately the same time with minor variations as practical during the working day (no peak period of effects was noted after dosing during the first few days of treatment). When signs of toxicity are observed, animals were observed more frequently.
*Note: No general clinical observations were made on those days when the more extensive detailed clinical observations were made.

More detailed examinations were made once before the first exposure (to allow for within-subject comparisons), then weekly, in the morning (am) and on the day of necropsy. These observations were made outside the home cage in a standard arena, at similar times as practical. Signs evaluated included changes in skin, fur, eyes, mucous membranes, occurrence of secretions and excretions, and autonomic activity (e.g. lachrymation, piloerection, pupil size, unusual respiratory pattern). Changes in gait, posture and response to handling as well as the presence of clonic or tonic movements, stereotypies (e.g. excessive grooming, repetitive circling), difficult or prolonged parturition or bizarre behaviour (e.g. self-mutilation, walking backwards) were also recorded. Special attention was directed towards the observation of tremors, convulsions, salivation, diarrhoea, lethargy, sleep and coma. Pertinent behavioural changes, signs of difficult or prolonged parturition and all signs of toxicity including mortality were recorded including onset, degree and duration of signs as applicable.
On gestation day GD 13 and/or 14 the sperm positive females were examined for the presence of vaginal bleeding or “placental sign” (intrauterine extravasation of blood as an early sign of pregnancy in rat).

Body weight measurement
All adult animals were weighed with an accuracy of 1 g for selection purposes, then weekly during the pre-exposure period, on Day 0 (randomization), weekly thereafter and at termination.
Parental females were additionally weighed on gestation days (GD) 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17 and 20, and on post-partum days (PPD) 0 (within 24 hours after parturition), 4, 7, 10 and 14 (at termination).

Food consumption measurement
Food consumption was determined by re-weighing the non-consumed diet with a precision of 1 g at least weekly (on body weight measurement days).

Thyroid Hormone Analysis
For thyroid hormone analysis, blood samples were taken after an overnight food deprivation at approximately the same time on each termination day; the group order for sampling was randomised.
Blood samples were taken by cardiac or venepuncture (in case of PND 4 pups blood was taken after decapitation) into tubes containing no anticoagulant as follows:
-from up to two pups per litter on PND 4*,
-from all dams on PPD14 and two pups per litter on PND 13,
-from all adult males at termination.
*Note: Based on the actual litter size, no PND 4 sample was taken for the #1505, #1508, #1510, #4501 and #4505 litters. As no pups survived until PND4 in case of the #2505 litter, no samples were generated for that litter.
To ensure sufficient blood for analysis, blood samples were pooled by litter in case of PND 4 and PND 13 samples, this fact was in harmony with the relevant OECD No. 421 guideline.
Blood samples were kept on ice from sampling until centrifugation (within 30 minutes of collection) then centrifuged rapidly (1600 g / approx. 3000 rpm, 10 minutes, 4°C). The resulting serum was divided in at least two aliquots (volume target of at least 125 µL for the first aliquot and at least 75 µL for the second aliquot) and stored in an ultrafreezer (-80±10°C) until shipping for analysis). Any leftover serum sample was kept as third aliquot for safety reason.
Samples were shipped for hormone analysis on dry ice to Test Site #2 (Citoxlab France) to the attention of the responsible Principal Investigator #2 (PI #2).
First, samples for the PND 13 pups and adult males were assessed for T4 levels using an LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry) method. Based on the observed results, additional T4 analysis of female animals and PND 4 pups, and TSH analysis of parental males and females as well as PND 13 pups were not necessary. An audited Phase Plan (Test Site #2 code: 45503 ABR) was provided prior to any analysis.
Oestrous cyclicity (parental animals):
Oestrus cycles were monitored for each female (65 females in total) by vaginal smears daily during the pre-exposure period before the treatments started. Any females that failed to show a 4 or 5-day cycle were not included in the study, twelve females showing regular oestrus cycles were treated and used for mating in each group (the rest of the females was moved back to the spare colony after the mating process has been finished). Vaginal smears were also monitored for oestrus cyclicity daily from the beginning of the treatment period until evidence of mating.
Sperm parameters (parental animals):
Not examined
Litter observations:
Females were allowed to litter and rear their offspring. Delivery process was observed as carefully as possible. All observations were recorded. Any evidence of abnormal deliveries was recorded. The duration of gestation was recorded and was calculated from Day 0 of pregnancy (GD 0) until post-partum day 0 (PPD 0), the day of completion of littering.
Dams were observed to record whether they formed a nest from the bedding material and covered their new-borns or not. The efficiency of suckling was verified by the presence of milk in the pups' stomach (by visual observation). All observations were recorded.
Each litter was examined as soon as possible after delivery (post-natal day 0, PND 0) to establish the number and sex of pups, stillbirths, live births, runts (pups that are significantly smaller than normal pups) and the presence of gross abnormalities. Observations were reported individually for each adult animal. In addition to the observations on parent animals, any abnormal behaviour of the offspring was recorded.
Live pups were counted, sexed, weighed individually within 24 hours of parturition (PND 0) and on PND 4 and PND 13, with accuracy of 0.01 g. All the litters were checked and recorded daily for the number of viable and dead pups, any abnormal behaviour or appearance of the pups were also recorded.
The anogenital distance (AGD) of each pup was measured at the time of the first weighing (PND 0). Presence of nipples/areolae in all pups was recorded on PND 13 (individual records were maintained).
All pups were examined externally at weighing on PND 4. One male and one female pup (whenever it was possible based on the actual litter parameters) were allocated randomly for culling for blood sampling on PND 4.
All pups were terminated on PND 13.
Postmortem examinations (parental animals):
Terminal procedures and macroscopic evaluation
Gross necropsy was performed on each adult animal irrespective of the date of death. Terminally, animals were sacrificed under sodium pentobarbital anaesthesia (administered by intraperitoneal injection at 0.1 mL/100 g bw using 400 mg/mL sodium pentobarbital solution) by exsanguination; anaesthetic product was diluted by physiological saline for pups’ euthanasia as required.
After exsanguination, the external appearance was examined, cranium, thoracic and abdominal cavities were opened and the appearance of the tissues and organs was observed macroscopically. Any abnormality was recorded with details of the location, colour, shape and size, as appropriate. Special attention was paid to the organs of the reproductive system.
Vaginal smears were prepared and examined for each female on the day of necropsy to determine the stage of oestrus cycle and allow correlation with histopathology of the reproductive organs.
The number of implantation sites and corpora lutea was recorded in the females as applicable.

Organ weight measurements
At the time of termination, body weight and the weight of the following organs from all euthanized adult animals were determined as applicable:
- With a precision of at least 0.01 g: uterus (with cervix), testes, epididymides, prostate, seminal vesicles with coagulating glands, levator ani plus bulbocavernosus muscle complex, Cowper’s glands and glans penis, brain
- With a precision of at least 0.001 g: ovaries, thyroid gland (with parathyroid glands)
Individual and/or paired absolute organ weight was reported for each animal and adjusted for the body and brain weights. Paired organ weights as applicable were summarised. Relative organ weight (to body and brain weight) were calculated and reported.

Tissue preservation and microscopic evaluation
The ovaries, testes, accessory sex organs (oviduct, uterus, cervix (with body and horn) and vagina for females, epididymides, prostate, seminal vesicles plus coagulating glands for males), thyroid and all organs showing macroscopic lesions of all adult animals were preserved. Testes with epididymides were retained in modified Davidson’s fixative*, and all other organs in 10% buffered formalin solution.
*Note: The eyes with the optic nerves would have been preserved also in modified Davidson’s fixative, but no such a case was required.
Additionally, thyroid glands from at least one male and one female PND 13 pup from each litter (wherever it was possible based on the actual litter parameters)* were preserved in 10% buffered formalin solution wherever possible. In this case, the thyroid weight was determined after fixation. Trimming was done very carefully and only after fixation to avoid tissue damage.
*Note: In case of #1505 litter with prolonged parturition, the thyroids of the only living male pups of the second delivery day was preserved additionally (thus thyroids of a total of three pups, two males and one female, were preserved). In case of #4505 litter, there was no living male pups at the time of necropsy, thus only a sample of a female pup was preserved.
Detailed histological examination was performed on ovaries, testes and epididymides in the Control and High dose groups (parental generation), and all macroscopic findings (abnormalities) from all animals, and additional reproductive organs (prostate / seminal vesicle with coagulating gland or oviduct / uterus / cervix+body+horn / vagina) for High dose mating pair (#4507 / #4007) where no pregnancy was achieved.
Special attention was paid to evaluation of the stages of spermatogenesis in the male gonads and histopathology of interstitial testicular cell structure. Detailed histological examination of the ovaries covered the follicular, luteal, and interstitial compartments of the ovary, as well as the epithelial capsule and ovarian stroma.
In case of histopathology, tissues or organs were embedded in paraffin wax; sections were cut at 4-6 µm by microtome and transferred to slides. Tissue sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin/phloxine and examined by light microscope.
Postmortem examinations (offspring):
The pups found dead and intact (not cannibalized) were subjected to necropsy with macroscopic examination and the cause of death was identified if possible. Furthermore, pups terminated on PND 13 were carefully examined externally for gross abnormalities. Particular attention was paid to the external reproductive genitals (no signs of altered development was recorded). All observed abnormalities were recorded.
Additionally, the sex of each pup was confirmed by an internal examination performed at the time of removal (after death, if the body remained intact, or at scheduled termination on PND 13).
Statistics:
For pathology data (macroscopic and microscopic data) first a Chi-squared test was used to check for overall similarity of the relative frequencies, the system then checked the significance of the result against a user-defined value (0.05) and where suitable, also performed pairwise tests of the treatment groups versus the control group. The Fisher’s Exact Test was performed replacing the Chi-squared test as the final evaluation method if the group size was <5.
Reproductive indices:
Parental Males
Number of pairings; Number of fertile pairings; Number of infertile males; Male mating index; Male fertility index.

Parental Females
Number of pairings; Number of pregnant females; Number of sperm positive, but non-pregnant females; Number of non-mated females; Female mating index; Female fertility index; Gestation index; Duration of pregnancy (days); Number of Corpora lutea / dams; Number of implantations / dams; Number of dams with live pups Day 0 and 4 and 13; Pre-implantation mortality; Intrauterine mortality; Total mortality (intra and extra uterine mortality).
Offspring viability indices:
Mean pup body weight (per pup within the group and per litter) on PND 0, 4 and 13; Mean pup body weight gain (per litter) between post-natal days 0-4, 4-13 and 0-13; Number of live births per litter, and number of viable pups per litter on post-natal days 0, 4 and 13; Survival Index of pups on post-natal days 0, 4 and 13; Sex ratio % (on post-natal days 0, 4 and 13).
Clinical signs:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
No test item related adverse effect was observed during clinical observation in any dose groups.

Male animals
No clinical signs were recorded for male animals except of thin fur which was recorded for one Low dose male (#2001) and two Mid dose males (#3008 and #3009) from Day 8 or Day 19 until the necropsy; but this finding was not related to the test item treatment.

Female animals
No clinical signs were recorded for any Control or High dose females.
Crust / nodule in the ventral area of thorax was recorded for a Low dose female (#2505) from Day 22 (the animal was under close veterinary control after that point), but these findings were considered as not related to the test item. Piloerection was also recorded for this animal during Days 38-40 (around the end of gestation period). However, this finding was most probably related to a difficult delivery process.
Thin fur was recorded for one Mid dose female (#3510) from Day 29 until termination, but this finding was not related to the test item treatment.
Dermal irritation (if dermal study):
not examined
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Description (incidence):
There was no mortality in the study.
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No test item effect was seen in the body weight and body weight gain values of the Low (100 mg/kg bw/day), Mid (300 mg/kg bw/day) and High (1000 mg/kg bw/day) dose animals (males and females).
No statistically significant differences were observed in the body weight or body weight gain values of the Low, Mid and High dose animals (males and females) during the treatment period when compared to the relevant control values.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
There were no test item related effects in the mean daily food consumption of the Low (100 mg/kg bw/day), Mid (300 mg/kg bw/day) and High (1000 mg/kg bw/day) dose animals (males and females).
The mean daily food consumption in the pre-treatment and treatment period was similar in the Low, Mid and High dose males and females when compared to the Control group. Occasional statistically significant difference was regarded as incidental, without dose response and of no toxicological significance.
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No test item related effect was observed on the organ weight of any dose groups in the study.
Terminal body weights of animals (both sexes) were not statistically significantly different between the groups.
There were no treatment-related statistically significant differences among groups in the weights of organs measured (including thyroid glands with parathyroid) when compared to controls (absolute and relative to body). Occasional statistically significant difference without dose response (Mid dose male brain weight) was considered as incidental, not related to the treatment.
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No test item-related macroscopic findings were observed at any dose level.
A firm, subcutaneous nodule (approximate size of 1 cm x 1 cm) found on the chest of a Low dose female (#2505) was regarded as an incidental finding.
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
No test item-related microscopic findings were seen by light microscope at the High dose level (1000 mg/kg bw/day) or in any organs showing macroscopic lesions.
Minimal focal tubular degeneration/atrophy of the right testis in 1/12 High dose male (#4010), and spontaneous adenocarcinoma of the mammary gland in one Low dose female (#2505, examined due to firm nodule) were considered to be incidental.
Histopathological evaluation of the male gonads as well as testicular interstitial cell structure; the spermatogenic cells representing different phases of the development and differentiation of the spermatozoons were similar in Control and High dose males. The follicular, luteal and interstitial compartments of the ovary as well as epithelial capsule and stroma had a similar histological structure in both Control and High dose females.
Furthermore, reproductive organs of the only mating pair of the High dose groups where no pregnancy was achieved (#4007 / #4507) were also examined (testes, epididymides, prostate, seminal vesicles with coagulation gland for male; uterus, cervix, ovary, oviduct and vagina for female). No test item-related microscopic changes or any specific abnormalities was detected that could be causal for the lack of litter in that case.
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Other effects:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
TYHROID HORMONE ANALYSIS
No test item related effect was observed in the thyroid hormone analysis in the Low (100 mg/kg bw/day), Mid (300 mg/kg bw/day) and High (1000 mg/kg bw/day) dose groups.

Evaluation of the gestation, parturition and post-partum period
There was no effect of treatment noted during gestation, parturition or the post-partum period.
The mean duration of pregnancy was 22.7, 22.5, 22.4 and 22.4 days in Control, Low (100 mg/kg bw/day), Mid (300 mg/kg bw/day) and High (1000 mg/kg bw/day) dose groups, respectively, indicating that the process was comparable between control and test item treated groups. The individual data (in the range of 22-24 days) were also in line with the normal physiological range.
As far it could be observed in the study, parturition was normal in all but two females. In case of a control animal (#1505), the delivery process lasted for three days* in total. However, this fact was not related to the test item administration. Furthermore, in case of a Low dose female (#2505) the parturition was noted as normal, but five dead pups were recorded during the delivery process. However, this fact was considered to be incidental, and not related to the treatment.
*Note: After delivering 8 pups (7 living and 1 dead pups) on 07 October 2017, this female (#1505) delivered additional 4 pups (1 living and 3 dead pups) on 09 October 2017.

The number of implantation sites was comparable to the control mean in all dose groups, no statistically significant differences were noted.
There were no statistically significant differences or effects that could be ascribed to treatment on pre-natal, post-natal or total mortality values (litter mean and %) in any dose group
Reproductive function: oestrous cycle:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No effect of the test item was detected on the oestrus cycle of the female animals.
Each female selected for the treatment showed acceptable cycles (mean cycle length was 4.00 days for each female) before starting the treatment period. There was no effect on test item on the oestrus cycle of females (mean cycle length was in the range of 4.00-4.06 days for each group after the treatment) as no statistically significant or biologically relevant changes were observed.
Reproductive function: sperm measures:
not examined
Reproductive performance:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
There were no biologically relevant differences between the Control and test item treated groups with regard to reproductive ability, mating fertility or gestation. Data from all groups were in the normal expected range.
The mating index was 100% in all test item treated groups for both males and females. The fertility indices were also in the normal range (92-100%) for all test item treated males and females. The gestation index was 100% in all test item treated groups.
Successful coitus (sperm positive vaginal smear and/or vaginal plug) occurred within up to 5 days of pairing (cohabitation) in all test item treated groups. The mean duration of mating was 2.50, 3.00, 2.50 and 2.08 days in Control, Low (100 mg/kg bw/day), Mid (300 mg/kg bw/day) and High (1000 mg/kg bw/day) dose groups, respectively. The length of mating did not differ significantly in the test item treated groups when compared to control.
No mortality or test item related clinical signs were observed in the study.
No test item effect was seen in the body weight, body weight gain and food consumption values in any dose groups.
There were no biologically relevant differences between the Control and test item treated groups with regard to reproductive ability, mating fertility or gestation.
No effect of the test item was detected on the oestrus cycle of the parental female animals.
No test item related effect was observed on the organ weights of any test item treated groups in the study.
Test item administration was not associated with gross test item-related changes or microscopic findings in any animals.
There were no test item-related microscopic findings in the reproductive organs examined in the High dose parental animals.
No test item related effect was observed in the thyroid hormone analysis or thyroid weights in any test item treated parental male or female animals.
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
clinical signs
mortality
body weight and weight gain
organ weights and organ / body weight ratios
gross pathology
histopathology: non-neoplastic
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
reproductive function (oestrous cycle)
reproductive performance
Clinical signs:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
There was no test item effect on the survival of the pups.
There were no significant differences or effects that could be ascribed to treatment on the pre-natal, post-natal or total mortality values (litter mean and %).
The number of viable pups on PND0, 4 and 13 as well as the survival index of the pups at given time points were comparable to control value in each dose group, thus there was no treatment-related effects on the viability of pups at those time points.
The sex ratio of pups in the test item treated groups was similar to the control, no test item effect was noted.

Increased number of autolyzed pups was seen during the lactation period in the Low dose group when compared to control, but this fact was mostly caused by one litter (all the 12 live born pups of litter #2505 were found dead (autolyzed) by PND 2, while additional 5 pups died during the delivery). Due to the lack of dose response as well as the dam’s condition, this fact was considered as incidental finding, not being a treatment related effect.
Based on the external evaluation, almost all the pups were normal, the few clinical signs observed are detailed below.
Some pups (1510/7,8,9,10,11, 3509/16, 3511/1 and 4505/1) were cyanotic on PND0, they were cannibalized or found dead / autolyzed on PND1
Dermal irritation (if dermal study):
not examined
Mortality / viability:
no mortality observed
Description (incidence and severity):
There was no test item effect on mortality.
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
There was no effect of treatment on the offspring body weight or body weight gain on PND0, PND4 or PND13 following test item administration at 100 mg/kg bw/day (Low dose), 300 mg/kg bw/day (Mid dose) or 1000 mg/kg bw/day (High dose).
When evaluated per litter basis, no relevant, statistically significant changes were seen in the litter mean body weight values on PND 0, PND 4 and PND 13 in any test item treated groups. There was no effect of the test item on the body weight gain values in the periods of PND 0-4, PND 4-13 or PND 0-13. Occasionally, slightly higher or lower values were observed in the Low, Mid and/or High dose groups, but without statistical significance and without dose response, thus those values were considered as not being test item related effect. In summary, there were no effects of treatment on pup weights or weight gains.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Sexual maturation:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No test item effect was observed on anogenital distance or nipple retention during the study.
No statistically significant changes in the anogenital distance measured on PND 0 were noted for test item treated male and female pups when compared to control, thus no effect of test item was concluded.
There were no effects on the nipple retention: no nipples/areolae were counted for any male pups on PND 13.
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No test item effect was seen on the thyroid weight of the pups.
No statistically significant differences were observed on the thyroid weight (absolute and relative to body) of pups of Low, Mid and High dose groups (100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day, respectively) when compared to control data (combined for male and female pups).
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
FOUND DEAD / F1 Generation
There were unscheduled deaths in control and treated groups including:
-9, 6, 5 and 2 found dead / still born / cannibalized or autolyzed animals on PND 0 from the Control, Low, Mid and High dose groups, respectively;
-13, 18, 6 and 16 cannibalized or autolyzed pups during the lactation period from the Control, Low, Mid and High dose groups, respectively.
No test item-related macroscopic findings were noted in any of those cases.

TERMINAL / F1 Generation (PND 13)
No test item-related macroscopic changes were recorded in the F1 generation pups of any dose groups at termination.
Histopathological findings:
not examined
Other effects:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
TYHROID HORMONE ANALYSIS
No statistically significant differences were detected in the thyroxine (T4) hormone levels of parental males and PND13 pup samples of any dose groups when compared to control data.
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Developmental immunotoxicity:
not examined
No test item related changes were noted in the F1 offspring viability, clinical signs, body weight or sexual development in any dose groups.
No test item related effect was observed on the organ weights of any test item treated groups in the study.
Test item administration was not associated with gross test item-related changes or microscopic findings in any animals.
No test item related effect was observed in the thyroid hormone analysis or thyroid weights in any F1 generation pups.
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Generation:
F1
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
developmental neurotoxicity
Key result
Reproductive effects observed:
no
Conclusions:
In summary, daily administration of NAUGARD® XL-1 by oral gavage to Wistar rats at 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day dose (Low, Mid and High dose groups, respectively) resulted the following findings:

No mortality or test item related clinical signs were observed in the study.
No test item effect was seen in the body weight, body weight gain and food consumption values in any dose groups.
There were no biologically relevant differences between the Control and test item treated groups with regard to reproductive ability, mating fertility or gestation.
No effect of the test item was detected on the oestrus cycle of the parental female animals.
No test item related changes were noted in the F1 offspring viability, clinical signs, body weight or sexual development in any dose groups.
No test item related effect was observed on the organ weights of any test item treated groups in the study (parental and F1 generation).
Test item administration was not associated with gross test item-related changes or microscopic findings in any animals (parental or F1 offspring).
There were no test item-related microscopic findings in the reproductive organs examined in the High dose parental animals.
No test item related effect was observed in the thyroid hormone analysis or thyroid weights in any test item treated parental male or female animals or F1 generation pups.

In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for NAUGARD® XL-1 was considered to be:
NOAEL for general systemic toxicity: 1000 mg/kg bw/day
NOAEL for reproductive toxicity: 1000 mg/kg bw/day
NOAEL for developmental toxicity: 1000 mg/kg bw/day
Executive summary:

The purpose of the Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test in the Rats was to obtain initial information on possible effects on male and female reproductive performance such as gonadal function, mating behaviour, conception, pregnancy, parturition and development of the F1 offspring from conception to Day 13 post-partum.

 

Male and female Wistar rats were treated for 2 weeks pre-mating and then during the mating/post-mating periods. This was 28 days in total for males. Females were treated throughout gestation and up to and including post-partum/lactation Day PPD13. The Experimental Design was as follows:

 

Group No.

Group Designation

Dose Level
(mg/kg bw/day)

Concentration

(mg/mL)

Dose volume

(mL/kg bw)

Animal Numbers
(proposed)

Male

Female

1

Control

0

0

5

1001-1012

1501-1512

2

Low dose

100

20

2001-2012

2501-2512

3

Mid dose

300

60

3001-3012

3501-3512

4

High dose

1000

200

4001-4012

4501-4512

Note: Only females with proper oestrus cycles were selected for treatment and used for mating.

 

Parameters measured during the study included signs of morbidity and mortality twice daily, daily or detailed weekly observation of clinical signs, at least weekly body weight and food consumption. In addition, the reproductive performance, pregnancy, parturition and post-partum/lactation period were monitored in the adult animals, and viability, clinical signs and development were evaluated in their F1 offspring until PND13. At termination, necropsy with macroscopic examination was performed. Weights of selected organs were recorded and representative tissues/organs were sampled and preserved in appropriate fixatives from the adult animals. Blood samples for thyroid hormone measurement were also collected for parental males and females at termination (Day 28 and PPD14), and for PND4 and PND13 pups.

 

For the adult animals, a detailed histological examination was performed on the selected list of retained organs in the Control and High dose groups as well as on the reproductive organs of High dose animals with possible impaired reproductive capacity.

 

In summary, daily administration of NAUGARD® XL-1 by oral gavage to Wistar rats at 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day did not result in mortality or adverse changes in clinical signs.

 

No test item effect was seen in the body weight, body weight gain and food consumption values in any dose groups.

 

There were no biologically relevant differences between the Control and test item treated groups with regard to reproductive ability, mating fertility or gestation.

 

No effect of the test item was detected on the oestrus cycle of the parental female animals.

 

No test item related changes were noted in the F1 offspring viability, clinical signs, body weight or sexual development in any dose groups.

 

No test item related effect was observed on the organ weights of any test item treated groups in the study (parental and F1 generation).

 

Test item administration was not associated with gross test item-related changes or microscopic findings in any animals (parental or F1 offspring).

 

There were no test item-related microscopic findings in the reproductive organs examined in the High dose parental animals.

 

No test item related effect was observed in the thyroid hormone analysis or thyroid weights in any test item treated parental male or female animals or F1 generation pups.

 

In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for NAUGARD® XL-1 was considered to be:

 

NOAEL for general systemic toxicity:           1000 mg/kg bw/day

NOAEL for reproductive toxicity:                  1000 mg/kg bw/day

NOAEL for developmental toxicity:               1000 mg/kg bw/day

Effect on fertility: via oral route
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
1 000 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
subacute
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
K1
Effect on fertility: via inhalation route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Effect on fertility: via dermal route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Additional information

Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test

Male and female Wistar rats were treated for 2 weeks pre-mating and then during the mating/post-mating periods. This was 28 days in total for males. Females were treated throughout gestation and up to and including post-partum/lactation Day PPD13.

 

In summary, daily administration of NAUGARD® XL-1 by oral gavage to Wistar rats at 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day did not result in mortality or adverse changes in clinical signs.

No test item effect was seen in the body weight, body weight gain and food consumption values in any dose groups.

There were no biologically relevant differences between the Control and test item treated groups with regard to reproductive ability, mating fertility or gestation.

No effect of the test item was detected on the oestrus cycle of the parental female animals.

No test item related changes were noted in the F1 offspring viability, clinical signs, body weight or sexual development in any dose groups.

No test item related effect was observed on the organ weights of any test item treated groups in the study (parental and F1 generation).

Test item administration was not associated with gross test item-related changes or microscopic findings in any animals (parental or F1 offspring).

There were no test item-related microscopic findings in the reproductive organs examined in the High dose parental animals.

No test item related effect was observed in the thyroid hormone analysis or thyroid weights in any test item treated parental male or female animals or F1 generation pups.

 

In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for NAUGARD® XL-1 was considered to be:

NOAEL for general systemic toxicity:           1000 mg/kg bw/day

NOAEL for reproductive toxicity:                  1000 mg/kg bw/day

NOAEL for developmental toxicity:               1000 mg/kg bw/day

 

One generation study

The test material was administered orally in the feed as this is consistent with the expected route of human exposure.

TVCI R-8968 when fed continuously to (F0) for 72 days and (F1) for 90 days at a dosage level of 20.0 gram per kg diet or less did not effect fertility in the F0 rats and did not produce toxicity in the (F0, F1) generation.

Sprague Dawley weanling rats (F0) were used to initiate the dietary one generation study followed by a 90 day (F1) feed study. The dosage levels of 2.0, 6.325, or 20.0 grams TVCI R-8968/kg of diet were administered in the feed throughout the study.

The rats from the F0 generation were mated at 100 days of age and their offspring (F1) were randomly selected from their litters, within the same dose level, for the 90 day dietary study.

There were sporadic differences in the treatment group in body weights (F0, F1) food consumption (F0 and F1), body weight of offspring, haematology, and serum chemistries when compared to the controls. However, no consistent test material related effects were noted.

There were no significant changes noted in any of the treatment groups in gross necropsy of F0 litter size, percent stillborn, fertility index, gross and histomorphic examination of F1 high dose, and urinalysis when compared to the controls.

Effects on developmental toxicity

Effect on developmental toxicity: via oral route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Effect on developmental toxicity: via inhalation route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Effect on developmental toxicity: via dermal route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Justification for classification or non-classification