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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Link to relevant study record(s)

Description of key information

Eight studies were allocated to this endpoint. All eight available sources were considered relevant. Only three studies could be considered reliable (with restrictions, i.e., Klimisch 2). One reliable study has been identified as a key study for the freshwater aquatic hazard assessment, whereas the other reliable study can be considered as a key study for the marine aquatic hazard assessment. The third reliable study of Dill and Emmitte (1980) resulted in a higher EC50 value than the other two studies, and was based on nominal test substance concentrations.  The freshwater key study reported a 48-h LC50 of 0.36 mg/L for Daphnia magna. The saltwater key study reported that the 96-h EC50 for shell deposition in Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) is > 0.269 mg/L.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
0.36 mg/L
EC50/LC50 for marine water invertebrates:
0.269 mg/L

Additional information

The first K2 study is a 48-h flow-through study with Daphnia magna performed according to an internal SOP of the DOW Chemical Company and GLP (Gersich et al., 1988). This study resulted in a 48-h LC50 of 0.36 mg/L which was based on measured concentrations and is considered as a key study for the freshwater aquatic hazard assessment. The second K2 study is a 96-h flow-through oyster shell deposition test with Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) which was conducted according to EPA OTS guideline 797.1800 and GLP (Buhl and Neff, 1988). This study did not reveal any significant reduction in new shell growth of the oysters at any of the exposure concentrations. The 96-h EC50 was therefore > 0.269 mg/L. This study is considered as a key study for the marine aquatic hazard assessment. The third K2 study resulted in a higher EC50 value than these other two studies, and was based on nominal exposure concentrations. The other studies were considered not reliable, mainly because test concentrations were not measured or only nominal concentrations were reported. The study of Ministry of Environment- Japan resulted in a 48 hr. EC50 value which is very close to that reported in the Key Study of Gersich et al. (1988). Whereas this study is conducted according to OECD Guideline and GLP practices, the study report is presently not available for assessment of reliability.