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Environmental fate & pathways

Bioaccumulation: terrestrial

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Reference
Endpoint:
bioaccumulation: terrestrial
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2010
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: no guideline study, no glp, but method good described
Qualifier:
no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Biological material
Six species of wild growing mushrooms were harvest from a wooded area, near Sinaia city, from Bucegi Massif of Carpathian Mountains. All these macro fungus were found in deciduous forest, at 800 m altitude, relatively close to the road Targovisite-Sinaia. They growth in a cold period, in November, on the soil, but the mycelium was founded also in the mixture of litter wood and leaves. The analyzed species are edible (Collybia butyracea and Boletus griseus), non-edible (Tapinella atrotomentosus and Paxillus involutus) or toxic (Hypholoma fasciculare and Tricholoma flavovirens). The harvested mushrooms were mature, with sporophore, and were collected the whole fruiting bodies, caps and stipes.
Analytical methods
For each mushroom, we sample 6-9 exemplars from different places and the substratum near the mycelium, down to the depth of 5 cm. Both the samples of mushrooms and soil, and them processing were did with plastic, glass and pottery instruments to avoid any metal contacts that can influence the results.
After harvesting, the mushrooms were clean up by the soil particles, dried at 60ºC and then grinding to fine powder. The soil root surrounding samples were dried at 40ºC until the complete process, then grinding to a fine powder and sieved at 250 μm (conform SR ISO 11464).
The Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometry method (ICP-AES), did the estimation of metallic content in the analyzed mushroom and them soil. For the analyzes with ICP-AES method, the biological samples (mushrooms) were mineralized, in Berghof microwave digestor, by mixture with 10 ml of nitric acid concentrated 65% and 2 ml of hydrogen peroxide, and for the soil samples were done hot extractions with nitric acid 1:1.
In present paper, the metals contents of mushrooms were establish with a 110 Liberty Spectrometer type of Varian brand. To disintegrate the sample in constituents atoms or ions is used a plasma source, which will stir up them on superior energetic layer. They will revert to the initial form by the emission of characteristic energy photon, emission recorded by an optical spectrometer. The radiation intensity is proportional with each element concentration in the sample and is intern calculated by a couple of calibration curves to obtain directly the measured concentration
GLP compliance:
no
Radiolabelling:
no
Vehicle:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
other: Wild Growing Mushrooms
Type:
BCF
Value:
1.19 dimensionless
Basis:
other: Fruiting Body
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
BFC for tin in Paxillus involutus species : 1.19
Executive summary:

Due to their effective mechanism of accumulation of heavy metals from soil, the macrofungi show high concentrations of metals in their fruiting body. According with this ability, the mushrooms can be used to evaluate and control the level of environmental pollution, but also represent danger for human ingestion. We analysed some macrofungi species from a wooded area to establish the heavy metal concentrations and ability of bioaccumulation and translocation for Zn, Cu and Sn in fruiting body. The metallic content was established by the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry method (ICP-AES). The minimal detection limits of method is 0.4 mg/kg for Zn and Cu and 0.6 mg/kg for Sn. Heavy metals concentrations in the fruiting body ranged between 6.98-20.10 mg/kg for Zn (the higher value was for Tapinella atrotomentosa); 16.13-144.94 mg/kg for Cu (the higher value was for Hypholoma fasciculare); and 24.36-150.85 mg/kg for Sn (the higher value was for Paxillus involutus).The bioaccumulation factor has important values (higher than 1) only for copper in all the analyzed species (between 1.30 and 8.86) and for tin in Paxillus involutus species (1.19). The translocation factor shows that zinc and tin were accumulated in higher concentrations in cap of mushrooms and the copper had higher concentrations in stipe.

Description of key information

One reliable (RL2) terrestrial bioaccumulation study indicates a low potential for bioaccumulation of Sn in aquatic freshwater organisms:

Tin concentrations were measured in mushroom tissues and environmental soils sampled from wooded areas and BCF values were calculated. Heavy metal concentrations in the fruiting body ranged between 24.36-150.85 mg/kg for Sn (the higher value was for Paxillus involutus). The bioaccumulation factor for tin in Paxillus involutus was found to be 1.19.

Thus, it is concluded that Sn has a low potential for bioaccumulation in terrestrial organisms.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information