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Environmental fate & pathways

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Description of key information

Biodegradation in water

Biodegradation study was conducted for 21 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated (CAS no. 26027 -38 -3) (J-CHECK, 2017). Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l. The percentage degradation of test substance was determined to be 0% degradation by BOD, O2 consumption, test mat. analysis and UV-Vis and 14.3% degradation by TOC removal parameter in 21 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated was considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated (CAS No. 26027 -38 -3). If released in to the environment, 11.6% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated in water is estimated to be 37.5 days (900 hrs). The half-life (37.5 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low whereas the half-life period of 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated in sediment is estimated to be 337.5 days (8100 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.864%), indicates that 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated is not persistent in sediment.

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated (CAS No. 26027 -38 -3) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 87.6% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated in soil is estimated to be 75 days (1800 hrs). Based on this half-life value of 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

Bioaccumulation: aquatic/sediment

Bioaccumulation test was conducted for 6 weeks for determination the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of substance Nonylphenol, ethoxylated (CAS no 26027-38-3) on test organism Cyprinus carpio (J-CHECK and HSDB, 2017). Recovery ratio was : Test water : 1st concentration area : 99.7 %, 2nd concentration area : 99.2 %, Fish : 76.6 %, - Limit of detection : Fish : 0.15 mg/L and nominal concentrations used in the study as - 1st Concentration area: 01 mg/L, 2nd Concentration area : 0.1 mg/L and Range finding study was carried out at - Test concentrations: TLm (48h) 11.6 ppm, in Rice fish (Oryzias latipes). Thus according to static Fish Test the BCF value for test substance Nonylphenol, ethoxylated (CAS no.26027-38-3) was observed to be 0.09-16 L/kg at dose concentration 1 mg/L and 7.6-12.4 L/kg at dose concentration 0.1 mg/L on test organismCyprinus carpioduring 6 weeks period. These BCF values are far less than 2000 and indicate that the substance Nonylphenol, ethoxylated (CAS no.26027-38-3) is not bioaccumulative in fish and food chain.

Adsorption/desorption

The Koc value estimated by using structure estimation for chemical 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated (CAS no. 26027-38-3) method is 1300 and log Koc is 3.1139 (HSDB, 2017). This value indicate that this chemical has moderate sorption to soils and sediments, and slow migration potential to ground water.

Additional information

Biodegradation in water

Various experimental and predicted data for the target compound 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated (CAS No. 26027-38-3) and supporting studies for its read across were reviewed for the biodegradation end point which are summarized as below:

 

In an experimental key study from authoritative database (J-CHECK, 2017), biodegradation study was conducted for 21 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated (CAS no. 26027 -38 -3). Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l. The percentage degradation of test substance was determined to be 0% degradation by BOD, O2 consumption, test mat. analysis and UV-Vis and 14.3% degradation by TOC removal parameter in 21 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated was considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

Another biodegradation study was conducted for 21 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated (CAS no. 26027 -38 -3) (J-CHECK, 2017). Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l. The percentage degradation of test substance was determined to be 0% degradation by BOD, O2 consumption, test mat. analysis and UV-Vis and 10.3% degradation by TOC removal parameter in 21 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 4 -Nonylphenol, ethoxylated was considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

In a prediction using the Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI suite, 2017), the biodegradation potential of the test compound  4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated (CAS no. 26027 -38 -3) in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms was estimated. The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI Linear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that chemical 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated is expected to be not readily biodegradable.

 

For the read across chemical Polyoxyethylene( 15)tallow amine (CAS no. 61791-26-2) from peer reviewed journal (C. G. van Ginkel et. al; 1993), the biodegradation study was carried out using prolonged closed bottle test for testing percent biodegradation of read across chemical Polyoxyethylene( 15)tallow amine according to OECD guideline 301D at temperature 20oC. Secondary activated sludge was used as inoculums. The percent biodegradation obtained for chemical Amines, ethoxylated(1 - 4.5 moles ethoxylated) of CAS no. 61791-26-2 was 28 % in 28 days and 67 % in 214 days According to these percentage value and duration it is concluded that the chemical Amines, ethoxylated (1 - 4.5 moles ethoxylated) of CAS no. 61791-26-2 is not readily biodegradable..

 

On the basis of above results for target chemical 4 -Nonylphenol, ethoxylated (from authoritative database J-CHECK and EPI suite, 2017) and for its read across substance (from peer reviewed journal), it can be concluded that the test substance 4 -Nonylphenol, ethoxylated can be expected to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated (CAS No. 26027 -38 -3). If released in to the environment, 11.6% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated in water is estimated to be 37.5 days (900 hrs). The half-life (37.5 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low whereas the half-life period of 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated in sediment is estimated to be 337.5 days (8100 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.864%), indicates that 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated is not persistent in sediment.

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated (CAS No. 26027 -38 -3) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 87.6% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated in soil is estimated to be 75 days (1800 hrs). Based on this half-life value of 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

On the basis of available information, the test substance 4 -Nonylphenol, ethoxylated can be considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Bioaccumulation: aquatic/sediment

Various experimental and predicted data for the target compound 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated (CAS No. 26027-38-3) and the supporting studies for its read across substance were reviewed for the bioaccumulation end point which are summarized as below:

 

In an experimental key study fromauthoritative database (J-CHECK and HSDB, 2017), bioaccumulation test was conducted for 6 weeks for determination the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of target substance Nonylphenol, ethoxylated (CAS no 26027-38-3) on test organism Cyprinus carpio. Recovery ratio was : Test water : 1st concentration area : 99.7 %, 2nd concentration area : 99.2 %, Fish : 76.6 %, - Limit of detection : Fish : 0.15 mg/L and nominal concentrations used in the study as - 1st Concentration area: 01 mg/L, 2nd Concentration area : 0.1 mg/L and Range finding study was carried out at - Test concentrations: TLm (48h) 11.6 ppm, in Rice fish (Oryzias latipes). Thus according to static Fish Test the BCF value for test substance Nonylphenol, ethoxylated (CAS no.26027-38-3) was observed to be 0.09-16 L/kg at dose concentration 1 mg/L and 7.6-12.4 L/kg at dose concentration 0.1 mg/L on test organism Cyprinus carpio during 6 weeks period.

 

Another bioaccumulation test was conducted for 6 weeks for determination the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of target chemical Nonylphenol, ethoxylated (CAS no 26027-38-3) on test organism Cyprinus carpio (J-CHECK, 2017). Recovery ratio was : Test water : 1st concentration area : 95.4 %, 2nd concentration area : 88.2 %, Fish : 85.3 %, - Limit of detection : Test water : 1st concentration area : 79 ppb, 2nd concentration area : 8.5 ppb, Fish : 0.3 ppm and nominal concentrations used in the study as - 1st Concentration area: 02 mg/L, 2nd Concentration area : 0.2 mg/L and range finding study was carried out at - Test concentrations: TLm (48h) 11.6 ppm, in Rice fish (Oryzias latipes). Thus according to static Fish Test the BCF value for test substance Nonylphenol, ethoxylated (CAS no.26027-38-3) was observed to be less than 0.2 L/kg at dose concentration 2 mg/L and less than 1.4 L/kg at dose concentration 0.2 mg/L on test organism Cyprinus carpio during 6 weeks period.

 

Using the BCFBAF Program(v3.01) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated (CAS No. 26027 -38 -3) was predicted. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated was estimated to be 9.821 L/kg whole body w.w (at 25 deg C).

 

In a supporting study from authoritative database (HSDB, 2017) for the read across chemical Dodecan-1-ol, ethoxylated (CAS no. 9002-92-0),the BCF value for chemical Dodecan-1-ol, ethoxylated was 81 and it is estimated by using log Kow of 3.40 and regression derived equation.

 

For the read across chemical 2-[2-(hexyloxy)ethoxy]ethanol (CAS no. 112-59-4), the BCF value of read across chemical 2-[2-(hexyloxy)ethoxy]ethanol was estimated(HSDB, 2017)was 4 by using log Kow of 1.70 and regression derived equation.

 

On the basis of above results for target chemical4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated(from J-CHECK, HSDB and EPI Suite, 2017) and for its read across substance from HSDB, it can be concluded that the BCF value of test substance4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated ranges from 0.09 –12.4which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000, indicating that the chemical 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated is not expected to bioaccumulate in the food chain.

Adsorption/desorption

Various experimental and predicted data for the target compound 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated (CAS No. 26027-38-3) and supporting studies for its read across substance were reviewed for the adsorption end point which are summarized as below:

 

In a key study fromauthoritative database (HSDB, 2017),the Koc value estimated by using structure estimation for test chemical 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated (CAS no. 26027-38-3) method is 1300 and log Koc is 3.1139.

 

In aprediction done using theKOCWIN Program (v2.00) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) was used to predict the soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of test chemical 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated (CAS No. 26027 -38 -3). The estimated soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated was estimated to be 1335 L/kg (log Koc=3.1255) by means of MCI method (at 25 deg C).

 

For the read across chemical sodium 2-[2-(dodecyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl sulfate (CAS no. 3088-31-1), the Koc value estimated (HSDB, 2017) by using structure estimation method based on molecular connectivity indices for the read across substance sodium 2-[2-(dodecyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl sulfate is 1200 and log Koc is 3.0791.

 

On the basis of above results for target chemical 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated(from authoritative database HSDB and EPI suite, 2017) and for its read across substance from authoritative database HSDB, it can be concluded that the Koc value of test substance4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylated ranges from 1300 – 1335 indicating that the chemical 4-Nonylphenol, ethoxylatedhas amoderate sorption to soils and sediments, and slow migration potential to ground water.