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Long-term toxicity to fish

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Reference
Endpoint:
adult fish: sub(lethal) effects
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
This study was published online on 05 Decemeber
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study without detailed documentation
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: US Environmental Protection Agency. 2002. Short-Term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater Organisms, 4th ed. EPA 821/R-02/013. Washington, DC.
Deviations:
not specified
GLP compliance:
not specified
Remarks:
Study conducted to a high scientific standard and findings presented in a comprehensive test report.
Specific details on test material used for the study:
SOURCE OF TEST MATERIAL
- Source of test material: Holston Army Ammunition Plant
- Appearance: dry yellow powder
- Purity: >95%
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Laboratory control samples and duplicates and matrix spike and duplicates were analyzed with test samples at a frequency of 5%.
Details on test solutions:
DNAN was ground to a fine powder by mortar and pestle. The desired DNAN mass and moderately hard reconstituted water volume were magnetically stirred (StableTemp Ceramic Stirring Hot Plate,700rpm;Cole-Parmer Instrument) at 22”C in the dark.
Nominally (mg/L): 25 12.5, 6.3, 3.1, 1.6, and 0.8 DNAN
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
Pimephales promelas (< 24h old) were obtained from a commercial source (Aquatic Biosystems) and held to acclimate overnight while being provided a daily ration of Artemia nauplii.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
7 d
Test temperature:
25”C
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal
Details on test conditions:
Chronic toxicity tests using P.promelas were conducted in accordance with the USEPA at 25°C. Bioassays consisted of 5 to 6 test concentrations (nominally (mg/L) 25, 12.5, 6.3, 3.1, 1.6, and 0.8 DNAN). The chronic toxicity methods involved daily, static water renewals (80% for P. promelas) using freshly prepared DNAN solution. In-water and out-water samples were collected daily and submitted to the US Army Institute of Public Health for determination of concentration by gas chromatography (described in Analytical method). Water-quality parameters were assessed daily on Inter- and intraspecies sensitivity to dinitroanisole both in- and out-water samples. The chronic P. promelas bioassay was conducted for 7d, and each exposure concentration consisted of 5 replicates (250-mL glass beakers containing 10 fish and 200mL test medium) and received a twice-daily feeding ration of Artemia nauplii to support growth. Survival, biomass, and growth (dry wt) were assessed. Surviving fish were collected, dried in a desiccator for 24h, and weighed on a microbalance to 0.001mg (AX26DR [Delta Range]; Mettler Toledo).
Key result
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
2.8 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks:
Survival
Key result
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
11.6 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks:
Survival
Key result
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
>= 8.8 - <= 11.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks:
/ Survival
Key result
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
other: MATC = maximum acceptable toxicant concentration
Effect conc.:
5.7 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks:
Survival
Key result
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
11.6 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks:
Sublethal
Key result
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
24.6 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks:
Sublethal
Key result
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
other: MATC¼maximum acceptable toxicant concentration
Effect conc.:
16.9 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks:
Sublethal
Details on results:
Chemical stability and fate dinitroanisole was stable under static conditions for at least 48h in both the absence and the presence of test organisms. Analysis of the concentration and stability of DNAN in both filtered and unfiltered moderately hard reconstituted water over a 48-h period indicated that the magnetic stirring method fully dissolved the DNAN to a stable concentration. No significant differences in DNAN concentration were observed between preparation methods (unfiltered vs filtered) or over time.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of DNAN ranged from 8.8 mg/L to 11.2 mg/L, whereas NOEC of DNAN was found to be 2.8 mg/L for the tested fish species.
Executive summary:

A determination of the chronic toxicity to fish of DNAN was conducted (Kennedy, A.J et al, 2014). Tests were conducted in accordance with standard guidance (U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), 2002, EPA-821-R-02-013. 

Groups of Pimephales promelas were expose to nominal concentrations of 25, 12.5, 6.3, 3.1, 1.6, 0.8 mg/L of DNAN.

It was concluded that 7-days 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of DNAN ranged from 8.8 mg/L to 11.2 mg/L, whereas NOEC of DNAN was found to be 2.8 mg/L for the tested fish species.

Description of key information

The 7-day toxicity (NOEC) of DNAN was found to be 2.8 mg/L for the tested fish species.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC10, LC10 or NOEC for freshwater fish:
2.8 mg/L

Additional information

A determination of the chronic toxicity to fish of DNAN was conducted (Kennedy, A.J et al, 2014). Tests were conducted in accordance with standard guidance (U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), 2002, EPA-821-R-02-013. 

Groups of Pimephales promelas were expose to nominal concentrations of 25, 12.5, 6.3, 3.1, 1.6, 0.8 mg/L of DNAN.

It was concluded that 7-days 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of DNAN ranged from 8.8 mg/L to 11.2 mg/L, whereas NOEC of DNAN was found to be 2.8 mg/L for the tested fish species.