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Ecotoxicological information

Long-term toxicity to fish

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
fish early-life stage toxicity
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
other information
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Comparable to guideline, monitoring, flow through. Study peer reviewed by U.S. EPA (2007).

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Growth and survival of developing steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) continuously or intermittently exposed to copper.
Author:
Seim WK et al.
Year:
1984
Bibliographic source:
Can J Fish Aquat Sci 41(3): 433-438
Reference Type:
secondary source
Title:
Aquatic life ambient freshwater quality criteria – Copper, 2007 Revision
Author:
U.S. EPA
Year:
2007
Bibliographic source:
EPA-822-R-07-001, Feb 2007

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
Flow through, 85 days post-fertilization, continous copper exposure
GLP compliance:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Copper chloride
- Analytical purity: no data

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:
yes

Test solutions

Vehicle:
no

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)

Study design

Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
84 d
Remarks on exposure duration:
post hatch

Test conditions

Reference substance (positive control):
no

Results and discussion

Effect concentrationsopen allclose all
Duration:
84 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.023 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Cu
Basis for effect:
other: biomass
Duration:
84 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.039 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
CH2Cu2O5
Basis for effect:
other: biomass
Duration:
84 d
Dose descriptor:
other: EC20
Effect conc.:
0.028 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Cu
Basis for effect:
other: biomass
Duration:
84 d
Dose descriptor:
other: EC20
Effect conc.:
0.048 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
CH2Cu2O5
Basis for effect:
other: biomass

Any other information on results incl. tables

Survival of steelhead embryos and alevins exposed continuously to total copper concentrations in the range of 3 (controls) to 30 μg/L was greater than 90 percent or greater. Survival was reduced at 57 μg/L and completely inhibited at 121 μg/L. A similar effect on survival was observed for embryos and alevins exposed to a mean of 51 (peak 263) and 109 (peak 465) μg/L of copper in the intermittent exposure, respectively. The adverse effect of continuous copper exposure on growth (measured on a dry weight basis) was observed at concentrations as low as 30 μg/L. (There was a 30 percent reduction in growth during the intermittent exposure at 16 μg/L.) The chronic limits for survival of embryos and alevin steelhead trout exposed continuously to copper were 16 and 31 μg/L, respectively (geometric mean = 22.27 μg/L). The EC20 for biomass for the continuous exposure was 27.77 μg/L

Applicant's summary and conclusion