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Environmental fate & pathways

Endpoint summary

Administrative data

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Additional information

Collection and analysis (for L4) of surface sediments and select biota from the aquatic food web was carried out as part of a 5-year monitoring programme for cyclic volatile methylsiloxane (cVMS) materials in the aquatic ecosystem. The data in Tables 4.2.3 and 4.2.4 are a summary of environmental monitoring data on L4, including studies from the first three years of this programme in two locations: Lake Ontario, Canada, and Lake Pepin, USA, the first two years of the programme in Oslo Fjord, Norway and from year one of the programme in Tokyo Bay..

L4 is present as an impurity and widely used in commercial products (e.g., personal care products). The main route of entry into the aquatic environment is via wastewater treatment plant effluents. Analytical measurement of trace levels of L4 in environmental samples is difficult due to its physical properties and uses, which can inadvertently lead to significant sample contamination. L4 is used in personal care products. Environmental samples can become compromised during all stages of field and laboratory work including sample collection, processing, extraction, and analysis. The environmental monitoring programmes reported here incorporate the use of rigorous protocols strictly prohibiting the use of personal care products by all field and laboratory personnel involved, as well as avoiding equipment containing silicone-based materials. This has led to lower analytical backgrounds, reduced potential for contamination, and thus greater confidence in the environmental monitoring results.


 

Table 4.2.3. Measured concentrations of L4 in sediment

Location

Sampling year

N (number of sample locations)

L4[1]

Comment

Reference

Sediment

 

 

(ng/g dw)

 

 

Canada, Lake Ontario

2011

5

<MDL

Sediment collected from locations within Hamilton Harbour (which receives WWTP effluent) and the main deep-water basin. Measured concentrations of L4 in sediment were below the MDL in all samples (LOD 7.8 ng, MDL 0.66 ng/g ww).

Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation (2013b)

Canada, Lake Ontario

2012

5

<MDL

Sediment collected from locations within Hamilton Harbour (which receives WWTP effluent) and the main deep-water basin. Measured concentrations of L4 in sediment were below the MDL in all samples (LOD 4.1 ng, MDL 0.75 ng/g ww).

Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation (2014b)

Canada, Lake Ontario

2013

5

<MDL

Sediment collected from locations within Hamilton Harbour (which receives WWTP effluent) and the main deep-water basin. Measured concentrations of L4 in sediment were below the MDL in all samples (LOD 3.5 ng, MDL 0.96 ng/g ww). Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation (2015a)

USA, Lake Pepin,

2011

12

<MDL

Measured concentrations of L4 in surface sediment were below the MDL in all samples (LOD 7.8 ng, MDL 0.66 ng/g ww). Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation (2013a)

USA, Lake Pepin,

2012

13

<MDL

Measured concentrations of L4 in surface sediment were below the MDL in all samples (LOD 4.1 ng, MDL 0.75 ng/g ww). Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation (2014a)

USA, Lake Pepin

2013

13

Not detected

No quantifiable concentrations of L4 were found (LOD 3.5 ng, MDL 0.96 ng/g ww). Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation (2015b)

Norway, Oslo Fjord

2011

25

Not detected

Mean measured concentrations of L4 were below the method detection limit in all sampled matrices. (LOD 3.1 ng, MDL 0.81 ng/g ww). Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Evonik (2015)

Norway, Oslo Fjord

2012

25

Not detected

Mean measured concentrations of L4 were below the method detection limit in all sampled matrices (LOD 1.3 ng, MDL 0.71 ng/g ww). Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Evonik (2016)

Japan, Tokyo Bay

2014

20

<MDL

Measured concentrations of L4 in surface sediment were below the MDL in all samples (LOQ 0.30 ng, MDL 0.10 ng/g ww).

SIAJ, 2015

 

Table 4.2.4 Measured concentrations of L4 in biota

Description of samples

Sampling year

N (number of samples analysed)

L41

Comment

Reference

Biota

 

 

(ng/g ww)

 

 

USA, Lake Pepin

Zooplankton

Mayfly larvae

Gizzard shad

Sauger

2011

 

4

5

11

20

 

Not detected

Not detected

Not detected

Not detected

L4 not present at detectable concentrations in any of the sampled matrices (LOD 14.7 ng, MDL 1.78 ng/g ww). Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation (2013a)

USA, Lake Pepin

Mayfly larvae

Gizzard shad

Sauger

Walleye

2012

 

8

7

21

20

 

<MDL

<MDL

<MDL

<MDL

 

 

Measured concentrations of L4 were below the MDL in all sampled matrices (LOD 6.8 ng, MDL 1.39 ng/g ww). Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation (2013c)

USA, Lake Pepin

Zooplankton

Mayfly larvae

Gizzard shad

Sauger

2013

 

8

8

10

20

 

Not detected

Not detected

<MDL

Not detected

Measured concentrations of L4 were below the MDL in all sampled matrices (LOD 6.4 ng, MDL 1.3 ng/g ww). Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation (2015b)

Canada, Lake Ontario

 

Mysid shrimp

Round goby

Rainbow smelt

Alewife

Lake trout

2011

 

 

4

12

9

5

19

 

 

Not detected

Not detected

Not detected

Not detected

Not detected

L4 not present at detectable concentrations in any of the sampled matrices (LOD 14.7 ng, MDL 1.78 ng/g ww). Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation (2013b)

Canada, Lake Ontario

Mysid shrimp

Round goby

Rainbow smelt

Alewife

Lake trout

2012

 

 

5

12

3

7

20

 

 

Not detected

Not detected

Not detected

Not detected

Not detected

L4 not present at quantifiable concentrations in any of the sampled matrices (LOD 6.8 ng, MDL 1.39 ng/g ww). Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation (2014)

Canada, Lake Ontario

Mysid shrimp

Round goby

Rainbow smelt

Alewife

Lake trout

2013

 

 

3

11

5

7

15

 

 

Not detected

Not detected

Not detected

Not detected

Not detected

L4 not present at quantifiable concentrations in any of the sampled matrices. LOD 6.4 ng, MDL 1.3 ng/g ww. Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Dow Corning Corporation (2015a)

Norway, Oslo Fjord

Cod

Herring

Shrimp

2011

 

 

16

5

5

 

 

<MDL

<MDL

Not detected

Mean measured concentrations of L4 were below the MDL in all sampled matrices (LOD 4.2 ng, MDL 0.73 ng/g ww). Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Evonik (2015)

Norway, Oslo Fjord

Cod

Herring

Shrimp

2012

 

 

20

20

6

 

 

<MDL

<MDL

Not detected

L4 not present at quantifiable concentrations in any of the sampled matrices (LOD 1.8 ng, MDL 1.78 ng/g ww). Specific prohibition of PCP during collection, processing, or analysis of samples

Evonik (2016)

Japan, Tokyo

Bay

Japanese sea bass

White croaker

Japanese scaled sardine

Red barracuda

Japanese anchovy

2014

 

 

9

9

4
9

9

 

 

 

<MDL

<MDL

<MDL
<MDL

<MDL

 

 

Measured concentrations of L4 were below the MDL in all sampled matrices (LOQ 3.0 ng, MDL 1.0 ng/g ww).

SIAJ (2015)

1'Not detected' indicates that no peak discernible from baseline was observed in the analysis.