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Description of key information

Eye and Skin irritation / corrosivity effects of Bromoform.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Skin irritation / corrosion

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
skin corrosion: in vitro / ex vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Experimental Phase: 06 June 2018 to 15 June 2018. Report Issued: 30 July 2018.
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 431 (In Vitro Skin Corrosion: Human Skin Model Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Test system:
human skin model
Source species:
human
Cell type:
non-transformed keratinocytes
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on test system:
SKIN DISC PREPARATION
- Test System: An EpiDerm™ Reconstructed Human Epidermis Model Kit was received from the supplier, MatTek, on 12 June 2018. The EpiDermTM Tissues (0.63cm2) lot number was 28624 and the assay Medium lot number was 060718MSA. Upon receipt of the Epiderm™ tissues, the sealed 24 well plate was stored in a refrigerator until use.

TEMPERATURE USED FOR TEST SYSTEM
- Temperature used during treatment / exposure: 37 °C, 5% CO2

PRE-INCUBATION
The assay medium was brought to room temperature before use. 0.9 mL of this assay medium was pipetted into the appropriate wells of two pre-labeled 6-well plates for both the 3 Minute and 60 Minute exposure periods. EpiDerm™ tissues were transferred into the 6 well plates containing the assay medium. The 6 well plates containing the EpiDerm™ samples were pre-incubated (37 °C, 5% CO2) for approximately 1 hour before dosing.

REMOVAL OF TEST MATERIAL AND CONTROLS
- Number of washing steps: Rinsing was achieved by filling and emptying each tissue under a constant soft stream of Dulbecco’s Phosphate Buffered Saline (DPBS) (without Ca++ Mg++) for approximately 40 seconds, to gently remove any residual test item. Excess DPBS was removed by blotting the bottom of the tissue insert with tissue paper. Each tissue was placed into the prepared holding plate until all tissues were rinsed. They were then blotted and transferred to the 24 well plate prepared for MTT-loading.

DYE BINDING METHOD
- Dye used in the dye-binding assay: MTT
- MTT incubation period: 3 hours.
- MTT extraction: After the 3 hour MTT incubation was complete, the inserts were blotted and transferred to labeled 24 well plates for MTT extraction. 2 mL of MTT extractant (isopropanol) was used to completely immerse each insert and the plate was covered with plate sealer to prevent Isopropanol evaporation. The plates stood overnight at room temperature, to allow extraction to proceed. After extraction, each tissue was pierced with a pipette fitted with a 1000 µL tip and the extraction solution was forced vigorously up and down to form a homogenous solution. 3 x 200 µL aliquots of the extract were transferred to the appropriate wells of a pre labeled 96 well plate. 200 µL of isopropanol alone was added to three wells designated as blanks.
- Spectrophotometer: Labtech LT 4500 microplate reader and LT-com analysis software.
- Wavelength: 570 nm

NUMBER OF INDEPENDENT TESTING RUNS / EXPERIMENTS TO DERIVE FINAL PREDICTION: Duplicate

PREDICTION MODEL / DECISION CRITERIA
- As given in the OECD 431 test guideline.
Control samples:
yes, concurrent negative control
yes, concurrent positive control
Amount/concentration applied:
TEST MATERIAL
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): 50 µL
- Concentration (if solution): As supplied

VEHICLE
No vehicle used

NEGATIVE CONTROL
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight): 50 µL
- Concentration (if solution): 100%

POSITIVE CONTROL
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight): 50 µL
- Concentration (if solution): 8.0N Potassium Hydroxide
Duration of treatment / exposure:
1 x 3 minute exposure period
1 x 60 minute exposure period
Duration of post-treatment incubation (if applicable):
None
Number of replicates:
Testing was conducted in duplicate for each treatment
Irritation / corrosion parameter:
% tissue viability
Run / experiment:
3 minute exposure period
Value:
81.4
Vehicle controls validity:
not applicable
Negative controls validity:
valid
Remarks:
100% viability
Positive controls validity:
valid
Remarks:
3.1% viability
Irritation / corrosion parameter:
% tissue viability
Run / experiment:
60 minute Exposure Period
Value:
6.1
Vehicle controls validity:
not applicable
Negative controls validity:
valid
Remarks:
100% viability
Positive controls validity:
valid
Remarks:
3.1% viability
Other effects / acceptance of results:
- OTHER EFFECTS:
- Direct-MTT reduction: The MTT solution containing the test item did not turn blue/purple. This was taken to indicate the test item did not reduce MTT.
- Colour interference with MTT: The solution containing the test item did not become coloured. This was taken to indicate the test item did not have the potential to cause colour interference.

DEMONSTRATION OF TECHNICAL PROFICIENCY:

ACCEPTANCE OF RESULTS:
- Acceptance criteria met for negative control: Yes - the mean OD570 for the negative control treated tissues was 2.252 for the 3 Minute exposure period and 2.129 for the 60 Minute exposure period.
- Acceptance criteria met for positive control: Yes - The relative mean tissue viability for the positive control treated tissues was 0.065% relative to the negative control following the 60 Minute exposure period.
- Acceptance criteria met for variability between replicate measurements: The acceptance critiera was satisfied as in the range 20 to 100% viability the Coefficient of Variation between the two tissue replicates of each treatment group did not exceed 30%.

Classification of corrosivity potemtial is based on relative viabilities for both exposure times according to the following table:

 

 Viability Measured after Exposure Time Points  Prediction to be considered according to the EU CLP Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 and UN GHS
 STEP 1   
 < 50% after 3 minutes exposure  Corrosive

≥ 50% after 3minutes exposure AND

< 15% after 60 minutes exposure

Corrosive 

≥ 50% after 3 minutes exposure AND 

≥ 15% after 60 minutes exposure

Non-corrosive 

 STEP 2 for test items identified as corrosive in step 1

 

 

 < 25% after 3 minutes exposure

 H314, sub-categorry 1A

 ≥ 25% after 3 munites exposure

 H314, combination of sub-categories 1B and 1C

Interpretation of results:
Category 1C (corrosive) based on GHS criteria
Conclusions:
The test item was considered to be corrosive: UN GHS H314 Combination of sub categories 1B and 1C.
Executive summary:

Introduction

The purpose of the test was to evaluate the corrosivity potential of the test item using the EpiDerm™ Human Skin Model after treatment periods of 3 and 60 minutes. The test was designed to meet the following guidelines:


·        OECD Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals No. 431 In Vitro Skin Corrosion: Reconstructed Human EpiDermis (RHE) Test Method (29 July 2016)

·        Method B.40bis of Commission Regulation (EC) No 440/2008, of 30 May 2008, laying down test methods pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, 18 December 2006, of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH)

 

Corrosion is directly related to cytotoxicity in the EpiDerm™ tissue. Cytotoxicity is determined by the reduction of MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) to formazan by viable cells in the test item treated tissues relative to the corresponding negative control. The results are used to make a prediction of the corrosivity potential of the test item.

Method

Duplicate tissues were treated with the test item for exposure periods of 3 and 60 minutes. Negative and positive control groups were treated for each exposure period. At the end of the exposure period the test item was rinsed from each tissue before each tissue was taken for MTT‑loading. After MTT-loading each tissue was placed in 2 mL of Isopropanol for MTT extraction.

At the end of the formazan extraction period each well was mixed thoroughly and triplicate 200 mL samples were transferred to the appropriate wells of a pre-labeled 96-well plate. The optical density (OD) was measured at 570 nm. Data are presented in the form of percentage viability (MTT reduction in the test item treated tissues relative to negative control tissues).

Results

The relative mean viabilities for each treatment group were as follows:

 Exposure Period     Percentage Viability      
 Negative Control  Positve Control  Test Item
 3 minutes  100* 3.1  81.4 
 60 minutes 100*  3.1  6.1 

*The mean viability of the negative control tissues is set at 100%

The quality criteria required for acceptance of results in the test were satisfied.

Conclusion

The test item was considered to be corrosive: UN GHS H314 Combination of sub‑categories 1B and 1C.

 

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
adverse effect observed (corrosive)

Eye irritation

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
eye irritation: in vitro / ex vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Experimental Phase: 30 August 2018. Report Issued: 25 October 2018.
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 437 (Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability Test Method for Identifying i) Chemicals Inducing Serious Eye Damage and ii) Chemicals Not Requiring Classification for Eye Irritation or Serious Eye Damage)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Species:
cattle
Details on test animals or tissues and environmental conditions:
Source of Bovine Eyes
Eyes from adult cattle (typically 12 to 60 months old) were obtained from a local abattoir as a by-product from freshly slaughtered animals. The eyes were excised by an abattoir employee after slaughter, and were placed in Hanks’ Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) supplemented with antibiotics (penicillin at 100 IU/mL and streptomycin at 100 μg/mL). They were transported to the test facility over ice packs on the same day of slaughter. The corneas were prepared immediately on arrival.

Preparation of Corneas
All eyes were macroscopically examined before and after dissection. Only corneas free of damage were used. The cornea from each selected eye was removed leaving a 2 to 3 mm rim of sclera to facilitate handling. The iris and lens were peeled away from the cornea. The isolated corneas were immersed in a dish containing HBSS until they were mounted in Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) holders.
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Controls:
yes, concurrent positive control
yes, concurrent negative control
Amount / concentration applied:
0.75 ml of either test substance, negative control, or positive control, applied to appropriate corneas.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
10 minutes
Duration of post- treatment incubation (in vitro):
2-hours
Number of animals or in vitro replicates:
Three replicates (corneas) per treatment (ttest substance, negative control, positive control)
Details on study design:

QUALITY CHECK OF THE ISOLATED CORNEAS : Yes

NUMBER OF REPLICATES: Three per treatment

NEGATIVE CONTROL USED : Sodium chloride 0.9 % w/v

SOLVENT CONTROL USED (if applicable): No

POSITIVE CONTROL USED: Ethanol > 99.8%

APPLICATION DOSE AND EXPOSURE TIME : 10 minutes

POST-INCUBATION PERIOD: yes, two-hours.

REMOVAL OF TEST SUBSTANCE
- Number of washing steps after exposure period: At the end of the exposure period the test item and control items were removed from the anterior chamber and the cornea was rinsed 3 times with fresh complete EMEM containing phenol red before a final rinse with complete EMEM without phenol red. The anterior chamber was refilled with fresh complete EMEM without phenol red.

METHODS FOR MEASURED ENDPOINTS:
- Corneal opacity: Opacitometer (calibrated on the day of the test)
- Corneal permeability: passage of sodium fluorescein dye measured using microtitre plate reader (Labtech LT-4500) at 492 nm.


SCORING SYSTEM: In Vitro Irritancy Score (IVIS)

DECISION CRITERIA: As specified in the test guideline.
Irritation parameter:
in vitro irritation score
Run / experiment:
Test Substance (mean of three replicates)
Value:
45.3
Vehicle controls validity:
not applicable
Negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Other effects / acceptance of results:
OTHER EFFECTS
- Visible damage: The corneas treated with the test item were partly cloudy post treatment and post incubation. The corneas treated with the negative control item were clear post treatment and post incubation. The corneas treated with the positive control item were cloudy post treatment and post incubation.


ACCEPTANCE OF RESULTS
- Acceptance criteria met for negative control: Yes
- Acceptance criteria met for positive control: Yes

The test item was classified according to the following criteria:

 IVIS  UN GHS

 ≤ 3

 No Category

 >3; ≤ 55

No prediction can be made

 > 55

 Category 1

Interpretation of results:
study cannot be used for classification
Conclusions:
The result for the test substance was within the band assigned for no prediction posssible according to the prediction model provided in the OECD 437 test guideline. Therefore no prediction of eye irritation can be made for the test substance from the results of this test.
Executive summary:

Introduction

The purpose of this test was to identify if the test item can induce serious eye damage. The method used was designed to meet the requirements of OECD Test Guideline 437, Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability Test Method for Identifying i) Chemicals Inducing Serious Eye Damage and ii) Chemicals Not Requiring Classification for Eye Irritation or Serious Eye Damage (09 October 2017).

  

Method

The undiluted test item was applied for 10 minutes followed by an incubation period of 120 minutes. Negative and positive control items were tested concurrently. The two endpoints, decreased light transmission through the cornea (opacity) and increased passage of sodium fluorescein dye through the cornea (permeability) were combined in an empirically derived formula to generate an In Vitro Irritancy Score (IVIS).

 

The test item was classified according to the prediction model as follows:

 IVIS  UN GHS

 ≤ 3

 No Category

 >3; ≤ 55

No prediction can be made

 > 55

 Category 1

Results

The in vitro irritancy scores are summarised below:

 Treatment

 In vitro Irritancy Score

 Test Item

 45.3

 Negative Control

 0.1

 Positive Control

 58.1

Conclusion

The result for the test substance was within the band assigned for no prediction posssible according to the prediction model provided in the OECD 437 test guideline. Therefore no prediction of eye irritation can be made for the test substance from the results of this test.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
adverse effect observed (irritating)

Respiratory irritation

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

Justification for classification or non-classification

Eye Effects

Bromoform was negative for corrosivity in a BCOP test. It did not meet the criteria for classification as corrosive to eyes; however, effects were observed and a no categoery score could not be given and therefore Bromoform was concluded to be irritant to eyes.

Skin Effects

In in vitro skin corosion test (OECD 431 human skin model) Bromoform was calssified as corrosive to skin.