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Diss Factsheets

Administrative data

eye irritation: in vitro / ex vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
21 September 2017 - 21 September 2017
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study

Data source

Reference Type:
study report

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
according to guideline
OECD Guideline 437 (Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability Test Method for Identifying i) Chemicals Inducing Serious Eye Damage and ii) Chemicals Not Requiring Classification for Eye Irritation or Serious Eye Damage)
according to guideline
EU method B.47 (Bovine corneal opacity and permeability test method for identifying ocular corrosives and severe irritants)
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
EC Number:
EC Name:
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
Test material form:
solid: particulate/powder
Details on test material:
Purity: 99.9%
white powder

Test animals / tissue source

not specified
Details on test animals or tissues and environmental conditions:
Eyes from adult cattle (typically 12 to 60 months old) were obtained from a local abattoir as a by-product from freshly slaughtered animals. The eyes were excised by an abattoir employee after slaughter, and were placed in Hanks’ Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) supplemented with antibiotics (penicillin at 100 IU/mL and streptomycin at 100 μg/mL). They were transported to the test facility over ice packs on the same day of slaughter. The corneas were prepared immediately on arrival.

Test system

other: sodium chloride 0.9% w/v
yes, concurrent positive control
yes, concurrent negative control
Amount / concentration applied:
- Concentration (if solution): 20% w/v in sodium chloride 0.9% w/v
- Concentration (if solution): sodium chloride 0.9% w/v
Duration of treatment / exposure:
240 minutes
Duration of post- treatment incubation (in vitro):
not specified
Number of animals or in vitro replicates:
Three corneas were randomly allocated to the negative control. Three corneas were also allocated to the test item and three corneas to the positive control item.
Details on study design:
All eyes were macroscopically examined before and after dissection. Only corneas free of damage were used.
The cornea from each selected eye was removed leaving a 2 to 3 mm rim of sclera to facilitate handling. The iris and lens were peeled away from the cornea. The isolated corneas were immersed in a dish containing HBSS until they were mounted in Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) holders. The anterior and posterior chambers of each BCOP holder were filled with complete Eagle’s Minimum Essential Medium (EMEM) without phenol red and plugged. The holders were incubated at 32 ± 1 ºC for 95 minutes. At the end of the incubation period each cornea was examined for defects. Only corneas free of damage were used.
The medium from both chambers of each holder was replaced with fresh complete EMEM. A pre-treatment opacity reading was taken for each cornea using a calibrated opacitometer. The average opacity for all corneas was calculated. Three corneas were randomly allocated to the negative control. Three corneas were also allocated to the test item and three corneas to the positive control item.
The EMEM was removed from the anterior chamber of the BCOP holder and 0.75 mL of the test item preparation or control items were applied to the appropriate corneas. The holders were gently tilted back and forth to ensure a uniform application of the item over the entire cornea. Each holder was incubated, anterior chamber uppermost, at 32 ± 1 ºC for 240 minutes.
At the end of the exposure period the test item and control items were removed from the anterior chamber and the cornea was rinsed three times with fresh complete EMEM containing phenol red before a final rinse with complete EMEM without phenol red. The anterior chamber was refilled with fresh complete EMEM without phenol red. A post-treatment opacity reading was taken and each cornea was visually observed.
Following the opacity measurement the permeability of the corneas to sodium fluorescein was evaluated. The medium from the anterior chamber was removed and replaced with 1 mL of sodium fluorescein solution (5 mg/mL). The dosing holes were plugged and the holders incubated, anterior chamber uppermost, at 32 ± 1 ºC for 90 minutes.
After incubation the medium in the posterior chamber of each holder was decanted and retained.
360 μL of media representing each cornea was dispensed into the appropriate wells of a pre-labeled 96-well plate. The optical density was measured (quantitative viability analysis) at 492 nm (without a reference filter) using the Labtech LT-4500 microplate reader.
The change in opacity for each cornea (including the negative control) was calculated by subtracting the initial opacity reading from the final opacity reading. These values were then corrected by subtracting the average change in opacity observed for the negative control corneas. The mean opacity value of each treatment group was then calculated by averaging the corrected opacity values of each cornea for that treatment group.
The corrected OD492 was calculated by subtracting the mean OD492 of the negative control corneas from the OD492 value of each treated cornea. The OD492 value of each treatment group was calculated by averaging the corrected OD492 values of the treated corneas for the treatment group.
The following formula was used to determine the In Vitro Irritancy Score: In Vitro Irritancy Score = mean opacity value + (15 x mean permeability OD492 value)
Additionally, the opacity and permeability values were evaluated independently to determine whether the test item induced a response through only one of the two endpoints.

Results and discussion

In vitro

Irritation parameter:
in vitro irritation score
ca. 0.6
Vehicle controls validity:
not examined
Negative controls validity:
Positive controls validity:
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Other effects / acceptance of results:
- Visible damage on test system: none observed

DEMONSTRATION OF TECHNICAL PROFICIENCY: The positive control In Vitro Irritancy Score was within the range of 65.1 to 123.3. The positive control acceptance criterion was therefore satisfied.
The negative control gave opacity of ≤2.4 and permeability ≤0.072. The negative control acceptance criteria were therefore satisfied.

- Acceptance criteria met for negative control: yes
- Acceptance criteria met for positive control: yes

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
GHS criteria not met
No category. Not requiring classification to UN GHS or EU CLP.