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Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Reference
Endpoint:
long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with national standard methods with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
It was not compliant with GLP and no analytical monitoring was carried out. Although the report lacks information on the water quality, the dose-response curve is normal so it is thought that good water quality parameters were achieved.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: Methods for acute toxicity test with fish, macroinvertebrates, and amphibians.EPA 66013-75-009. April 1975 from the ecological research series.
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)

- Method: The test substance was diluted to make a stock solution of 100 mg/ml. In a 6 L flask well water and food was mixed. The solution was transferred into 1L volumetric flasks, mixed well, then 200 ml were drawn into the test vessels.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
- Feeding during test: The daphnids were fed at a concentration of 10 mg/l at each test medium renewal.
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
28 d
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal test concentrations: 3.37, 6.75, 12.5 and 25 mg active acid/L.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM

- Test vessel:

- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 250 ml test beakers filled with 200 ml test solution.

- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency): Mon, Wed, Fri

- No. of organisms per vessel: 5

- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4

- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4



TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS

- Source of dilution water: Well water


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : survival and reproduction (offspring produced) at every water renewal (ca. 2 days).



RANGE-FINDING STUDY
A Range Finding study is said to have been conducted previous to the test in order to narrow down the range of concentrations in the test, however details were not reported. A short term acute test with Daphnia was also conducted which determined a 48 h EC50 equivalent to 883 mg active acid/L.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
6.75 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
other: adult survival and number of offspring
Remarks on result:
other: estimated
Details on results:
- Mortality of parent animals: see Table 1 for details.

- Time to first brood release or time to hatch: the data reported shows that offspring were produced by day 8 first in the controls and then on day 10 in the other treatment levels with the exception of the 25 mg/L treatment where time to first brood was recorded on day 14. Observations were made on alternate days, so it is possible that actual days of time to first brood may have been less.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
For chronic data NOECs were determined by visually comparing the data presented.

Table 1: Effect of D2010 on growth and survival of D. magna after 28 days (average of 4 replicates).

 

Nominal concentrations (mg/L as active acid)

Mortality of parents

Cumulative number of offspring

No. Alive (± SE)

% mortality

Control

 4.3 ± 1.0

 14

 129.3

25

0.75 ± 0.5

 85

 14.5

12.5

 3.2 ± 0.9

 46

22.2

6.75

 4.5 ± 0.5

 20

 80.1

3.37

 4.2 ± 0.1

 16

 121.1

 

Result expressed as nominal concentration. Properties of the test substance and evidence from other studies where concentrations were measured indicate that nominal and measured concentrations are likely to be in good agreement.

Not enough information is reported on water quality, however the frequency of water renewal suggests the parameters to be in acceptable ranges.

The standard error associated with the number of offspring has been reported for each observation in time. However, it is not possible to add standard errors for each observation time. Therefore due to the table format (cumulative # of offspring) and lack of raw data the standard error is not reported. The standard errors are very large and vary from 0.2 to 25. Given that the standard errors of the data at each point are large, it is unlikely that number of offspring in the control and the 3.37 and 6.75 mg/L treatments would have been significantly different.

 

The total average number of offspring does differ between the control, 3.37 and 6.75 mg/L concentrations. Nevertheless, when the values have been compared at a each observation stage of the study (day of offspring count) taking into consideration the standard error, the number of offspring produced at each stage between the control, the 3.37 mg/L and the 6.75 mg/L overlaps. This is true for all observations but the last one at day 28. Should the raw data have been available it would have been possible to make a more definitive evaluation. Therefore the NOEC is considered to be 6.75 mg/L.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Remarks:
mortality of controls was <20%, but no data on water quality and pH is reported
Conclusions:
A reliable 28 day NOEC value of 6.75 mg/L has been determined for the effects of the test substance on adult mortality and offspring production of D. magna.

Description of key information

(28 d) NOEC 6.75 mg/L D. magna (r-a) (Monsanto, 1976).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC10, LC10 or NOEC for freshwater invertebrates:
6.75 mg/L

Additional information

The key or weight of evidence studies with HEDP and its sodium salts can be reliably read-across to other HEDP category members in accordance with the rationale outlined in Annex 1 of the CSR.

The results of tests conducted on HEDP and its salts are directly comparable, because the ionisation state will depend only on the pH of the test medium. The counterion is not considered to contribute to effects in fish. At environmentally-relevant pH values, HEDP will be ionised typically three times, and will form stable complexes with metal ions.

No reliable data are available determining the toxicity of HEDP (2-3Na) to aquatic invertebrates, however a reliable study with HEDP-H and D. magna is available. A reliable 28 day NOEC value of 6.75 mg/L has been determined for the effects of HEDP-H on adult mortality and offspring production of the freshwater invertebrate Daphnia magna (Monsanto, 1976). The study reflects the lowest value that is available for this endpoint.

A long-term toxicity study of non-assignable reliability is available with HEDP-xNa to D. magna (Henkel, 1984). However, the pattern of mortality and offspring production is erratic and the dose response curve is unusual. It appears that the concentration of the test substance or bioavailability of essential nutrients (Ca) may have posed a problem in the test; however it was not possible to determine the causes of this, as the study provides an insufficient level of detail. Therefore, the study has not been included in the assessment.

 

Additionally, a sub-chronic study with the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica with HEDP-H is available. This is a reliable study and also a sensitive endpoint (shell growth), determining a 96 h EC50 (reported as LC50) value of 130 mg active acid/L (reported as 81 ppm (equivalent to 81 mg/l), the value has been converted taking into consideration the density of the test substance, ie. 1.6).