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Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria

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Reference
Endpoint:
toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with limited documentation / justification
Justification for type of information:
Data is from OECD QSAR toolbox version.3.3 and QMRF report has been attached.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: predicted data
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Prediction is done using QSAR Toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary discriptors.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material: 4,4'-[vinylenebis[(3-sulpho-4,1-phenylene)imino(6-chloro-1,3,5-triazine-4,2-diyl)imino]]bis[5-hydroxy-6-[(1-sulpho-2-naphthyl)azo] naphthalene-2,7-disulphonic] acid
- IUPAC name: 4,4'-[vinylenebis[(3-sulpho-4,1-phenylene)imino(6-chloro-1,3,5-triazine-4,2-diyl)imino]]bis[5-hydroxy-6-[(1-sulpho-2-naphthyl)azo] naphthalene-2,7-disulphonic] acid
- Molecular formula: C60H40Cl2N14O26S8
- Molecular weight: 1700.482 g/mole
- Smiles c1ccc2c(c1)ccc(c2S(=O)(=O)O)/N=N/c3c(cc4cc(cc(c4c3O)Nc5nc(nc(n5)Cl)Nc6ccc(c(c6)S(=O)(=O)O)/C=C/c7c(cccc7S(=O)(=O)O)Nc8nc (nc(n8)Cl)Nc9cc(cc1c9c(c(c(c1)S(=O)(=O)O)/N=N/c1ccc2ccccc2c1S(=O)(=O)O)O)S(=O)(=O)O)S(=O)(=O)O)S(=O)(=O)O
- Inchl: 1S/C60H40Cl2N14O26S8/c61-55-67-57(71-59(69-55)65-41-25-33(103(79,80)81)20-30-22-45(107(91,92)93)49(51(77)47(30)41)75-73-39-18-14-27-6-1-3-8-35(27)53(39)109(97,98)99)63-32-16-12-29(44(24-32)106(88,89)90)13-17-37-38(10-5-11-43(37)105(85,86)87)64-58-68-56(62)70-60(72-58)66-42-26-34(104(82,83)84)21-31-23-46(108(94,95)96)50(52(78)48(31)42)76-74-40-19-15-28-7-2-4-9-36(28)54(40)110(100,101)102/h1-26,77-78H,(H,79,80,81)(H,82,83,84)(H,85,86,87)(H,88,89,90)(H,91,92,93)(H,94,95,96)(H,97,98,99)(H,100,101,102)(H2,63,65,67,69,71)(H2,64,66,68,70,72)/b17-13+,75-73+,76-74+
- Substance type: Organic
- Physical state: Solid
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Vehicle:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (previous names: Raphidocelis subcapitata, Selenastrum capricornutum)
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Total exposure duration:
72 h
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
105.307 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
estimated
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Remarks on result:
other: not toxic

The prediction was based on dataset comprised from the following descriptors: EC50
Estimation method: Takes average value from the 5 nearest neighbours
Domain  logical expression:Result: In Domain

((((((((("a" or "b" or "c" or "d" )  and ("e" and ( not "f") )  )  and ("g" and ( not "h") )  )  and ("i" and ( not "j") )  )  and ("k" and ( not "l") )  )  and "m" )  and ("n" and ( not "o") )  )  and ("p" and ( not "q") )  )  and ("r" and "s" )  )

Domain logical expression index: "a"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aromatic compound OR Azo compound OR Halogen derivative OR Hydroxy compound OR Phenol OR Sulfonic acid OR Sulfonic acid derivative by Organic functional groups, Norbert Haider (checkmol) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "b"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Alcohol, olefinic attach [-OH] OR Aliphatic Nitrogen, one aromatic attach [-N] OR Aliphatic Nitrogen, two aromatic attach [-N-] OR Amino Triazine/Pyrazine/Pyrimidine  OR Aromatic Carbon [C] OR Aromatic Nitrogen OR Azo [-N=N-] OR Chlorine, aromatic attach [-Cl] OR Chlorine, olefinic attach [-Cl] OR Hydroxy, aromatic attach [-OH] OR Hydroxy, sulfur attach [-OH] OR Miscellaneous sulfide (=S) or oxide (=O) OR Nitrogen, two or tree olefinic attach [>N-] OR Olefinic carbon [=CH- or =C<] OR Oxygen, one aromatic attach [-O-] OR Suflur {v+4} or {v+6} OR Sulfinic acid [-S(=O)OH] OR Sulfonate, aromatic attach [-SO2-O] OR Sym-Triazine ring  by Organic functional groups (US EPA) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "c"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Alkene OR Aromatic amine OR Aromatic heterocyclic halide OR Aryl OR Aryl halide OR Azo OR Fused carbocyclic aromatic OR Overlapping groups OR Phenol OR Sulfonic acid by Organic Functional groups (nested) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "d"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Alkene OR Aromatic amine OR Aromatic heterocyclic halide OR Aryl OR Aryl halide OR Azo OR Fused carbocyclic aromatic OR Naphtalene OR Phenol OR Sulfonic acid OR Triazine by Organic Functional groups ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "e"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Non binder, MW>500 by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "f"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Non binder, impaired OH or NH2 group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "g"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Non binder, MW>500 by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "h"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Strong binder, OH group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "i"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.4

Domain logical expression index: "j"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Non-covalent interaction OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Naphthalenediimide Derivatives OR Radical OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Single-Ring Substituted Primary Aromatic Amines OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Alkylation after metabolically formed carbenium ion species OR SN1 >> Alkylation after metabolically formed carbenium ion species >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Naphthalenediimide Derivatives OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrenium ion formation >> Single-Ring Substituted Primary Aromatic Amines OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Naphthalenediimide Derivatives by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.4

Domain logical expression index: "k"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by DNA binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "l"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Michael addition OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Alkyl phenols OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Arenes OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Hydroquinones OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Carbenium Ion Formation OR SN1 >> Carbenium Ion Formation >> Allyl benzenes by DNA binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "m"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Class 5 (Not possible to classify according to these rules) by Acute aquatic toxicity classification by Verhaar (Modified) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "n"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Not classified by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "o"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Not Related to an Existing ECOSAR Class by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "p"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Not classified by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "q"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Neutral Organics by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "r"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log BCF max which is >= 1.06 log(L/kg wet)

Domain logical expression index: "s"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log BCF max which is <= 4.43 log(L/kg wet)

Conclusions:
Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the closest read across substances, the toxicity to aquatic algae was predicted 4,4'-[vinylenebis[(3-sulpho-4,1-phenylene)imino(6-chloro-1,3,5-triazine-4,2-diyl)imino]]bis[5-hydroxy-6-[(1-sulpho-2-naphthyl)azo] naphthalene-2,7-disulphonic] acid (CAS: 94022-69-2). EC50 growth rate value was estimated to be 105.307 mg/l for Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata for 72.0 hrs duration. It was concluded that 4,4'-[vinylenebis[(3-sulpho-4,1-phenylene)imino(6-chloro-1,3,5-triazine-4,2-diyl)imino]]bis[5-hydroxy-6-[(1-sulpho-2-naphthyl)azo] naphthalene-2,7-disulphonic] acid (CAS: 94022-69-2) was likely to be not toxic to aquatic algae.
Executive summary:

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the closest read across substances, the toxicity to aquatic algae was predicted 4,4'-[vinylenebis[(3-sulpho-4,1-phenylene)imino(6-chloro-1,3,5-triazine-4,2-diyl)imino]]bis[5-hydroxy-6-[(1-sulpho-2-naphthyl)azo] naphthalene-2,7-disulphonic] acid (CAS: 94022-69-2). EC50 growth rate value was estimated to be 105.307 mg/l for Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata for 72.0 hrs duration. It was concluded that 4,4'-[vinylenebis[(3-sulpho-4,1-phenylene)imino(6-chloro-1,3,5-triazine-4,2-diyl)imino]]bis[5-hydroxy-6-[(1-sulpho-2-naphthyl)azo] naphthalene-2,7-disulphonic] acid (CAS: 94022-69-2) was likely to be not toxic to aquatic algae.

Description of key information

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the closest read across substances, the toxicity to aquatic algae was predicted 4,4'-[vinylenebis[(3-sulpho-4,1-phenylene)imino(6-chloro-1,3,5-triazine-4,2-diyl)imino]]bis[5-hydroxy-6-[(1-sulpho-2-naphthyl)azo] naphthalene-2,7-disulphonic] acid (CAS: 94022-69-2). EC50 growth rate value was estimated to be 105.307 mg/l for Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata for 72.0 hrs duration. It was concluded that 4,4'-[vinylenebis[(3-sulpho-4,1-phenylene)imino(6-chloro-1,3,5-triazine-4,2-diyl)imino]]bis[5-hydroxy-6-[(1-sulpho-2-naphthyl)azo] naphthalene-2,7-disulphonic] acid (CAS: 94022-69-2) was likely to be not toxic to aquatic algae.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50 for freshwater algae:
105.307 mg/L

Additional information

Following studies of target chemical and structurally similar read across includes predicted data and experimental data to conclude the toxicity extent of 4,4'-[vinylenebis[(3-sulpho-4,1-phenylene)imino(6-chloro-1,3,5-triazine-4,2-diyl)imino]]bis[5-hydroxy-6-[(1-sulpho-2-naphthyl)azo] naphthalene-2,7-disulphonic] acid (CAS: 94022-69-2) towards aquatic algae is summarized as follows:

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the closest read across substances, the toxicity to aquatic algae was predicted 4,4'-[vinylenebis[(3-sulpho-4,1-phenylene)imino(6-chloro-1,3,5-triazine-4,2-diyl)imino]]bis[5-hydroxy-6-[(1-sulpho-2-naphthyl)azo] naphthalene-2,7-disulphonic] acid (CAS: 94022-69-2). EC50 growth rate value was estimated to be 105.307 mg/l for Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata for 72.0 hrs duration. It was concluded that 4,4'-[vinylenebis[(3-sulpho-4,1-phenylene)imino(6-chloro-1,3,5-triazine-4,2-diyl)imino]]bis[5-hydroxy-6-[(1-sulpho-2-naphthyl)azo] naphthalene-2,7-disulphonic] acid (CAS: 94022-69-2) was likely to be not toxic to aquatic algae.

The above predicted data of target chemical is supported by the experimental study of structurally similar read across trisodium 5-({4-chloro-6-[ethyl(phenyl)amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl}amino)-4-hydroxy-3-[(1-sulfonato-2-naphthyl)diazenyl]naphthalene-2,7-disulfonate (Cas no. 84045-65-8) from the experimental ABITEC Lab report 2017, suggests that the Freshwater algal growth inhibition test was carried out on Desmodesmus subspicatus with the substance trisodium 5-({4-chloro-6-[ethyl(phenyl)amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl}amino)-4-hydroxy-3-[(1-sulfonato-2-naphthyl)diazenyl]naphthalene-2,7-disulfonate (CAS no. 84045-65-8) to OECD Guideline 201. The stock solution (220 mg/L) was prepared by dissolving dark brown powder in OECD growth medium.Test solutions  of required concentrations were prepared by mixing the stock solution of the test sample with OECD growth medium and inoculum culture. Conc. of test chemical used for the study was 0, 77, 100, 130, 170 and 220 mg/L, respectively. The test was performed under static conditions in a static fresh water system at a temp. of 23±2°C. Initial cell density of test organism used was 5x10(3) cells/ml. Determination of cell counting involve the use of microscope with counting chamber Cyrus I or electronic particle counter. ErC50 was calculated using non-linear regression by the software Prism 4.0. The median effective concentration (EC50) for the test substance trisodium 5-({4-chloro-6-[ethyl(phenyl)amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl}amino)-4-hydroxy-3-[(1-sulfonato-2-naphthyl)diazenyl]naphthalene-2,7-disulfonate in Desmodesmus subspicatus was determined to be 656.3 mg/L on the basis of effects on growth rate in a 72 hour study. Thus, based on this value, test chemical can be considered as non toxic to aquatic organisms and thus can be 'not classified' in aquatic compartment as per the CLP criteria.

Thus based on the effect concentrations which is in the range 105.307 mg/L to656.3 mg/lgive the conclusion that test substance 4,4'-[vinylenebis[(3-sulpho-4,1-phenylene)imino(6-chloro-1,3,5-triazine-4,2-diyl)imino]]bis[5-hydroxy-6-[(1-sulpho-2-naphthyl)azo] naphthalene-2,7-disulphonic] acid (CAS: 94022-69-2) is likely to be not toxic to aquatic environment at environmentally relevant concentrations and applying weight of evidence approach it can be considered to be “not classified” as per the CLP classification criteria.