Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Workers - Hazard via inhalation route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
6.8 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
18
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
123 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEC
Value:
245 mg/m³
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

Most relevant study is OECD 422, BASF 2016, 85R0384/14X397 with NOAEL systemic >= 1000mg/kg bw/d (a.i. 13,9%) -> 139 mg/kg bw/d is used for calculation.

In the absence of route-specific information on the starting route, a default factor of 2 (the absorption percentage for the starting route is half that of the end route) is used in the route to route extrapolation. The inclusion of this factor 2 means that 50% (instead of 100%) absorption is assumed for oral absorption, and 100% for inhalation.

Additionally, in the route to route extrapolation for the inhalation route a correction for respiratory volume is applied. The respiratory volume of rats (0.38 m3/kg bw) is multiplied by the respiratory volume of human (6.7 m3/person) and corrected for the respiratory volume for light activity to address the workers (10 m3/person): 69.5 mg/kg bw/day * (1/0.38) * (6.7/10) = 123 mg/m3.

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health, for the dose-response relationship, consideration should be given to the uncertainties in the dose descriptor (NOAEL, benchmark dose…) as the surrogate for the true no-adverse-effect-level (NAEL). In this case the starting point for the DNEL calculation is a NOAEC, derived from a study which is of good quality and without uncertainties. Therefore the default assessment factor, as a standard procedure, is 1.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health, a factor allowing for differences in the experimental exposure duration and the duration of exposure for the worker and scenario under consideration needs to be considered taking into account that a) in general the experimental NOAEL will decrease with increasing exposure times and b) other and more serious adverse effects may appear with increasing exposure times. Consequently, to end up with the most conservative DNEL for repeated dose toxicity, chronic exposure is the ‘worst case’. So, since only a subacute study is available, a default assessment factor of 6 is to be applied as a standard procedure.
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health, as long as route-to-route extrapolation is not needed, allometric scaling should not be applied in cases where doses in experimental animal studies are expressed as concentrations (e.g. in mg/m3 air, ppm in diet, or mg/L in the drinking water) as these are assumed to be already scaled according to the allometric principle, since ventilation rate and food intake directly depend on the basal metabolic rate. In this case the NOAEC is expressed as concentration (mg/m3), therefore a factor for allometric scaling is not needed.
AF for other interspecies differences:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECETOC Derivation of Assessment Factors for Human Health Risk Assessment – Technical Report No. 86 and ECETOC Guidance on Assessment Factors to Derive a DNEL – Technical Report No. 110, potential differences in biological sensitivity between species are largely accounted for in the default assessment factor proposed for intraspecies variability
AF for intraspecies differences:
3
Justification:
In accordance with ECETOC Derivation of Assessment Factors for Human Health Risk Assessment – Technical Report No. 86 and ECETOC Guidance on Assessment Factors to Derive a DNEL – Technical Report No. 110, a default assessment factor for the general population is based on the distributions of human data for various toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic parameters. The upper extreme of the variability in these data was estimated by calculating the 95th percentile of the distribution, which is considered sufficiently conservative to account for intraspecies variability in the general population (the data analysed included both sexes, a variety of disease states and ages). This results in recommended default assessment factor of 5 for the general population. As the worker population is more homogeneous (i.e. younger, healthier, protected from exposures), a default assessment factor of 3 is recommended. This proposal of ECETOC is based on an evaluation of the available scientific literature while the ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health refers to standard default procedures. Until the scientific basis for using an alternative approach has been established, it is proposed to follow the ECETOC guideline.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health, the evaluation of the total toxicological database should include an assessment whether the available information as a whole meets the tonnage driven data requirements necessary to fulfil the REACH requirements, or whether there are data gaps (completeness of the database). Furthermore, the hazard data should be assessed for the reliability and consistency across different studies and endpoints and taking into account the quality of the testing method, size and power of the study design, biological plausibility, dose-response relationships and statistical association (adequacy of the database). When taking into account the standard information requirements and the completeness and consistency of the database the default assessment factor of 1, to be applied for good/standard quality of the database, is recommended.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
high hazard (no threshold derived)
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

Workers - Hazard via dermal route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
1.9 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
72
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
139 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
139 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

In general dermal absorption will not be higher than oral absorption, so no additional factor is introduced for oral-to-dermal extrapolation.

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health, for the dose-response relationship, consideration should be given to the uncertainties in the dose descriptor (NOAEL, benchmark dose…) as the surrogate for the true no-adverse-effect-level (NAEL). In this case the starting point for the DNEL calculation is a NOAEL, derived from a study which is of good quality and without uncertainties. Therefore the default assessment factor, as a standard procedure, is 1.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health, a factor allowing for differences in the experimental exposure duration and the duration of exposure for the worker and scenario under consideration needs to be considered taking into account that a) in general the experimental NOAEL will decrease with increasing exposure times and b) other and more serious adverse effects may appear with increasing exposure times. Consequently, to end up with the most conservative DNEL for repeated dose toxicity, chronic exposure is the ‘worst case’. So, since a subacute study is available, a default assessment factor of 6 is to be applied as a standard procedure.
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health, as long as route-to-route extrapolation is not needed, allometric scaling should not be applied in cases where doses in experimental animal studies are expressed as concentrations (e.g. in mg/m3 air, ppm in diet, or mg/L in the drinking water) as these are assumed to be already scaled according to the allometric principle, since ventilation rate and food intake directly depend on the basal metabolic rate. The starting point for the DNEL is a NOAEL derived from a rat study. Therefore the default assessment factor of 4 is to be applied as a standard procedure.
AF for other interspecies differences:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECETOC Derivation of Assessment Factors for Human Health Risk Assessment – Technical Report No. 86 and ECETOC Guidance on Assessment Factors to Derive a DNEL – Technical Report No. 110, potential differences in biological sensitivity between species are largely accounted for in the default assessment factor proposed for intraspecies variability
AF for intraspecies differences:
3
Justification:
In accordance with ECETOC Derivation of Assessment Factors for Human Health Risk Assessment – Technical Report No. 86 and ECETOC Guidance on Assessment Factors to Derive a DNEL – Technical Report No. 110, a default assessment factor for the general population is based on the distributions of human data for various toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic parameters. The upper extreme of the variability in these data was estimated by calculating the 95th percentile of the distribution, which is considered sufficiently conservative to account for intraspecies variability in the general population (the data analysed included both sexes, a variety of disease states and ages). This results in recommended default assessment factor of 5 for the general population. As the worker population is more homogeneous (i.e. younger, healthier, protected from exposures), a default assessment factor of 3 is recommended. This proposal of ECETOC is based on an evaluation of the available scientific literature while the ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health refers to standard default procedures. Until the scientific basis for using an alternative approach has been established, it is proposed to follow the ECETOC guideline.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health, the evaluation of the total toxicological database should include an assessment whether the available information as a whole meets the tonnage driven data requirements necessary to fulfil the REACH requirements, or whether there are data gaps (completeness of the database). Furthermore, the hazard data should be assessed for the reliability and consistency across different studies and endpoints and taking into account the quality of the testing method, size and power of the study design, biological plausibility, dose-response relationships and statistical association (adequacy of the database). When taking into account the standard information requirements and the completeness and consistency of the database the default assessment factor of 1, to be applied for good/standard quality of the database, is recommended.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
medium hazard (no threshold derived)
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
high hazard (no threshold derived)

Workers - Hazard for the eyes

Local effects

Hazard assessment conclusion:
medium hazard (no threshold derived)

Additional information - workers

General Population - Hazard via inhalation route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
2 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
30
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
139 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEC
Value:
60 mg/m³
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

Most relevant study is OECD 422, BASF 2016, 85R0384/14X397 with NOAEL systemic >= 1000mg/kg bw/d (a.i. 13,9%) -> 139 mg/kg bw/d is used for calculation.

In the absence of route-specific information on the starting route, a default factor of 2 (the absorption percentage for the starting route is half that of the end route) is used in the route to route extrapolation. The inclusion of this factor 2 means that 50% (instead of 100%) absorption is assumed for oral absorption, and 100% for inhalation.

Additionally, in the route to route extrapolation for the inhalation route a correction for respiratory volume is applied, in this case that of rats (1/1.15 m3/kg bw): 69.5 mg/kg bw/day * (1/1.15) = 60 mg/m3.

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health, for the dose-response relationship, consideration should be given to the uncertainties in the dose descriptor (NOAEL, benchmark dose…) as the surrogate for the true no-adverse-effect-level (NAEL). In this case the starting point for the DNEL calculation is a NOAEC, derived from a study which is of good quality and without uncertainties. Therefore the default assessment factor, as a standard procedure, is 1.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health, a factor allowing for differences in the experimental exposure duration and the duration of exposure for the worker and scenario under consideration needs to be considered taking into account that a) in general the experimental NOAEL will decrease with increasing exposure times and b) other and more serious adverse effects may appear with increasing exposure times. Consequently, to end up with the most conservative DNEL for repeated dose toxicity, chronic exposure is the ‘worst case’. So, since a subacute study is available, a default assessment factor of 6 is to be applied as a standard procedure.
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health, as long as route-to-route extrapolation is not needed, allometric scaling should not be applied in cases where doses in experimental animal studies are expressed as concentrations (e.g. in mg/m3 air, ppm in diet, or mg/L in the drinking water) as these are assumed to be already scaled according to the allometric principle, since ventilation rate and food intake directly depend on the basal metabolic rate. In this case the NOAEC is expressed as concentration (mg/m3), therefore a factor for allometric scaling is not needed.
AF for other interspecies differences:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECETOC Derivation of Assessment Factors for Human Health Risk Assessment – Technical Report No. 86 and ECETOC Guidance on Assessment Factors to Derive a DNEL – Technical Report No. 110, potential differences in biological sensitivity between species are largely accounted for in the default assessment factor proposed for intraspecies variability.
AF for intraspecies differences:
5
Justification:
In accordance with ECETOC Derivation of Assessment Factors for Human Health Risk Assessment – Technical Report No. 86 and ECETOC Guidance on Assessment Factors to Derive a DNEL – Technical Report No. 110, a default assessment factor for the general population is based on the distributions of human data for various toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic parameters. The upper extreme of the variability in these data was estimated by calculating the 95th percentile of the distribution, which is considered sufficiently conservative to account for intraspecies variability in the general population (the data analysed included both sexes, a variety of disease states and ages). This results in recommended default assessment factor of 5 for the general population. This proposal of ECETOC is based on an evaluation of the available scientific literature while the ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health refers to standard default procedures. Until the scientific basis for using an alternative approach has been established, it is proposed to follow the ECETOC guideline.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health, the evaluation of the total toxicological database should include an assessment whether the available information as a whole meets the tonnage driven data requirements necessary to fulfil the REACH requirements, or whether there are data gaps (completeness of the database). Furthermore, the hazard data should be assessed for the reliability and consistency across different studies and endpoints and taking into account the quality of the testing method, size and power of the study design, biological plausibility, dose-response relationships and statistical association (adequacy of the database). When taking into account the standard information requirements and the completeness and consistency of the database the default assessment factor of 1, to be applied for good/standard quality of the database, is recommended.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
high hazard (no threshold derived)
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

General Population - Hazard via dermal route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
1.2 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
120
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
139 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
139 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

Most relevant study is OECD 422, BASF 2016, 85R0384/14X397 with NOAEL systemic >= 1000mg/kg bw/d (a.i. 13,9%) -> 139 mg/kg bw/d is used for calculation.

In general dermal absorption will not be higher than oral absorption, so no additional factor is introduced for oral-to-dermal extrapolation.

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health, for the dose-response relationship, consideration should be given to the uncertainties in the dose descriptor (NOAEL, benchmark dose…) as the surrogate for the true no-adverse-effect-level (NAEL). In this case the starting point for the DNEL calculation is a NOAEL, derived from a study which is of good quality and without uncertainties. Therefore the default assessment factor, as a standard procedure, is 1.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health, a factor allowing for differences in the experimental exposure duration and the duration of exposure for the worker and scenario under consideration needs to be considered taking into account that a) in general the experimental NOAEL will decrease with increasing exposure times and b) other and more serious adverse effects may appear with increasing exposure times. Consequently, to end up with the most conservative DNEL for repeated dose toxicity, chronic exposure is the ‘worst case’. So, since a subacute study is available, a default assessment factor of 6 is to be applied as a standard procedure.
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health, as long as route-to-route extrapolation is not needed, allometric scaling should not be applied in cases where doses in experimental animal studies are expressed as concentrations (e.g. in mg/m3 air, ppm in diet, or mg/L in the drinking water) as these are assumed to be already scaled according to the allometric principle, since ventilation rate and food intake directly depend on the basal metabolic rate. The starting point for the DNEL is a NOAEL derived from a rat study. Therefore the default assessment factor of 4 is to be applied as a standard procedure.
AF for other interspecies differences:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECETOC Derivation of Assessment Factors for Human Health Risk Assessment – Technical Report No. 86 and ECETOC Guidance on Assessment Factors to Derive a DNEL – Technical Report No. 110, potential differences in biological sensitivity between species are largely accounted for in the default assessment factor proposed for intraspecies variability.
AF for intraspecies differences:
5
Justification:
In accordance with ECETOC Derivation of Assessment Factors for Human Health Risk Assessment – Technical Report No. 86 and ECETOC Guidance on Assessment Factors to Derive a DNEL – Technical Report No. 110, a default assessment factor for the general population is based on the distributions of human data for various toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic parameters. The upper extreme of the variability in these data was estimated by calculating the 95th percentile of the distribution, which is considered sufficiently conservative to account for intraspecies variability in the general population (the data analysed included both sexes, a variety of disease states and ages). This results in recommended default assessment factor of 5 for the general population. This proposal of ECETOC is based on an evaluation of the available scientific literature while the ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health refers to standard default procedures. Until the scientific basis for using an alternative approach has been established, it is proposed to follow the ECETOC guideline.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health, the evaluation of the total toxicological database should include an assessment whether the available information as a whole meets the tonnage driven data requirements necessary to fulfil the REACH requirements, or whether there are data gaps (completeness of the database). Furthermore, the hazard data should be assessed for the reliability and consistency across different studies and endpoints and taking into account the quality of the testing method, size and power of the study design, biological plausibility, dose-response relationships and statistical association (adequacy of the database). When taking into account the standard information requirements and the completeness and consistency of the database the default assessment factor of 1, to be applied for good/standard quality of the database, is recommended.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
medium hazard (no threshold derived)
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
high hazard (no threshold derived)

General Population - Hazard via oral route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
1.2 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
120
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
139 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

Most relevant study is OECD 422, BASF 2016, 85R0384/14X397 with NOAEL systemic >= 1000mg/kg bw/d (a.i. 13,9%) -> 139 mg/kg bw/d is used for calculation.

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health, for the dose-response relationship, consideration should be given to the uncertainties in the dose descriptor (NOAEL, benchmark dose…) as the surrogate for the true no-adverse-effect-level (NAEL). In this case the starting point for the DNEL calculation is a NOAEL, derived from a study which is of good quality and without uncertainties. Therefore the default assessment factor, as a standard procedure, is 1.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health, a factor allowing for differences in the experimental exposure duration and the duration of exposure for the worker and scenario under consideration needs to be considered taking into account that a) in general the experimental NOAEL will decrease with increasing exposure times and b) other and more serious adverse effects may appear with increasing exposure times. Consequently, to end up with the most conservative DNEL for repeated dose toxicity, chronic exposure is the ‘worst case’. So, since a subacute study is available, a default assessment factor of 6 is to be applied as a standard procedure.
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health, as long as route-to-route extrapolation is not needed, allometric scaling should not be applied in cases where doses in experimental animal studies are expressed as concentrations (e.g. in mg/m3 air, ppm in diet, or mg/L in the drinking water) as these are assumed to be already scaled according to the allometric principle, since ventilation rate and food intake directly depend on the basal metabolic rate. The starting point for the DNEL is a NOAEL derived from a rat study. Therefore the default assessment factor of 4 is to be applied as a standard procedure.
AF for other interspecies differences:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECETOC Derivation of Assessment Factors for Human Health Risk Assessment – Technical Report No. 86 and ECETOC Guidance on Assessment Factors to Derive a DNEL – Technical Report No. 110, potential differences in biological sensitivity between species are largely accounted for in the default assessment factor proposed for intraspecies variability.
AF for intraspecies differences:
5
Justification:
In accordance with ECETOC Derivation of Assessment Factors for Human Health Risk Assessment – Technical Report No. 86 and ECETOC Guidance on Assessment Factors to Derive a DNEL – Technical Report No. 110, a default assessment factor for the general population is based on the distributions of human data for various toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic parameters. The upper extreme of the variability in these data was estimated by calculating the 95th percentile of the distribution, which is considered sufficiently conservative to account for intraspecies variability in the general population (the data analysed included both sexes, a variety of disease states and ages). This results in recommended default assessment factor of 5 for the general population. This proposal of ECETOC is based on an evaluation of the available scientific literature while the ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health refers to standard default procedures. Until the scientific basis for using an alternative approach has been established, it is proposed to follow the ECETOC guideline.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health, the evaluation of the total toxicological database should include an assessment whether the available information as a whole meets the tonnage driven data requirements necessary to fulfil the REACH requirements, or whether there are data gaps (completeness of the database). Furthermore, the hazard data should be assessed for the reliability and consistency across different studies and endpoints and taking into account the quality of the testing method, size and power of the study design, biological plausibility, dose-response relationships and statistical association (adequacy of the database). When taking into account the standard information requirements and the completeness and consistency of the database the default assessment factor of 1, to be applied for good/standard quality of the database, is recommended.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

General Population - Hazard for the eyes

Local effects

Hazard assessment conclusion:
medium hazard (no threshold derived)

Additional information - General Population