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Valid chronic studies based on international guidelines are available for terrestrial plants and soil microorganisms.

Sunflower, cabbage and lettuce appeared to be the most sensitive species with :

18d-EC25 (Helianthus annuus) = 0.026 lb/acre (sunflower vegetative vigor test), 14d-EC25 (Brassica oleracera) = 0.21 lb/acre (cabbage fresh weight, seeling emergence test) and 14d-EC25 (Lactuva sativa) = 0.23 lb/acre (lettuce fresh weight, seedling emergence test). In the seed germination test, lettuce appeared again as the most sensitive species with : 7d-EC25 (Lactuva sativa) = 0.28 lb/acre.

The lowest NOEL observed was for dicots with : 0.016 lb/acre < NOEL (dicots) < 2 lb/acre, in the vegetative vigor test.

In addition, the test substance appeared to cause only a slight retardation in nitrification to soil microorganisms, but this effect disappeared 90 days after treatment : NOEC (soil microorganisms) >= 100 mg/L.

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