Use of this information is subject to copyright laws and may require the permission of the owner of the information, as described in the ECHA Legal Notice.
EC number: 271-784-1
CAS number: 68608-50-4
toxicity of lithium myristate to algal growth showed no effects at a
water accommodated fraction loading rate of 160 mg/L. The toxicity of
lithium 12-hydroxystearate and lithium behenate showed no effects at up
to 100 mg/L WAF. Therefore, the 72 hour ErL50 is determined to be > 160
mg/L WAF for lithium myristate and > 100 mg/L WAF for lithium
12-hydroxystearate and lithium behenate. The 72 hour NOErLR is 160 mg/L
WAF for lithium myristate and 100 mg/L WAF for lithium
12-hydroxystearate and lithium behenate.
testing on algal growth inhibition is currently ongoing for fatty acids
C16-18 (even numbered) saturated and C16-20 (even numbered) unsaturated
toxicities to algal growth were determined in GLP-compliant, static,
freshwater tests (Harlan 2013) following OECD guideline 201. The algal
growth inhibition test on lithium myristate was conducted at10, 20, 40,
80 and 160 mg/L WAF and no effects were observed at any of the test
concentrations. Lithium 12-hydroxystearate was tested at concentrations
of 1, 3.2, 10, 32 and 100 mg/L WAF alongside a blank control and no
effects were observed at any concentrations. The definitive toxicity to
algal growth test on lithium behenate was conducted as a limit test at
100 mg/L alongside blank controls and no toxicity was observed.
were exposed to water accommodated fractions of lithium myristate,
lithium 12-hydroxystearate and lithium behenate for 72 hours in standard
ecotoxicity media adjusted to a hardness of approximately 150 mg/L
CaCO3. Observations of algal biomass were made in triplicate at 24, 48
and 72 hours and the test solutions analysed for lithium content and
total organic carbon at test initiation and termination.
myristate, the shortest carbon chain length substance in the category,
has a 72 hour ErL50 of >160 mg/L WAF and a 72 hour NOErL of at least 160
mg/L WAF to algae. Lithium 12-hydroxysterate, with intermediate carbon
chain length, and lithium behenate, the longest carbon chain length
substance in the category, have 72 hour ErL50s of >100 mg/L WAF and 72
hour NOErLRs of at least 100 mg/L WAF to algae. As none of these
substances are acutely toxic to algae, it can be justifiably expected
that the remaining substances in the category with intervening carbon
chain lengths will not be acutely toxic to algae either.
toxicities of lithium myristate, lithium 12-hydroxystearate and lithium
behenate to algae, aquatic invertebrates and fish were investigated in
GLP-compliant guideline short-term toxicity studies (Harlan 2013). While
ensuring that media were compatible with the water chemistry
requirements of the test species, the ecotoxicity tests for all three
trophic levels were all conducted in media with the same hardness,
approximately 150 mg/L CaCO3, in order to reduce effects observed from
variations in the formation of micelles due to the soap-like structure
and surface activity of the substances in the category.
as there are concerns that water chemistry (such as hardness) influences
the (bio)availability of the substances and that surfactants may
precipitate out of solution, it has been recommended that testing
follows harmonised test guidelines and non-standard testing approaches,
such as changes to water hardness, are avoided.
testing is currently being commissioned for lithium salts of
monocarboxylic acids substances and therefore it is proposed that these
new studies are conducted following standard guidelines at the
recommended water hardness levels for each species. As some studies were
previously conducted at different water hardness levels to those in the
new testing program, it is proposed that the algae studies in the new
testing program are conducted at both the guideline (e.g. 15-24 mg/L CaCO3)
and increased (e.g. 150 mg/L CaCO3) water hardness levels in
order to provide a comparison of results and to provide further evidence
of the potential impact of water hardness on the solubility and thus
bioaccessibility and bioavailability of the substances.
addition to the long-term toxicity data on category members, assessments
of metal salts should consider the inorganic moiety if the substances
dissociate rapidly or both the inorganic moiety and the substances
themselves if the dissociation rate is unknown. As there is currently no
experimental data on the rate of dissociation of the substances in the
lithium salts of monocarboxylic acids C14-C22 category, data are
presented here on the lithium ion for completeness.
aqueous environments, the substances in the lithium salts of
monocarboxylic acids C14-C22 category would dissociate into fatty acids
and lithium ions. The fatty acids used for the formation of the salts in
this category are readily biodegradable and are considered to be
non-hazardous. Fatty acids of natural origin have a long history of safe
use in foods and, under the REACH regulation Annex V, natural C6 to C24
fatty acids are exempt from registration. Data on the lithium component
of the salts are available in the dossiers for soluble lithium salts
such as lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide. In a toxicity test with
lithium hydroxide on algae, an EC50 of 87.57 mg/L and a NOEC of 5.71
mg/L for lithium hydroxide anhydrous (equivalent to 153.44 mg/L and 10.0
mg/L for lithium hydroxide monohydrate) were determined, which are
equivalent to 856.8 and 55.8 mg/L for lithium myristate. In a toxicity
test with lithium carbonate on algae, an EC50 of 400 mg/L, an EC10 of 90
mg/L and a NOEC of 50 mg/L for lithium carbonate were determined, which
are equivalent to an EC50 of 2531 mg/L, an EC10 of 571 mg/L and a NOEC
of 317 mg/L for lithium myristate. The lowest result, a NOEC of 55.8
mg/L for lithium myristate has been read across to all substances in the
lithium salts of monocarboxylic acids C14 - C22 category, following a
worst-case approach as lithium myristate is the shortest chain length
substance in the category and contains the highest proportion of
lithium, calculated as 2.96% lithium.
of the substances in the category are surface active and form stable
dispersions rather than being truly soluble. As such, definitive water
solubility values could not be determined in the physico-chemical
testing but the substances are expected to have very low solubility in
water. A water solubility value of ≤0.000046 g/L (equivalent to ≤0.046
mg/L) was determined for lithium behenate (C22), and the other category
members with shorter chain lengths would be expected to have similarly
low water solubilities. As the water solubility of substances in the
category is likely to be low (e.g. <1 mg/L), the long-term toxicity of
the substances to invertebrates, based on the NOEC of 55.8 mg/L for
lithium myristate, recalculated from the result for lithium hydroxide
and read across to all substances in the lithium salts of monocarboxylic
acids C14 - C22 category, would be above the water solubility and
therefore, no effects are expected at the limit of solubility.
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
Welcome to the ECHA website. This site is not fully supported in Internet Explorer 7 (and earlier versions). Please upgrade your Internet Explorer to a newer version.
Do not show this message again