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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to terrestrial plants

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Reference
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term (with study design considered suitable for long-term assessment)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
August 14, 2017-August 3, 2018
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 208 (Terrestrial Plants Test: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test)
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
- Method of mixing into soil (if used): Dosing stocks of test substance were prepared and mixed with untreated soil. The soil and test substance were mixed for 10 minutes by machine, and then for another 10 minutes by hand.
- Controls: Negative control
Species:
Allium cepa
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Onion
- Plant family: Liliaceae
- Variety: Yellow Granex Hybrid 33
- Source of seed: Park Seed Co.
- Prior seed treatment/sterilization: No
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 96%
Species:
Avena sativa
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Oat
- Plant family: Poacceae
- Variety: Saber
- Source of seed: Powell Seeds
- Prior seed treatment/sterilization: No
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 90%
Species:
Lolium perenne
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Ryegrass
- Plant family: Poaceae
- Variety: Gator 3
- Source of seed: Meyer Seed Co.
- Prior seed treatment/sterilization: No
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 90%
Species:
Zea mays
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Corn
- Plant family: Poaceae
- Variety: Nothstine Dent OG
- Source of seed: Johnny's Selected Seeds
- Prior seed treatment/sterilization: No
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 90%
Species:
Beta vulgaris
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Sugarbeet
- Plant family: Chenopodiaceae
- Variety: Non-GMO variety
- Source of seed: NE Seed Co.
- Prior seed treatment/sterilization: No
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 85%
Species:
Brassica napus
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Oilseed Rape
- Plant family: Brassicaceae
- Variety: Dwarf Essex Rape
- Source of seed: Johnny's Selected Seeds
- Prior seed treatment/sterilization: No
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 96%
Species:
Cucumis sativus
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Cucumber
- Plant family: Cucurbitaceae
- Variety: Tendergreen Burpless
- Source of seed: Meyer Seed Co.
- Prior seed treatment/sterilization: No
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 80%
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Soybean
- Plant family: Fabaceae
- Variety: Viking 2265
- Source of seed: Johnny's Selected Seeds
- Prior seed treatment/sterilization: No
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 88%
Species:
Helianthus annuus
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Sunflower
- Plant family: Asteraceae
- Variety: Royal Hybrid 1121 F1
- Source of seed: Johnny's Selected Seeds
- Prior seed treatment/sterilization: No
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 96%
Species:
Lycopersicon esculentum
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Tomato
- Plant family: Solanaceae
- Variety: Rutgers
- Source of seed: Meyer Seed Co.
- Prior seed treatment/sterilization: No
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): 85%
Test type:
seedling emergence and seedling growth test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
21 d
Post exposure observation period:
None
Test temperature:
17.05-37.03 degrees C
pH:
7.0-7.2
Moisture:
7.62-7.88%
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Testing facility: greenhouse
- Test container (type, material, size): plastic pots 16 cm in diameter and 12 cm deep
- Amount of soil: 22 kg (oilseed rape) 132 kg (all other crops)
- Method of seeding: Indentations in soil were made with a template to ensure uniform depth. Seeds were planted at 10 mm depth, except for oat, corn, cucumber, soybean, and sunflower which were planted at a depth of 20 mm.
- No. of seeds per container: For onion, oat, and ryegrass, 5 seeds per pot. For all other crops, 2 seeds per pot.
- No. of plants (retained after thinning): Thinning was not performed.
- No. of replicates per treatment group: For onion, oat, and ryegrass, 4 pots. For all other crops, 10 pots. For all crops, 20 plants per treatment level.
- No. of replicates per control: Same as for treatment groups.

SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- % sand: 90%
- % silt: 4%
- % clay: 6%
- Soil taxonomic classification: sand
- Organic carbon (%): 0.95%
- Pretreatment of soil: limestone was added to buffer the pH


GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 hrs
- Light intensity and quality: 10.4-15.9 moles photosynthetically active radiation
- Relative humidity (%): 30.51-91.50
- Watering regime and schedules: sub-irrigation as needed
- Water source/type: well water periodically screened for pesticides and metals
- Volume applied: To predetermined depth in sub-irrigation trays.
- Interval of applications: Test substance applied at beginning of test.
- Method of application: Mixing in soil.


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): Seedling emergence: onion, oat, ryegrass, and oilseed rape Day 8, 14, and 21. All other crops Days 7, 14, and 21. Phytotoxicity, seedling, growth, Day 21.

- Phytotoxicity rating system (if used): 0 (no effect) to 100 (mortality)

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
Test concentrations and spacing factors were based on range-finder testing.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Oilseed rape: 0, 0.457, 1.37, 4.12, 12.3, 37.0, and 111 mg a.i./kg
All other crops: 0, 4.12, 12.3, 37.0, 111, 333, 1000 mg a.i./kg
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Species:
Allium cepa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: emergence, growth
Key result
Species:
Allium cepa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
111 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Key result
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: emergence, growth
Key result
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
111 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Key result
Species:
Lolium perenne
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: emergence, growth
Key result
Species:
Lolium perenne
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: emergence, growth
Key result
Species:
Zea mays
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil ww
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: emergence, growth
Key result
Species:
Zea mays
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: emergence, growth
Key result
Species:
Beta vulgaris
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: emergence, growth
Key result
Species:
Beta vulgaris
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: emergence, growth
Key result
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 111 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: emergence, growth
Key result
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
111 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: emergence, growth
Key result
Species:
Cucumis sativus
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: emergence, growth
Key result
Species:
Cucumis sativus
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: emergence, growth
Key result
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: emergence, growth
Key result
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: emergence, growth
Key result
Species:
Helianthus annuus
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: emergence, growth
Key result
Species:
Helianthus annuus
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: emergence, growth
Key result
Species:
Lycopersicon esculentum
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: emergence, growth
Key result
Species:
Lycopersicon esculentum
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
37 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Details on results:
SEEDLING EMERGENCE
The effects of the test substance on seedling emergence were minimal. There were no effects greater than 20% lower emergence. See table for more information.

VEGETATIVE VIGOUR
The mean dry weight of oat was significantly reduced at the 333, and 1000 mg a.i./kg levels. The reduction was not dose responsive. Other species also saw a reduction in mean dry weight (see table). Slight reductions in height were noted in most species, particularly onion and tomato (see table).
Reported statistics and error estimates:
See table below.

Species

NOEC (mg a.i./kg)

(endpoint)

EC10(mg a.i./kg)

(endpoint)

EC20(mg a.i./kg)

(endpoint)

EC50(mg a.i./kg)

(endpoint)

Onion

111 (dry weight)

2.62 (height)

11.9 (dry weight)

>1000 (all)

Oat

111 (dry weight)

2.62 (dry weight)

219 (dry weight)

>1000 (all)

Ryegrass

1000 (all)

2.76 (dry weight)

28.3 (dry weight)

>1000 (all)

Corn

1000 (all)

>1000 (all)

>1000 (all)

>1000 (all)

Sugarbeet

1000 (all)

765 (dry weight)

>1000 (all)

>1000 (all)

Oilseed Rape

111 (all)

37.0 (emergence)

>111 (all)

>111 (all)

Cucumber

1000 (all)

>1000 (all)

>1000 (all)

>1000 (all)

Soybean

1000 (all)

155 (dry weight)

405 (dry weight)

>1000 (all)

Sunflower

1000 (all)

>1000 (all)

>1000 (all)

>1000 (all)

Tomato

37.0 (height)

19.6 (dry weight)

500 (height)

>1000 (all)

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The EC50s of Benzene, mono-C10-13-alkyl derivs., distn. residues for all species were greater than the highest concentration tested (111 mg./kg dry soil for oilseed rape and 1000 mg./kg dry soil for all other species). The NOECs ranged from 37 mg/kg dry soil for Tomato up to 1000 mg/kg dry soil for a number of species. Even though NOECs were determined, the effects levels observed were generally low. Clear dose response toxic effects were seldom observed.
Executive summary:

The effect of the Benzene, mono-C10 -13 -alkyl derivs., distn. residues on terrestrial plants was tested in an OECD Guideline 208 experiment. Several species of both monocots and dicots were tested. Seeds were planted in soil containing the test substance for 21 days, and the emergence and growth of the plants was monitored. The following concentrations were tested: oilseed rape - 0, 0.457, 1.37, 4.12, 12.3, 37.0, and 111 mg a.i./kg; and all other crops: 0, 4.12, 12.3, 37.0, 111, 333, and 1000 mg a.i./kg. The test substance had minor effect on the plants. The EC50s for all species were greater than the highest concentration tested (111 mg./kg dry soil for oilseed rape and 1000 mg./kg dry soil for all other species). The NOECs ranged from 37 mg/kg dry soil for Tomato up to 1000 mg/kg dry soil for a number of species.

Description of key information

The EC50s of Benzene, mono-C10-13-alkyl derivs., distn. residues for all species were greater than the highest concentration tested (111 mg./kg dry soil for oilseed rape and 1000 mg./kg dry soil for all other species). The NOECs ranged from 37 mg/kg dry soil for Tomato up to 1000 mg/kg dry soil for a number of species. Even though NOECs were determined, the effects levels observed were generally low. Clear dose response toxic effects were seldom observed.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Short-term EC50 or LC50 for terrestrial plants:
111 mg/kg soil dw
Long-term EC10, LC10 or NOEC for terrestrial plants:
37 mg/kg soil dw

Additional information